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烟叶烘烤过程中流水线烤房的空气介质分析
Analysis of air medium in pipelined flue-cured tobacco curing barn during curing process
 [PDF]

宋朝鹏,武劲草,路晓崇,
- , 2017,
Abstract: 【目的】了解流水线烤房烘烤介质中温度、相对湿度以及风速的变化,明确各参数之间的影响。【方法】以8隧道30 m流水线烤烟烤房为研究对象,测定烘烤过程中的温度、相对湿度和风速。【结果】1)流水线烤房烘烤过程中变黄期时间为40~47 h,定色期时间为43~48 h,干筋期时间45~52 h。2)在烤烟烘烤过程中,流水线烤房的Ⅰ区、Ⅱ区与Ⅵ区4路烟叶的温度无显著性差异,Ⅲ区~Ⅴ区4路烟叶表现为两侧温度大于中间温度;各区段4路烟叶的相对湿度有相对较大差异;整个烘烤过程叶间隙风速的变化趋势比较复杂,总体表现为C路烟叶的叶间隙风速最小,两侧烟叶的风速保持在较高水平;但各路烟的烘烤环境均能满足烘烤需求,且烤后烟的品质差异不大。3)各区段流水线烤房内的风速对温湿度的变化有不同程度影响。4)与普通密集烤房相比,流水线烤房能够提高烟叶品质,降低光滑烟的比例。【结论】流水线烤房能够很好地满足当前烟叶生产的需求,进一步提高烟叶生产的经济效益。
【Objective】This study investigated the environment temperature,humidity and wind changes in the line curing barn and the interactions between parameters. 【Method】A 30 m pipeline tunnel drying room was selected to measure temperature,humidity,and wind speed during curing process.【Result】1) In the curing process,yellowing stage was 40-47 h,color fixing time was 43-48 h,and the drying time was 45-52 h.2) There was no significant difference in temperature between the 4 ways of tobacco in Ⅰ zone,Ⅱ zone and Ⅵ zone,but the bilateral temperature of Ⅲ zone-Ⅴzone was greater than middle temperature.The relative humidity of 4 ways had relatively larger difference while the change of wind speed was complex in the whole curing process.The wind speed between tobacco leaves of C way was the minimum while on sides of leaves was high.The curing environment of all 4 ways could meet the curing requirements,and there was small difference in tobacco quality.3) The wind speed of pipeline curing barn had different influences on temperature and humidity.4) Compared with the ordinary bulk curing barn,the pipelined flue cured tobacco curing barn could improve tobacco quality,and the proportion of solid and stiff tobacco was decreased.【Conclusion】The pipelined flue cured tobacco curing barn could meet the demand of tobacco curing, and improve the economic benefit of tobacco production.
施氮调控豫中烟区烤烟品质及经济效益研究
Effect of nitrogen application on flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) quality and economic benefits in central of Henan Province
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邢云霞,刘世亮,朱金峰,刘芳,姜桂英,杜君,化党领,王代长
- , 2017, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2017.06.30
Abstract: 烟草氮肥施用量不当仍是影响河南中部烟区浓香型烟叶品质的主要因素,本文采用大田试验,开展了豫中烟区施氮量调控烤烟农艺性状、化学成分、香气物质含量及经济效益的研究。试验在钾肥和磷肥施用量相同的基础上,设计5个施氮量水平(0,22.5,37.5,52.5,67.5 kg·hm-2),在烟株生长关键时期测定其农艺性状,并分析烤后烟叶的品质指标和香气物质含量。结果表明,在豫中烟区施氮水平为52.5 kg·hm-2(N3处理)烟株长势最佳,该处理烟株的株高、叶数、最大叶等指标最高,且上部烟叶开片较好,能够适时落黄;所测定的上部叶(B2F)和中部叶(C3F)的钾含量显著高于其它处理,上部叶氯含量也最低,并明显提高了钾/氯的比值,化学成分较协调;同时,该处理烤后中部叶(C3F)香气总量最高,达860.08 μg·g-1,且其烟叶的均价、中上等烟叶比例、产量、产值等经济效益显著高于其它处理,氮肥农学利用效率也达到最高。施氮量与烟叶均价、中上等烟叶比例、产量、产值之间在0~52.5 kg·hm-2时随施氮量增加显著增加,但超过52.5 kg·hm-2时则呈下降趋势。综上所述,在豫中烟区52.5 kg·hm-2可视为当地高产、优质烟叶生产的最佳施氮量。
