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Fusion of EML4 and ALK is associated with development of lung adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR and KRAS mutations and is correlated with ALK expression
Xuchao Zhang, Shirley Zhang, Xuening Yang, Jinji Yang, Qing Zhou, Lucy Yin, Shejuan An, Jiaying Lin, Shiliang Chen, Zhi Xie, Mike Zhu, Xiaolin Zhang, Yi-long Wu
Molecular Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-188
Abstract: RACE-coupled PCR sequencing was used to assess ALK fusions in a cohort of 103 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Within this cohort, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was identified in 12 tumors (11.6%). Further analysis revealed that EML4-ALK was present at a frequency of 16.13% (10/62) in patients with adenocarcinomas, 19.23% (10/52) in never-smokers, and 42.80% (9/21) in patients with adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR and KRAS mutations. The EML4-ALK fusion was associated with non-smokers (P = 0.03), younger age of onset (P = 0.03), and adenocarcinomas without EGFR/KRAS mutations (P = 0.04). A trend towards improved survival was observed for patients with the EML4-ALK fusion, although it was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). Concurrent deletion in EGFR exon 19 and fusion of EML4-ALK was identified for the first time in a Chinese female patient with an adenocarcinoma. Analysis of ALK expression revealed that ALK mRNA levels were higher in tumors positive for the EML-ALK fusion than in negative tumors (normalized intensity of 21.99 vs. 0.45, respectively; P = 0.0018). However, expression of EML4 did not differ between the groups.The EML4-ALK fusion gene was present at a high frequency in Chinese NSCLC patients, particularly in those with adenocarcinomas lacking EGFR/KRAS mutations. The EML4-ALK fusion appears to be tightly associated with ALK mRNA expression levels. RACE-coupled PCR sequencing is a highly sensitive method that could be used clinically for the identification of EML4-ALK-positive patients.The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has been discovered to be present in a number of fusion proteins consisting of the intracellular kinase domain of ALK and the amino-terminal portions of different genes [1,2]. Activated ALK is involved in the inhibition of apoptosis and the promotion of cellular proliferation through activation of downstream PI3K/Akt and MAPK signalling pathways [3]. Genetic alterations in
Clinical Significance of EML4-ALK Fusion Gene and Association with EGFR and KRAS Gene Mutations in 208 Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Ying Li, Yongwen Li, Tong Yang, Sen Wei, Jing Wang, Min Wang, Yuli Wang, Qinghua Zhou, Hongyu Liu, Jun Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052093
Abstract: The EML4-ALK fusion gene has been recently identified in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who respond positively to ALK inhibitors. The characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese patients with NSCLC are poorly understood. Here, we report on the prevalence of EML4-ALK, EGFR status and KRAS mutations in 208 Chinese patients with NSCLC. EGFR mutations were found in 24.5% (51/208) of patients. In concordance with previous reports, these mutations were identified at high frequencies in females (47.5% vs 15.0% in males; P<0.05); never-smokers (42.3% vs 13.9% in smokers; P<0.05), and adenocarcinoma patients (44.2% vs 8.0% in non-adenocarcinoma patients; P<0.05). There were only 2.88% (6/208) patients with KRAS mutations in our study group. We identified 7 patients who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene (3.37%, 7/208), including 4 cases with variant 3 (57.1%), 2 with variant 1, and 1 with variant 2. All positive cases corresponded to female patients (11.5%, 7/61). Six of the positive cases were non-smokers (7.69%, 6/78). The incidence of EML4-ALK translocation in female, non-smoking adenocarcinoma patients was as high as 15.2% (5/33). No EGFR/KRAS mutations were detected among the EML4-ALK positive patients. Pathological analysis showed no difference between solid signet-ring cell pattern (4/7) and mucinous cribriform pattern (3/7) in ALK-positive patients. Immunostaining showed intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in primary carcinomas and 50% (3/6) of metastatic tumors with ALK-negative staining. Meta-analysis demonstrated that EML4-ALK translocation occurred in 4.84% (125/2580) of unselected patients with NSCLC, and was also predominant in non-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma. Taken together, EML4-ALK translocations were infrequent in the entire NSCLC patient population, but were frequent in the NSCLC subgroup of female, non-smoker, adenocarcinoma patients. There was intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in primary carcinomas and at metastatic sites.
Differential Expression of RBM5, EGFR and KRAS mRNA and protein in non-small cell lung cancer tissues
Hong Liang, Jie Zhang, Chen Shao, Lijing Zhao, Wei Xu, Leslie C Sutherland, Ke Wang
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-31-36
Abstract: Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to detect expression of mRNA and protein, respectively, of RBM5, EGFR and KRAS in 120 paired non-tumor and tumor samples of NSCLC.The data showed that expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in NSCLC compared to normal tissues, whereas expression of both EGFR and KRAS genes was increased in NSCLC compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, the reduced RBM5 protein expression correlated with smoking status, tumor stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC, while overexpression of EGFR and KRAS proteins correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. Overexpression of KRAS protein was more frequent in smokers with NSCLC. In addition, expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was negatively correlated with expression of EGFR and KRAS mRNA and protein in NSCLC tissues.This study suggests further evaluation of RBM5 expression is warranted for use of RBM5 as a biomarker for NSCLC patients.
