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Anti-emetic effects of bioactive natural products
Salman Ahmed1 , Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan1,*, Syed Waseemuddin Ahmed1 , Zafar Alam Mahmood2 , Iqbal Azhar1 ,Solomon Habtemariam3
Phytopharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: Emesis, also known as nausea and vomiting, are common symptoms associated with ingestion of toxicants, drug side effects, advanced terminal diseases such as cancer and postoperative procedures. Emesis is mediated through the coordinated action of central and peripheral regulatory centres that involve receptors including dopamine Type 2, serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, histamine, cannabinoids and NK-1 receptors. Many anti-emetic drugs targeting these receptors are currently in use but they also cause undesirable side effects such as excessive sedation, hypotension, dry mouth, dysphoria, hallucinations and extrapyramidal signs. This review highlights the pharmacological mechanism of emesis and current antiemtic drugs together with detailed analysis of in vitro and in vivo anti-emetic bioassay models. The pharmacology of crude natural products extracts and purified anti-emetic compounds (cannabinoids, chalcones, diarylheptanoids, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, lignans, phenylpropanoids, polysaccharides, saponins, terpenes and glycosidic derivatives) are also systematically presented with their mechanism of action. The potential of natural products as sources of new clinically proven anti-emetic drugs are discussed
呕可宁颗粒药效学实验研究  [PDF]
贾冬,杜佳林张宏,李显华霍艳玲*
中国中医药信息杂志 , 2001,
Abstract: 目的:观察呕可宁颗粒对顺铂引起动物呕吐的影响。方法:分别给鸽子、狗静脉注射顺铂造成呕吐模型,观察呕可宁颗粒对该模型的影响。结果:呕可宁颗粒能明显对抗硫酸酮和顺铂引起的家鸽、狗呕吐反应,减少其呕吐次数,延缓其呕吐发生时间。结论:该药具有明显的抑制抗癌药引起动物呕吐反应发生的作用。
吴茱萸汤醇提各组分止呕活性的研究  [PDF]
张婷,王敏伟,陈思维
中国中药杂志 , 2002,
Abstract: 目的:对吴茱萸汤醇提各组分止呕活性的研究和机制初步探讨。方法:采用硫酸铜诱导家鸽呕吐实验,小鼠胃排空实验,ACh和5-HT作用的离体大鼠胃条实验来确定其中具有止呕活性的组分,并观察有效组分对ACh,5-HT,组胺累积浓度效应曲线的影响。结果:50%醇洗脱液和70%醇洗脱液有十分显著性的止呕效应,且副作用较小,对ACh,5-HT,组胺累积浓度效应曲线均有一定的作用。结论:50%醇洗脱液和70%醇洗脱液含有的止呕活性成分较多,50%和70%醇可以从吴茱萸汤中提取较多止呕活性成分,止呕作用可能与拮抗ACh,5-HT,组胺受体有关。
对计生中“死婴”问题的探讨  [PDF]
林建宗
人口研究 , 1998,
Abstract: ?1“死婴”问题,是亟待解决的计生新问题近年来,在农村计划生育工作实践中,遇到一个突出而又不得不解决的问题:即女婴死亡率偏高,个别沿海乡镇二孩女婴死亡率近乎100%。针对这一问题,我们对1996年以来前亭镇55例死婴进行调查,结果发现属非正常死亡的女婴达15例,占27.27%。其中有8例属顺产活婴秘密转移,然后购买死婴顶替,蒙骗计生部门拍照,骗取生育计划证。7例属非法使用b超进行胎儿性别鉴定后引产谎报早产死亡,骗取二孩生育计划证。经分析,产生这一问题的主要原因是:有女无儿户的群众除在生产、生活方面确有一些实际困难外,相当一部分群众是受“重男轻女”、“传宗接代”等旧的思想观念的影响。
西藏小昌都黑白仰鼻猴的雄婴照料:能量胁迫导致?(英文)  [PDF]
动物学研究 , 2010, DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.02189
Abstract: 雄猴照料婴猴行为通常都是从雄猴的角度来分析该行为具有何种适应功能,很少有研究关心为什么雌猴会让雄猴参与照料活动。该文通过西藏小昌都黑白仰鼻猴群的系统观察取样,采用回归分析雄婴照料行为季节变动与婴猴年龄及生态因子(环境温度、食物供应)之间的关系,试图分析是否由于能量胁迫导致雌猴让雄猴参与照料活动,并通过分析高能量胁迫季节(环境温度低、食物缺乏,婴猴年幼需要雌猴携带多)与低能量胁迫季节(环境温度高、食物丰富,婴猴年长需要雌猴携带少)雄婴照料行为差异检验了能量胁迫假说。结果表明雄婴照料行为与温度呈负相关函数,而雌猴照料婴猴行为与温度呈正相关函数;在高能量胁迫的季节,雄猴参与照料行为多,而在低能量胁迫的季节雄猴照料行为少。因此,作者认为是能量胁迫迫使雌猴放弃部分照料婴猴的机会,雄猴利用照料机会获得了其他利益。
Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions
AY Tijani, SE Okhale, FE Oga, SZ Tags, OA Salawu, BA Chindo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Preparation of Grewia lasiodiscus (K Schum) root is used in African traditional medicine to treat fever, pains and emesis. A 70% aqueous methanolic extract of G. lasiodiscus root (Extract) was obtained and fractionated on column chromatography using solvents of increasing polarities to yield three fractions designated F1 to F3. The effect of the extract on pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis was evaluated in mice while the anti-emetic activities of extract and its fractions were studied on anhydrous copper sulphate-induced emesis in one-day-old chicks. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of extract was studied and estimated to be 774 mg/kg. Extract at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant (p<0.05) prolongation of sleeping time when compared with the control groups. Extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in copper sulphate-induced emesis in a dose-dependent manner. Fraction F1, at 50 mg/kg produced a 61.51% increase in emesis, while fractions F2 and F3 produced a 39.0 and 56.50% reduction in frequency of emesis, respectively. Our results suggest that the aqueous methanolic extract of G. lasiodiscus root and its fractions F2 and F3 have anti-emetic properties, which provide for the first time the rationale for its application in traditional medicine especially in the management of emesis.