The unreasonable use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is the key factor for flue-cured tobacco quality in Central of Henan Province. A field experiment with five levels of N application rates (0, 22.5, 37.5, 52.5, 67.5 kg·hm-2) was carried out to study the effect of nitrogen application rates on flue-cured tobacco agronomic characters, chemical components and economic benefits in the central part of Henan Province. The results showed that under the treatment with N application rate of 52.5 kg·hm-2 (N3), the flue-cured tobacco growth vigor was best, and the height, leaf number, the maximum leaf was significant higher than that of other treatments. K content of upper leaves (B2F) and middle leaves (C3F) was significant higher than that of other treatments, the Cl content of upper leaves was significant lower than that of other treatments, so K/Cl ratio was relatively higher, and the chemical composition was more coordinated. Meanwhile, the aroma components content of N3 was as high as 860.08 μg·g-1. The flue-cured tobacco average price, superior and secondary class ratio, yield and output value of N3 treatment was higher than that in others treatment. The N fertilizer use efficiency in N3 treatment was the highest. Moreover, under the N application range from 0 to 52.5 kg·hm-2, there was a significant positive correlation between N application rates among the average price, the proportion of superior tobacco leaves, yield, and output value. While beyond 52.5 kg·hm-2, all these indexes declined. A suggestion of N rate of 52.5 kg·hm-2 for quality flue-cured tobacco leaves was proposed in Central of Henan Province.
生育期气候因子对陕西安康烟区烤烟产量、质量的影响
Influence of climate factors in growth period on yield andquality of flue-cured tobacco in Ankang, Shaanxi
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李小芳,,,张向荣,告示
- , 2015,
Abstract: 【目的】建立陕西安康烟区烤烟产质量及农艺性状的气候回归预测模型,并剖析生育期气候因子对烤烟产量的重要程度。【方法】以烤烟品种K326为试验材料,于2005-2012年进行田间试验,在打顶后和烘烤后分别测定烤烟农艺性状和经济学性状,收集烤烟生育期气候因子指标。采用相关、逐步回归、通径和决策等分析方法对生育期气候因子与烤烟产质量之间的关系进行分析。【结果】烤烟各生育期年度间气候因子都以降水量变异系数最大,平均温度变异系数最小;降水量变异系数在采烤后期最大,生根期最小;平均温度和日照时数的变异系数都是在生根期最大,旺长期最小。烤烟产量、上中等烟比率和腰叶面积的变异系数较大,株高、节距和留叶数的变异系数较小。生根期平均温度、旺长期平均温度与留叶数、茎围显著或极显著相关,旺长期降水量与上中等烟比率极显著相关。采用逐步回归分析构建了烟叶留叶数、茎围、腰叶面积、产量和上中等烟比率等5个指标的气候回归预测模型,由模型可知烤烟留叶数由生根期平均温度决定;茎围由旺长期降水量和平均温度共同决定;腰叶面积由旺长期降水量和日照时数共同决定;产量由生根期日照时数、旺长期降水量、旺长期平均温度、采烤前期降水量和采烤前期日照时数共同决定;上中等烟比率由旺长期降水量和采烤前期日照时数共同决定。通径和决策分析结果表明,影响烤烟产量的5个生育期气候因子的重要性排序为:旺长期平均温度>旺长期降水量>采烤前期降水量>生根期日照时数>采烤前期日照时数,其中前3个气象因子以直接作用为主,后2个气象因子以间接作用为主。【结论】构建的烤烟产质量及部分农艺性状的气候因子回归预测模型在生产实践中可对烟区年度总产量及质量进行预测;旺长期的平均温度和降水量是决定烤烟产量的最关键因素。
【Objective】This study aimed to build climate regression prediction model of yield quality and agronomic traits of tobacco in Ankang,Shaanxi and analyze the importance of climate factors in growth period on yield.【Method】Taking tobacco variety K326 as material,field experiments were carried out during 2005-2012.The agronomic and economic traits were determined after topping and maturity,respectively.Climate factors in growth period were also collected.Then,the relationship between yield index and climate factors in growth period was analyzed by correlation,stepwise regression,path,and decision analysis methods.