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Murtala Rabiu,Rabiu Tukur
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: This study is focused on the application of diversity index analysis in demography in the area of water supply for domestic purposes to achieve sustainability.Demographic analysis has received increasing attention despite its complexity and unresolved issues. Moreover, little is known in terms of the changing spatial differentiation patterns among distinctive communities. The study uses Nigerian population and housing census of 2006 data for 12 local government areas in Katsina Senatorial Zone, Katsina state. Shannon Diversity Index method is employed for the purpose of this study. The analysis bases on more diverse, diverse, and less diverse in terms of high and low quality water supply. The result shows that majority of local government areas in the zone are less diverse in qualitative water supply.
Investigation of a Suspected Malaria Outbreak in Sokoto State, Nigeria, 2016
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Lynda Ozor, Sule Abdullahi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104246
Background: Malaria, a vector borne disease that contributes to the 17 percent of the global burden of infectious diseases, is preventable, treatable and completely curable. The disease is endemic in Nigeria, staggering at 27 percent prevalence and contributes up to 29 percent of global burden of the disease. It contributes to the high child mortality in Nigeria, attributed 30 percent of under five deaths. In October 2016, WHO team in Nigeria in collaboration with Nigerian Centre for Disease Control investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Sokoto state of northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We reviewed hospital records of 190 patients who presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 3/10/2016 to 25/10/2016. Data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the region of the outbreak to assess the knowledge of the community on malaria control measures. SPSS version 24 was used for the data analyses. Results: Out of the 190 cases, 168 (88.4%) tested positive for RDT and 22 (11.5%) tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), the sex distribution was 118 (62.1%) females and 72 (37.9%) males, and the CFR of the RDT positive cases was 2.97% (5/168) with M:F ratio of 1:4. A survey to assess the knowledge of the affected community on malaria preventive measures shows 59.5% (25/42) are aware of at least three out of four measures asked. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, this suspected outbreak has clearly brought to fore some gaps in the on-going malaria control in Sokoto state. Thus, there is a need for government to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, state malaria control programme to strengthen awareness campaigns on malaria interventions as well as improve access to the available interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
An outbreak of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana: lessons learnt and preparation for future outbreaks  [cached]
Margaret A. Kweku,Shirley Odoom,Naiki Puplampu,Kwame Desewu
Global Health Action , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v4i0.5527
Abstract: Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has previously been reported in West Africa, but more recently, sporadic reports of CL have increased. Leishmania major has been identified from Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Three zymodemes (MON-26, MON-117, and MON-74, the most frequent) have been found. The geographic range of leishmaniasis is limited by the sand fly vector, its feeding preferences, and its capacity to support internal development of specific species of Leishmania. The risk of acquiring CL has been reported to increase considerably with human activity and epidemics of CL have been associated with deforestation, road construction, wars, or other activities where humans intrude the habitat of the vector. In the Ho Municipality in the Volta Region of Ghana, a localised outbreak of skin ulcers, possibly CL, was noted in 2003 without any such documented activity. This outbreak was consistent with CL as evidenced using various methods including parasite identification, albeit, in a small number of patients with ulcers.This paper reports the outbreak in Ghana. The report does not address a single planned study but rather a compilation of data from a number of ad-hoc investigations in response to the outbreak plus observations and findings made by the authors. It acknowledges that a number of the observations need to be further clarified. What is the detailed epidemiology of the disease? What sparked the epidemic? Can it happen again? What was the causative agent of the disease, L. major or some other Leishmania spp.? What were the main vectors and animal reservoirs? What are the consequences for surveillance of the disease and the prevention of its reoccurrence when the communities see a self-healing disease and may not think it is important?