峨眉山藏猕猴雄-婴社会行为的补充观察
崔清华,赵其昆
动物学研究 , 1999,
Abstract: 藏猕猴(Macaccathilbetana)雄-婴行为的补充数据收集于1997年1-9月,覆盖了整个出生季节和半个交配季节,分别用1分钟取样和5分钟事件取样收集雄婴照料(怀抱+接近)和雄-婴-雄三边作用(triad)的数据,焦点动物为两个猴群中的8个婴儿,数据处理结果表明:(雄-婴照料集中4.5-10周龄,而20周龄内的婴儿平均有7.9%的时间受到雄性照料,(雄9.6%,雌5.6%),(2)雄性婴
Textual and Modern Pharmacological Research on the Anti-vomiting Function of Ginseng
人参止呕功能的文献考证

Zhang Huizong,Liang Maoxin,Yang Xueshan,Meng Li,Zheng Xi,Sun Weijuan,Pan Mingyun,
张会宗
,梁茂新,杨雪山,孟 莉,郑 霞,孙伟娟,潘明云

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2010,
Abstract: 经40 余部本草学考证,并参照2010 年版《中华人民共和国药典》一部人参功能记述,已初步确认,人参传统功能主流已纳入标准,而人参止呕功能现已遗失。同时参酌《普济方》数据库人参古代方剂的病证分布特点及现代药理学研究结果,初步认定,人参具有止呕作用,此将为人参止呕新用的进一步研究奠定理论基础。
On the diagram of 132-avoiding permutations  [PDF]
Astrid Reifegerste
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: The diagram of a 132-avoiding permutation can easily be characterized: it is simply the diagram of a partition. Based on this fact, we present a new bijection between 132-avoiding and 321-avoiding permutations. We will show that this bijection translates the correspondences between these permutations and Dyck paths given by Krattenthaler and by Billey-Jockusch-Stanley, respectively, to each other. Moreover, the diagram approach yields simple proofs for some enumerative results concerning forbidden patterns in 132-avoiding permutations.
Investigating the Effect of Emetic Compounds on Chemotaxis in Dictyostelium Identifies a Non-Sentient Model for Bitter and Hot Tastant Research  [PDF]
Steven Robery, Janina Mukanowa, Nathalie Percie du Sert, Paul L. R. Andrews, Robin S. B. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024439
Abstract: Novel chemical entities (NCEs) may be investigated for emetic liability in a range of unpleasant experiments involving retching, vomiting or conditioned taste aversion/food avoidance in sentient animals. We have used a range of compounds with known emetic /aversive properties to examine the possibility of using the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, for research into identifying and understanding emetic liability, and hence reduce adverse animal experimentation in this area. Twenty eight emetic or taste aversive compounds were employed to investigate the acute (10 min) effect of compounds on Dictyostelium cell behaviour (shape, speed and direction of movement) in a shallow chemotaxic gradient (Dunn chamber). Compound concentrations were chosen based on those previously reported to be emetic or aversive in in vivo studies and results were recorded and quantified by automated image analysis. Dictyostelium cell motility was rapidly and strongly inhibited by four structurally distinct tastants (three bitter tasting compounds - denatonium benzoate, quinine hydrochloride, phenylthiourea, and the pungent constituent of chilli peppers - capsaicin). In addition, stomach irritants (copper chloride and copper sulphate), and a phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor also rapidly blocked movement. A concentration-dependant relationship was established for five of these compounds, showing potency of inhibition as capsaicin (IC50 = 11.9±4.0 μM) > quinine hydrochloride (IC50 = 44.3±6.8 μM) > denatonium benzoate (IC50 = 129±4 μM) > phenylthiourea (IC50 = 366±5 μM) > copper sulphate (IC50 = 1433±3 μM). In contrast, 21 compounds within the cytotoxic and receptor agonist/antagonist classes did not affect cell behaviour. Further analysis of bitter and pungent compounds showed that the effect on cell behaviour was reversible and not cytotoxic, suggesting an uncharacterised molecular mechanism of action for these compounds. These results therefore demonstrate that Dictyostelium has potential as a non-sentient model in the analysis of the molecular effects of tastants, although it has limited utility in identification of emetic agents in general.
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