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Yield, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Copper and Zinc Uptake by Barley Forage Amended with Anaerobically Digested Cattle Feedlot Manure (ADM)  [cached]
Hao X.,Hill B.,Caffyn P.,Travis G.
E3S Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20130104002
Abstract: With increasing production of bio-gas and availability of anaerobically digested cattle feedlot manure (ADM), we need a better understanding of the impact of its application on crop production and the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient and heavy metal uptake by barley forage from soil amended with ADM. A four-year field study was conducted in southern Alberta to compare annual application of ADM liquid (ADML), and the solid fraction separated from the ADM (ADMS) to raw undigested cattle feedlot manure (CFMR). An unamended control (CK) was also included for comparison. Treatments were replicated four times using a split plot experimental design. All amendments were applied in spring each year prior to seeding and barley was grown and harvested at the soft dough stage for making cattle silage feed. All amendments were applied at rates supplying 100 or 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1, assuming 100% mineral N and 50% organic N was available to crops in the year of application. Averaged over four years, the highest yields were found from ADML (9.55 and 9.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1), and lowest from CK (6.93 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with ADMS and CFMR (7.80 to 8.66 Mg ha-1) in between. Contents and total uptake of nutrients and heavy metals (N, P, Cu and Zn) by barley forage from ADML were higher than ADMS and CFMR. and higher at 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 than 100 kg N ha-1yr-1. Our data suggest that anaerobic digestion increases nutrients and heavy metal availability in cattle feedlot manure, but most increases occurred in the liquid fraction. Our data also suggest that the impact of organic amendment application on forage barley production is not only affected by the types of amendment used, but also by agronomic practices (e.g., seeding date) as well as growing conditions.
Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested poultry manure on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays, L)
BA Adelekan, FI Oluwatoyinbo, AI Bamgboye
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: A comparative study of the effects of undigested and anaerobically digested poultry manure and conventional inorganic fertilizer on the growth characteristics and yield of maize was investigated at Ibadan, Nigeria. The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. The treatments, thoroughly mixed with soil, were: control (untreated soil), inorganic fertilizer, (NPK 20:10:10) applied at the 120 kgN/ha; air-dried undigested and anaerobically digested manure applied at 12.5 g/pot, or 25.0 g/pot or 37.5 g/pot, and or 50.0 g/pot. Plant height, stem girth, leaf area, number of leaves at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) and stover mass and grain yield were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P 0.05 was used to further determine the relationships among the factors investigated. Generally, results in respect of crops treated with digested manure, were quite comparable with those treated with undigested manure and inorganic fertilizer, right from 2WAP to 6WAP. Stover yield was increased to as much as 1.58, 1.65 and 2.07 times by inorganic fertilizer, digested and undigested manure, respectively while grain yields were increased by only 200% with inorganic fertilizer, but by up to 812 and 933% by digested and undigested manure, respectively. In conclusion, digested poultry manure enhanced the growth characteristics of the treated plants for the maize variety used. As observed, the order of grain yield was undigested manure > digested manure > inorganic fertilizer.
Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production  [PDF]
Yu Yu Min,Koki Toyota,Erika Sato,Atsushi Takada
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/528712
Abstract: Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly ( ) lower and the growth better in pots applied with ADS (100 and 200?mg -N?kg?1) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100?kg -N?ha?1) in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25?kg -N?ha?1 soil) in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way. 1. Introduction How to dispose byproduct of biogas plants into our environment is now becoming an important issue. Direct application to agricultural land is one of the most probable options. The byproduct, anaerobically digested slurry (ADS) from animal wastes, has been evaluated as a potentially important alternative source to synthetic inputs [1] in sustainable crop production. In addition, protection of plant-parasitic nematodes and phytopathogenic fungi [1–7] by ADS has been reported, and its ingredients such as ammonium and acetic acid are proposed as possible mechanisms [6]. In addition, it is discussed that plant-parasitic nematodes are controlled by certain kinds of organic amendment through the stimulation of naturally occurring antagonists [8, 9] for nematodes pests and/or change of the soil nematode community structure [10]. We have previously reported on the ability of different types of ADS to suppress the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in in vitro experiment without the host plants and the possible mechanisms involved [6]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ADS on the plant-parasitic nematodes in larger scales of experiment, such as pot and field with the host plants. The Miura Peninsula in Kanagawa Prefecture is a major radish production area of Japan, and damage caused by P. penetrans is the major threat to the farmers since it reduces radish quality [11]. Therefore, potential nematicidal action of ADS was tested for the damage by nematode in conventional radish cultivated fields in the area. In addition, effect of ADS on damage to tomato by root-knot nematode disease M. incognita