【Result】Variation coefficient of precipitation was the maximum and variation coefficient of average temperature was the minimumin climate factorsduring flue-cured tobacco growth periods.Variation coefficient of precipitation of late maturity stagewas the maximum and variation coefficient of precipitation of root spreading stagewasthe minimum.Variation coefficient of average temperature of root spreading stagewas the maximum and variation coefficient of average temperature of fast growing period wasthe minimum,sunshine duration hadthe same order as average temperature.Variation coefficients of yield,high middle-quality ratio and area of waist leaves were large,while those of plant height,length of internode and number of leaves were small.The correlation coefficients reached significant or extremely significant between the average temperatures in root spreading stage and fast growing period withnumber of leaves andstem diameter.The correlation coefficients between precipitation in fast growing period and high middle quality ratio wereextremely significant.5 climate regression prediction models for number of leaves,stem diameter,area of waist leaves,yield and high-middle-quality ratiowere constructed by step
不同移栽期对烟叶烘烤特性的影响
Effects of transplanting date on curing characteristics of flue-cured tobacco
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周振超,邓世媛,钟俊周,
- , 2017,
Abstract: 【目的】探讨不同移栽期对烟叶烘烤特性的影响,为密集烘烤工艺的优化和完善提供理论依据。【方法】以始兴烟区常规移栽期(2月20日)为参照,设置4个不同移栽期处理,研究密集烘烤过程中不同移栽期烟叶的水分、叶绿素和类胡萝卜素、丙二醛(MDA)含量和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性的变化状况及烤后烟叶的经济性状。【结果】移栽期对烟叶烘烤特性的影响十分显著。4个处理中,2月13日(提早移栽)、2月20日(常规移栽期)移栽的烟叶在烘烤过程中各观察阶段失水速率相对接近各自72 h内失水速率的平均值,失水均衡性好,且2个处理叶绿素在变黄期降解量较大(分别为92.38%,90.70%)、降解速率较快(分别为1.925,1.889 %/h),烟叶失水与变黄协调性较好。2月13日移栽的烟叶在烘烤过程中(PPO)活性保持最低(4.652 U/g),并且在定色初期温度升高时仍然保持最低的PPO活性(5.12 U/g);而2月27日移栽的PPO活性最高(6.242 U/g),在烘烤中易出现褐变现象,耐烤性较差。2月13日移栽的烟叶膜脂过氧化水平最低,MDA积累少且慢。在经济性状方面,随着移栽时间的推迟,各处理的产量逐渐增加,但是中上等烟的比例显著降低,其中2月13日移栽烟叶的产值(46 024.85元/hm 2)和中上等烟比例(86.78%)最高,经济效益最好。【结论】始兴烟区在传统移栽期基础上适当提早移栽(2月13日)可以改善烟叶烘烤特性,获得更好的经济性状;推迟移栽和过度推迟移栽的烟叶烘烤特性均较差,烟叶质量显著降低。
【Objective】This study investigated the effects of different transplanting periods on curing characteristics of flue-cured tobacco to provide reference for optimization and improvement of the bulk curing processing and to enrich the theory of flue-cured tobacco curing technology.【Method】A field experiment with 4 different transplanting dates was conducted in tobacco planting areas in Shixing with the local transplanting date (February 20) as reference.The changes of water content,chlorophyll,carotenoid,MDA content and PPO activity at leaf drying stage in the bulk-curing barn,as well as the economic characters of cured tobacco leaves were analyzed.【Result】The effect of transplanting date on baking characteristics of tobacco leaves was significant.Dehydrating rates of tobacco leaves transplanted in February 13 and those transplanted in local conventional date (February 20) at different stages during the curing process were closer to average of the whole process compared to others.Thus,the tobacco transplanted in February 13 and those transplanted in local conventional date had better dehydrating balance.The degradation of chlorophyll in tobacco leaves transplanted in February 13 and February 20 was larger (92.38% and 90.70%),and the degradation rate was faster (1.925 and 1.889 %/h),indicating better dehydrating and yellowing characteristics.During the curing process,PPO activity in the tobacco leaves transplanted in February 13 kept the lowest (4.652 U/g),while delayed transplanting leaves (transplanted in February 27) was the highest (6.242 U/g).The browning phenomenon also appeared premature and the resistance to baking was worse.Apart from this,the tobacco leaves transplanted in February 13 maintained a lower membrane lipid oxidation level with less and slower MDA accumulation.In terms of economic characters,as the transplanting time delays,the yield of each treatment increased gradually,but the ratio
保水剂用量对豫西旱地土壤养分和烤烟质量的影响
Effects of super absorbent polymers’ dosages on soil nutrient and quality of flue\|cured tobacco in Western Henan arid region
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梅雅楠,赵世民,赵铭钦,孔德辉,史龙飞
- , 2018, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2018.03.23
Abstract: 为了缓解豫西旱地烟田干旱缺水以及烤烟产质量不稳定等问题,在洛阳烟区设置保水剂不同施用量田间试验处理,T1(CK):当地常规栽培措施(不施保水剂),T2:保水剂15kg·hm-2,T3:保水剂30 kg·hm-2,T4:保水剂45 kg·hm-2,探究保水剂对豫西烟田土壤水分、养分、烤烟生长、化学质量以及经济性状的影响。结果表明:T4和T3较CK可以显著提高烤烟生育期各时期内的土壤含水率、碱解氮含量、速效磷含量、速效钾含量和有机质含量;施用保水剂可以提高烤烟的总糖、还原糖、钾、类胡萝卜素类、棕色化产物和新植二烯的含量,降低烟碱、氯、芳香族氨基酸类和类西柏烷类的含量,提高烤烟的糖碱比和钾氯比,协调烟叶中性致香成分,提高烟叶质量;T4和T3的烤烟产量较CK显著增加12.79%和10.25%;T4、T3和T2的烤烟产值较CK显著增加15.07%、15.25%和4.51%。在保水剂施用量30kg·hm-2的条件下,土壤速效养分较好,烤后烟的化学质量和经济效益最佳。
In order to improve water shortage of tobacco field and unstable yield and quality of tobacco in the arid land of west Henan Province, four treatments of super absorbent polymers (SAPs) in the field experiments were carried out in Luoyang tobacco growing area. T1 (CK) represented local conventional cultivation measures without SAP, T2 represented 15 kg·hm-2 of SAPs, T3 represented 30 kg·hm-2 of SAPs and T4 represented 45 kg·hm-2 of SAPs. The influence of super absorbent polymers on soil moisture and nutrient, the growth of tobacco, chemical property and economic characters of flue-cured tobacco were studied. Results indicated that the T4 and T3 can improve the soil moisture content, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content, available phosphorus content, available potassium content and organic matter content in each stage of the whole tobacco growing period than CK; Application the SAP can significantly increase the content of total sugar, reducing sugar, potassium, carotenoid catabolites, the products of browning reaction and neophytadiene of tobacco, decrease the nicotine, chlorine, aromatic amino acid and cembratriendiol catabolites content. The ratio of sugar to nicotine and the ratio of potassium to chlorine had increased. The neutral aroma components of tobacco was coordinated, which improves the quality of tobacco leaves. The tobacco yield from T4 and T3 treatments had significantly increased by 12.79% and 10.25% compared with CK, respectively. The production value of tobacco from T4, T3 and T2 treatments had significantly increased by 15.07%, 15.25% and 4.51%. Under the condition of 30 kg·hm-2 SAPs, not only available soil nutrients improved, but also the chemical components and economic benefit of flue-cured tobacco improved.