Monetering of Infectious Diseases in Katsina and Daura Zones of Katsina State: A Clustering Analysis
U Dauda, SU Gulumbe, M Yakubu, LK Ibrahim
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, data of infectious diseases were collected from the two senatorial zones of Katsina state, and analyzed using cluster analysis, a multivariate technique. This necessitated a partition of the set of diseases into groups such that the diseases with similar degree of prevalence were identified. The result of the cluster formation shows that Malaria is more prevalent in all of the two zones, followed by Cholera and Typhoid fever using the Single Linkage and Centroid methods. The Complete Linkage and Ward methods showed that Malaria is the most prevalent followed by Typhoid fever and Cholera in Katsina zone, while in Daura zone Typhoid fever is more prevalent followed by Malaria and Cholera. The number of clusters tends to vary from one zone to another. This is achieved by using Chi-square test for independence. The study concludes that the use of clustering methods provides a suitable tool for assessing the level of infections of the disease.
Assessing the role of contact tracing in a suspected H7N2 influenza A outbreak in humans in Wales
Ken TD Eames, Cerian Webb, Kathrin Thomas, Josie Smith, Roland Salmon, J Mark F Temple
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-141
Abstract: We analyse the database of cases and their contacts identified for the purposes of contact tracing in relation to both the contact tracing burden and effectiveness. We investigate the distribution of numbers of contacts identified, and use network structure to explore the speed with which treatment/prophylaxis was made available and to estimate the risk of transmission in different settings.Fourteen cases of suspected H7N2 influenza A in humans were associated with a confirmed outbreak among poultry in May-June 2007. The contact tracing dataset consisted of 254 individuals (cases and contacts, of both poultry and humans) who were linked through a network of social contacts. Of these, 102 individuals were given treatment or prophylaxis. Considerable differences between individuals' contact patterns were observed. Home and workplace encounters were more likely to result in transmission than encounters in other settings. After an initial delay, while the outbreak proceeded undetected, contact tracing rapidly caught up with the cases and was effective in reducing the time between onset of symptoms and treatment/prophylaxis.Contact tracing was used to link together the individuals involved in this outbreak in a social network, allowing the identification of the most likely paths of transmission and the risks of different types of interactions to be assessed. The outbreak highlights the substantial time and cost involved in contact tracing, even for an outbreak affecting few individuals. However, when sufficient resources are available, contact tracing enables cases to be identified before they result in further transmission and thus possibly assists in preventing an outbreak of a novel virus.On May 23rd, 2007, an outbreak of H7N2 influenza in a poultry flock was reported in North Wales, UK. The outbreak was subsequently found to have affected birds at three premises linked to a market held two weeks earlier in North West England. Several human contacts of infected birds
Datura contamination of hay as the suspected cause of an extensive outbreak of impaction colic in horses : clinical communication  [cached]
T.W. Naudé,R. Gerber,R.J. Smith,C.J. Botha
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i2.407
Abstract: atura poisoning of horses is extensively reviewed. An outbreak of intractable impaction colic affecting 18 of 83 horses was stopped by withdrawing dried tef hay contaminated with young Datura plants. The dried, botanically identified Datura stramonium and D. ferox contained respectively 0.15 % mass/mass (m/m) hyoscyamine as well as 0.16 % m/m hyoscine (scopolamine) and only hyoscine at a concentration of 0.11 % m/m. Immature, unidentifiable plants resembling D. stramonium, contained 0.14 % m/m and 0.12 % m/m of the 2 respective tropane alkaloids. The outbreak was characterised by protracted and repeated colic attacks due to impaction of the large colon and/or caecum without any other anti-muscarinic signs. Comparative analyses of single specimens of dried seed of the 2 species collected from both fertilised and waste areas revealed that young South African Datura spp. had levels of tropane alkaloids comparable to those in the well-known toxic seed and were, consequently, equally toxic. The inherent danger of tef hay being contaminated with Datura is emphasised. To our knowledge this is the 1st field case of poisoning in horses ascribed to the vegetative parts of Datura spp.