Relative effects of anaerobically-digested and conventional liquid swine manure, and N fertilizer on crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions  [PDF]
Reynald L. Lemke, Sukhdev S. Malhi, Fernando Selles, Mark Stumborg
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.36097
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is a promising technology that could provide an option for managing animal waste with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. A three-year (2006-2008) field experiment was conducted at Star City, Saskatchewan, Canada, to compare the effects of land-applied anaerobically digested swine manure (ADSM), conventionally treated swine manure (CTSM) and N fertilizer on grain yield of barley, applied N use efficiency (ANUE, kg·grain·kg-1 of applied N·ha-1), ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Treatments included spring and autumn applications of CTSM and ADSM at a 1x rate (10,000 and 7150 L·ha-1, respectively) applied every year, a 3x rate (30,000 and 21,450 L·ha-1, respectively) applied once at the beginning of the experiment, plus a treatment receiving commercial fertilizer (UAN at 60 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1) and a zero-N control. There was a significant grain yield response of barley to applied N in all three years. The ANUE of ADSM or CTSM applied once at the 3x rate were lower than annual applications at the 1x rate (grain yield by 595 kg·ha-1 and NFUE by 6 kg·grain·kg-1 of applied N·ha-1). On average, agronomic performance of ADSM was similar to CTSM. The APNU of N fertilizer was greater than the 3x rate but lower than the 1x rate of ADSM or CTSM. Ammonia loss from ADSM was similar to CTSM, except for much higher loss of NH3-N from CTSM at the 3x rate applied in the autumn (8100 g·N·ha-1) compared to the other treatments (1100 - 2600 g·N·ha-1). The percentage of applied N lost as N2O gas was generally higher for treatments receiving CTSM (4.0%) compared to ADSM (1.4%). In conclusion, the findings suggest that ADSM is equal or slightly better than CTSM in terms of agronomic performance, but has lower environmental impact.
Short-term influence of anaerobically-digested and conventional swine manure, and N fertilizer on organic C and N, and available nutrients in two contrasting soils  [PDF]
Sukhdev S. Malhi, R. L. Lemke, M. Stumborg, F. Selles
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35083
Abstract: A three-year (2006-2008) field experiment was conducted at Swift Current and Star City in Saskatchewan to determine the short-term in-fluence of land-applied anaerobically digested swine manure (ADSM), conventionally treated swine manure (CTSM) and N fertilizer on total organic C (TOC), total organic N (TON), light fraction organic C (LFOC), light fraction organic N (LFON) and pH in the 0 - 7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm soil layers, and ammonium-N, nitrate-N, extractable P, exchangeable K and sulphate-S in the 0 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 60, 60 - 90 and 90 - 120 cm soil layers. Treatments included spring and autumn applications of CTSM and ADSM at a 1x rate (10,000 and 7150 L·ha-1, respectively) applied each year, a 3x rate (30,000 and 21,450 L·ha-1, respectively) applied once at the beginning of the experiment, plus a treatment receiving commercial fertilizer (UAN at 60 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1) and a zero-N control. There was no effect of swine manure rate, type and application time on soil pH. Mass of TOC and TON in the 15 cm soil layer increased significantly with swine manure application compared to the control, mainly at the Swift Current site, with greater increases from 3x rate than 1x rate (by 2.21 Mg·C·ha-1 and 0.167 Mg·N·ha-1). Compared to the control, mass of LFOC and LFON in the 15 cm soil layer increased with swine manure application at sites, with greater increases from 3x rate than 1x rate (by 287 kg·C·ha-1 and 26 kg·N·ha-1 at Star City, and by 194 kg·C·ha-1 and 19·kg·N ha-1 at Swift Current). Mass of TOC and TON in soil layer was tended to be greater with ADSM than CTSM, but mass of LFOC and LFON in soil was greater with CTSM than ADSM. Mass of TOC, TON, LFOC and LFON in soil also increased with annual N fertilizer application compared to the control (by 3.2 Mg·C·ha-1 for TOC, 0.195 Mg·N·ha-1 for TON, 708 kg·C·ha-1 for LFOC and 45 kg·N·ha-1 for LFON). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of organic C and N in soil can be affected by swine manure rate and type, and N fertilization even after three years, most likely by influencing inputs of C and N through crop residue, and improve soil quality.
POTENTIAL OF USING ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BOVINE BIOFIBER AS A FIBER SOURCE FOR WOOD COMPOSITES  [PDF]
Jerrold Winandy,Zhiyong Cai
BioResources , 2008,
Abstract: Manure, an animal waste product with many negative economic and environmental issues, can today be converted using anaerobic digestion technology into a number of commercial products ranging from fertilizer, compost, animal bedding, and plant bedding. A number of new uses are now being explored such as bioenergy (both electrical and biofuel) and a lignocellulose-rich potential feedstock for engineered biocomposite products for building materials. This paper explores the engineering potential of using anaerobically digested bovine biomass (ADBF) as a feedstock material for biocomposite building materials. Our evaluation generally indicated that making dry-formed fiberboard using up to a 50/50% mixture of wood fiber and ADBF-fiber compared favorably with some commercial requirements for wood-based medium-density fiberboard and particleboard.