复烤片烟自然醇化过程中品质变化研究进展  [PDF]
刘磊,王涛,史绍新,周继月,赵庆华,资文华
河南农业科学 , 2015,
Abstract: 醇化对复烤片烟品质的提升起到了重要作用,综述了复烤片烟的醇化机制及自然醇化过程中品质评价指标的变化规律,并探讨了影响自然醇化效果的因素,最后提出了目前自然醇化研究面临的几个关键问题,并对烟叶醇化的研究和发展前景进行了展望。
基于灰色统计的打叶复烤片烟结构稳定性评价  [PDF]
何结望,王满,谢豪,吴风光,闫铁军,毛福利,许自成
华北农学报 , 2010, DOI: 10.7668/hbnxb.2010.S1.074
Abstract: 为探索打叶复烤片烟结构的稳定性,选取全国20家打叶复烤企业的成品片烟样品共295份,运用灰色统计法研究了片烟样品的11项结构指标,结果表明:中片率和小片率最易偏离指标要求,属不稳定指标;含末率、粗梗率、>12.7mm叶片率、>6.35mm叶片率和>3.18mm叶片率稍易偏离指标要求,属稍稳定指标;含水率、大片率、碎片率和叶含梗率不易偏离指标要求,属稳定的指标。运用方差分析对统计系数进行检测,验证了指标值域选择的合理性。打叶复烤企业和卷烟工业企业在进行过程稳定控制和打叶质量评价时要及时提高中片率,降低小片率,兼顾稍稳定指标,保持稳定的指标。
烤烟烘烤中细菌群落结构的多样性分析
Diversity Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure in the Curing Process of Flue-Cured Tobacco
 [PDF]

赵敏,徐宸,耿莉娜,程廷才,王根洪,汪代斌,夏庆友
ZHAO Min
,XU Chen,GENG Li-na,CHENG Ting-cai,WANG Gen-hong,WANG Dai-bin,XIA Qing-you

- , 2018, DOI: 10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2018.06.003
Abstract: 为了研究烤烟烘烤过程中细菌群落结构的多样性,以云烟87为材料,采用Miseq高通量测序技术,分析了不同烤房烘烤过程中细菌群落的结构及其变化.结果表明,A,B,C 3个烤房的OTU(Operational Taxonomic Units)大部分都是共有,B烤房独有OTU较少,C烤房独有OTU较多.通过分析各样本中细菌群落组成的相似性和差异性发现,芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)为3个烤房的优势菌群.部分细菌在烘烤前后期物种群落结构差异较大,如马赛菌属(Massilia)、根瘤菌属(Rhizobium)、寡养单胞菌属(Stenotrophomonas)、鞘氨醇单胞菌属(Sphingomonas)等.进一步主成分分析显示,烘烤前期和后期样本有比较明显的不同,细菌组成差异较大.该结果为进一步针对性地利用这些优势细菌以提高烘烤烟叶质量奠定了基础.