Perception of People about Shelterbelts in Kaita Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria
SI Udofia, ES Udo
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the perception of people about the role of shelterbelts in checking the incidence of windstorm on buildings, crops, livestock and humans before and after shelterbelts establishment in Kaita Local Government Area (LGA) of Katsina State. A two-stage random sampling technique was adopted to select 300 households from six randomly selected villages in the LGA. Data on respondents’ perception of incidence of windstorm before and after shelterbelts establishment were collected using structured questionnaires, analyzed by ANOVA and tested at 5% significance level to determine whether the belts reduced the incidence of windstorm or not. There were significant reductions in the incidence of windstorm on buildings, crops and humans (p 0.05). However, there was no significant reduction in the incidence of windstorm on livestock (p 0.05), apparently because of the restrictions resulting from protective measures in the shelterbelts, which denied livestock access to fodder.
Tetrameres Infection in local poultry in Katsina State, Nigeria
J.kamani,C.A.Meseko,A.T.Oladokun,A.E Tafarki,I Abba and G.I.Dogo
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: We report an outbreak of Tetrameres americana in a semi intensive flock of local poultry in Katsina State, Nigeria causing mortality of 40% in chicken and 57% in turkeys, approaching Newcastle Disease and Avian influenza in mortality. Presence of reddish spots on the serosa of proventriculus was initially mistaken for pin-point haemorrhages, thus a presumptive diagnosis of Newcastle disease. However, on gross pathological examination, the reddish spots were identified as gravid females of Tetrameres americana embedded in the serosal surface of the proventriculus of the chicken and turkeys. Tissue homogenates from dead birds were negative for Newcastle disease and Avian influenza viruses by rapid antigen detection and isolation in hen’s embryonated eggs. Recently, we had reported infection due to Tetrameres fissispina in local poultry population in Taraba State, Nigeria causing high mortality at the time Avian influenza outbreaks were initially confirmed in both local and commercial poultry flocks in Nigeria. It is thus important to investigate the epidemiology of this parasite and its contribution to mortality and economic losses in poultry industry in Nigeria. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000): 130-132]
Laboratory assessment of hypoglycaemia due to malaria in children attending general hospital, Katsina
AD Usma, YM Aishatu, B Abdullahi
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Early and accurate laboratory diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia as well as assessment of its severity which include among other parameters; blood glucose concentration are very important in the management of children with complicated malaria. In this study, the conventional thick blood film examination was used to detect malaria parasitaemia, while enzymatic colorimetric glucose-oxidae technique was used to estimate blood glucose level. A total of (450) chlidren were assessed for malaria and hypoglycaemia due to malaria over a period of five months in paediatrics ward of General Hospital Katsina, Nigeria. From the results obtained, 380 (84.4%) children had primary diagnosis of malaria and 113 (25.1%) of the malaria positive children were hypoglycaemic on the first day of admission. Highest incidence of malaria and hypoglycaemia due to malaria were recorded in children between the age of 2-5 years with 37.3% and 9.3% respectively. Lowest incidence of malaria and hypoglycaemia due to malaria were recorded in children between the age of 11-15years with 9.3% and 3.3% respectively. Although apparently there was difference in the number of males and females found to be malaria positive as well as hypoglycaemic, chi-square (χ2) test at P≤0.05 showed no significant difference. Questionnaire analysis in this study showed that high incidence of severe malaria leading to hypoglycaemia in children could be attributed to poverty, malnutrition, inadequate management of uncomplicated malaria in the health centres as well as late arrival at the hospital. Early laboratory and clinical diagnosis, correct treatment and improved quality management are key strategies for malaria control.
Suspected Outbreak of Riboflavin Deficiency among Populations Reliant on Food Assistance: A Case Study of Drought-Stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009–2010  [PDF]
Erin K. Nichols, Leisel E. Talley, Nelly Birungi, Amanda McClelland, Elizabeth Madraa, Agnes B. Chandia, Jacqueline Nivet, Rafael Flores-Ayala, Mary K. Serdula
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062976
Abstract: Background In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS) and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. Objective This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. Design An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals), and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration). Results Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2%) of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. Conclusion Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.
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