The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge
Prado, Tatiana;Guilayn, Wilma de Carvalho Pereira Bonet;Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra;Miagostovich, Marize Pereira;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2013, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762013000100013
Abstract: the presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods) used to recover the viruses from these matrices. therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (adv), rotavirus species a (rva), norovirus genogroup ii (nov gii) and the hepatitis a virus (hav) from biosolid samples at a large urban wastewater treatment plant in brazil after they had been treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion. quantitative polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used for spiking experiments to compare the detection limits of feasible methods, such as beef extract elution and ultracentrifugation. tests were performed to detect the inhibition levels and the bacteriophage pp7 was used as an internal control. the results showed that the inhibitors affected the efficiency of the pcr reaction and that beef extract elution is a suitable method for detecting enteric viruses, mainly adv from biosolid samples. all of the viral groups were detected in the biosolid samples: adv (90%), rva, nov gii (45%) and hav (18%), indicating the viruses' resistance to the anaerobic treatment process. this is the first study in brazil to detect the presence of rva, adv, nov gii and hav in anaerobically digested sludge, highlighting the importance of adequate waste management.
Anaerobically Digested Dairy Fiber in Soilless Potting Media for Herbaceous Perennials  [PDF]
John R. Lamont, George C. Elliott
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.72028
Abstract: Sphagnum peat moss has been a primary component of soilless potting media for decades; however, concerns over the sustainability of harvesting peat have fostered a search for renewable media components. Anaerobically digested dairy fiber (ADDF), a by-product of methane production, shows promise as an alternative to peat. Herbaceous nursery crops including “Jack Frost” brunnera (Brunnera macrophylla I.M. Johnst), “Moonbeam” coreopsis (Coreopsis verticillata L.), “Whoops-a-Daisy” Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum × superbum Bergmans ex J.W. Ingram), “Kobold Original” liatris (Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.) and “David” phlox (Phlox paniculata L.) were grown in media containing bark-peat-perlite or bark-ADDF-perlite in a 4:2:1 proportion. All leachate was collected from pots to evaluate cumulative nitrogen and phosphate leaching. Brunnera grew to a similar size and quality in both mixes, although brunnera in the bark-ADDF-perlite mix had slightly chlorotic leaf margins. Coreopsis grew to a similar size and quality in both mixes but was slightly etiolated and chlorotic in bark-ADDF-perlite. Shasta daisy grown in bark-ADDF-perlite were larger than those grown in bark-peat-perlite. Both mixes produced similar growth and quality liatris and phlox. More ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were recovered from leachate from bark-ADDF-perlite than from bark-ADDF-perlite.
Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Bacterial and Archaeal Lipid Biomarkers from Anaerobically Digested Sludge  [PDF]
Muhammad Hanif,Yoichi Atsuta,Koichi Fujie,Hiroyuki Daimon
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13033022
Abstract: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial PLFA and archaeal PLEL was simultaneously performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of pressure, temperature, and modifier concentration on the total amounts of RQ, PLFA, and PLEL were investigated by 23 experiments with five settings chosen for each variable. The optimal extraction conditions that were obtained through a multiple-response optimization included a pressure of 23.6 MPa, temperature of 77.6 °C, and 10.6% (v/v) of methanol as the modifier. Thirty nine components of microbial lipid biomarkers were identified in the anaerobically digested sludge. Overall, the SFE method proved to be more effective, rapid, and quantitative for simultaneously extracting bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers, compared to conventional organic solvent extraction. This work shows the potential application of SFE as a routine method for the comprehensive analysis of microbial community structures in environmental assessments using the lipid biomarkers profile.
Optimization of process parameters for decolorization of anaerobically digested Molasses Spent Wash (MSW) using Aspergillus niger and Activated carbon  [cached]
Hardeep S. Tuli, A. K. Sharma, S. S. Sandhu2, Simmi Goyal, R. Sharma
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Discharge of colored industrial effluent in water streams or on to the land is a matter of great concern as it is first perception to be noticed by the receptor. Molasses based alcohol producing distilleries generate characteristically dark brown color due to the presence of melanoidin pigment which is not only the cause of aesthetical displeasure but also having harmful consequence due to its recalcitrant nature. In the present study, we did the initial characterization followed by batch mode studies using activated carbon and Aspergillus niger to decolorize anaerobically digested MSW. We found that decolorization efficiency of activated wood saw dust was up to 99%, at adsorbent dosage of 5g/100 ml of effluent, pH 7, and contact time of 30 minutes at room temperature. Whereas A. niger showed its ability to decolorize anaerobically digested MSW up to 71% at day 4, when effluent was diluted at the rate of 50%, supplemented with external carbon (3% glucose) and phosphate source (0.1% K HPO ).
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