In order to study the diversity of bacterial community structure in the curing process of flue-cured tobacco, Miseq high-throughput sequencing was performed on the tobacco variety Yunyan 87. The results showed that most of the OUT (operational taxonomic units) in flue-curing rooms A, B and C shared similar characteristics. Of the three flue-curing rooms, flue-curing room B had the fewest unique OTU, while flue-curing room C had the most. Analysis of the similarities and differences among the bacterial population in various samples revealed that Bacillus was the dominant bacteria in flue-curing rooms A, B and C. Some bacteria, such as Marseille sp., Rhizobium, Stenotrophomonas and Sphingomonas, showed considerable differences in their community structure during the early and the late curing stages. Principal component analysis showed that the bacterial composition of the samples in the early and the late stages was obviously different. The above results have laid a foundation for improving the quality of flue cured tobacco leaves with these dominant bacteria
复烤片烟自然醇化过程中主要化学成分含量与感官质量的关系  [PDF]
王涛,刘磊,史绍新,赵庆华,尹晓东,张晓龙,资文华,龙明海,林楠
河南农业科学 , 2015,
Abstract: 为筛选能表征复烤片烟自然醇化品质的化学指标,以云南省4个产区复烤片烟为试验材料,研究了自然醇化条件下复烤片烟主要化学成分含量与感官质量的关系。结果表明:pH值的变异系数最小,变幅为5.10~5.37,平均值为5.22;pH值、两糖差、总氮含量、烟碱含量、氮碱比、糖碱比、蛋白质含量和淀粉含量等指标与感官质量评价指标呈极显著或显著线性相关关系;总糖、总氮、烟碱含量以及糖碱比、pH值与感官质量评价指标呈极显著典型相关关系;pH值、两糖差、总氮含量与感官质量呈极显著的三次曲线关系,烟碱含量、糖碱比、蛋白质含量与感官质量呈极显著或显著的二次方关系。综合分析结果认为,pH值、两糖差、烟碱含量、糖碱比可以作为复烤片烟自然醇化过程中的品质评价指标。
井窖式移栽对烟苗生长和光合特性的影响
Effects of well-cellar style transplanting on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco seedlings
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林叶春,陈伟,陈懿,高维常,丁福章,李洪勋,梁贵林,潘文杰
- , 2015,
Abstract: 为探讨井窖式移栽烟苗生长发育过程中的光合生理变化,结合田间和盆栽试验,对比研究了常规膜上和井窖式2种移栽模式下烟苗生长环境的太阳光合有效辐射(PAR)水平和生长发育水平,进一步分析了烟苗叶片光合作用和光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)特征。结果表明:与常规膜上移栽比较,井窖内太阳光合有效辐射水平降低,其中,井窖内距井窖口4和8 cm处PAR分别为常规移栽的72.60%和52.85%;井窖式移栽提高了烟苗株高、增大了烟叶最大叶长和叶宽,但降低了叶片叶绿素含量;井窖式移栽降低了叶片最大净光合速率(Pmax)和光饱和点(LSP),但表观量子效率(AQY)提高了4.44%,光补偿点(LCP)和暗呼吸速率(Rd)分别减小了20.43%和17.78%,增强了烟苗对井窖内弱光的适应能力;井窖式和常规膜上移栽均降低了PSⅡ的最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm),但井窖式移栽烟苗Fv/Fm显著(P<0.05)高于常规膜上移栽,增幅5%~9%。采用井窖式移栽,烟苗对井窖内弱光环境的自我适应和光能利用能力增强,生长发育加快。
The well-cellar style transplanting (WCST) in China was an original transplanting method of flue-cured tobacco, and had obvious comparative advantages when compared to the conventional transplanting (CT).WCST accelerated the growth of tobacco seedlings, so it is necessary to study the characteristics of photosynthetic physiology of tobacco seedlings in WCST.Combined with the field and pot experiments, the study was conducted on photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) level, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and chlorophyll content.The leaf photosynthesis and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosynthetic system Ⅱ (PSⅡ) were analyzed in WCST, compared with CT.The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) levels in WCST were decreased, e.g., the photosynthetic active radiation levels (PAR) were 72.60% and 52.85% at 4 cm and 8 cm in well-cellar respectively, compared with the conventional transplanting (CT).The plant height, leaf length and leaf width of tobacco seedlings were increased, but the leaf chlorophyll contents were reduced in WCST.In WCST, the maximum net photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and the light saturation points (LSP) were decreased;the light compensation points (LCP) and dark respiration rates (Rd) were reduced by 20.43% and 17.78% respectively;nonetheless, the apparent quantum yield (AQY) was improved by 4.44%, compared to CT.There was a possibility that the tobacco seedlings were fitted for weak light within well-cellar.PSⅡ maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of tobacco seedlings was reduced when transplanted in WCST or CT, but the Fv/Fm of transplanting seedlings was significantly (P<0.05) higher by 5% to 9% in WCST than in CT.The growth of tobacco seedlings transplanted by well-cellar style transplanting was accelerated in the well-cellar.The self-adaptation and the enhanced light use efficiency in weak light environment are the physiological basis to promote tobacco growth.
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