A case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene  [cached]
Tanaka Hisashi,Hayashi Akihito,Morimoto Takeshi,Taima Kageaki
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-558
Abstract: Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) - tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is used for the patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Recently, phase III studies in the patients with EGFR-mutant demonstrated that EGFR-TKI monotherapy improved progression-free survival compared with platinum-doublet chemotherapy. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents one of the newest molecular targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients who harbor EML4-ALK fusions have been associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations. Case presentation We report a 39-year-old patient diagnosed as adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene. We treated this patient with erlotinib as the third line therapy, but no clinical benefit was obtained. Conclusion We experienced a rare case with EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK. Any clinical benefit using EGFR-TKI was not obtained in our case. The therapeutic choice for the patients with more than one driver mutations is unclear. We needs further understanding of the lung cancer molecular biology and the biomarker infomation.
PIK3CA Mutations Frequently Coexist with EGFR/KRAS Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Suggest Poor Prognosis in EGFR/KRAS Wildtype Subgroup  [PDF]
Lei Wang, Haichuan Hu, Yunjian Pan, Rui Wang, Yuan Li, Lei Shen, Yongfu Yu, Hang Li, Deng Cai, Yihua Sun, Haiquan Chen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088291
Abstract: Purpose PIK3CA gene encoding a catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is mutated and/or amplified in various neoplasia, including lung cancer. Here we investigated PIK3CA gene alterations, the expression of core components of PI3K pathway, and evaluated their clinical importance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods Oncogenic mutations/rearrangements in PIK3CA, EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF, AKT1 and ALK genes were detected in tumors from 1117 patients with NSCLC. PIK3CA gene copy number was examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization and the expression of PI3K p110 subunit alpha (PI3K p110α), p-Akt, mTOR, PTEN was determined by immunohistochemistry in PIK3CA mutant cases and 108 patients without PIK3CA mutation. Results PIK3CA mutation was found in 3.9% of squamous cell carcinoma and 2.7% of adenocarcinoma. Among 34 PIK3CA mutant cases, 17 tumors harbored concurrent EGFR mutations and 4 had KRAS mutations. PIK3CA mutation was significantly associated with high expression of PI3K p110α (p<0.0001), p-Akt (p = 0.024) and mTOR (p = 0.001), but not correlated with PIK3CA amplification (p = 0.463). Patients with single PIK3CA mutation had shorter overall survival than those with PIK3CA-EGFR/KRAS co-mutation or wildtype PIK3CA (p = 0.004). A significantly worse survival was also found in patients with PIK3CA mutations than those without PIK3CA mutations in the EGFR/KRAS wildtype subgroup (p = 0.043) Conclusions PIK3CA mutations frequently coexist with EGFR/KRAS mutations. The poor prognosis of patients with single PIK3CA mutation in NSCLC and the prognostic value of PIK3CA mutation in EGFR/KRAS wildtype subgroup suggest the distinct mutation status of PIK3CA gene should be determined for individual therapeutic strategies in NSCLC.
Detection and Analysis of EGFR and KRAS Mutation with Lung Adenocarcinoma  [PDF]
Hui ZHANG, Xinjie YANG, Na QIN, Xi LI, Huiyi YANG, Jingying NONG, Jialin LV, Yuhua WU, Quan ZHANG, Xinyong ZHANG, Jinghui WANG, Lijuan ZHOU, Shucai ZHANG
- , 2015, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2015.11.05
Abstract: Background and objective Mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS are important markers in non-small cell lung cancer, which are closely related to the clinical therapeutic effect. To analysis the EGFR and KRAS gene mutation rate and its relationship with clinical features in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Methods 395 patients with treatment na?ve lung adenocarcinoma, tumor tissue samples were available for testing. Tumor sample EGFR and KRAS mutation status were detected using mutant enriched liquidchip. Results 395 cases of lung adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were detected in 192 cases (48.9%), KRAS mutations were detected in 29 cases (7.8%), and the presence of EGFR and KRAS mutation were detected in 1 case (0.3%). EGFR mutations were found to occur significantly more often in female than in male patients (62.0% vs 37.1%, P<0.001) and in never smokers than in smokers (61.9% vs 30.3%, P<0.001), no significant differences were observed in age, stage and different biopsy type. KRAS mutations were not found to have statistical significance (P>0.05) in each clinical factors, only occurred in the wild type EGFR gene in patients (13.5%, 27/200) was significantly higher than that of patients with EGFR mutation (1.0%, 2/192), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion In lung adenocarcinomas, EGFR mutation was higher in female and non-smoking patients, KRAS mutation only in patients with wild-type EGFR gene was higher. Before using TKI targeted therapy, EGFR and KRAS mutations should be detected.
Prognostic Significance of C-Reactive Protein Polymorphism and KRAS/BRAF in Synchronous Liver Metastasis from Colorectal Cancer  [PDF]
Chi-Jung Huang, Hao-Wei Teng, Chih-Cheng Chien, Jen-Kou Lin, Shung-Haur Yang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065117
Abstract: Background The liver is the most common target organ in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Synchronous liver metastases may confer a poorer prognosis than metachronous metastases, and genetic alterations and an inflammatory response have also been associated with a poor prognosis in cases of a liver metastasis arising from CRC. However, few studies have examined the relationship between KRAS mutations and inflammatory status in CRC, especially with respect to liver metastases. Methods The effect of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and another protein involved in inflammation, C-reactive protein, in liver metastases were examined. We aimed to determine the impact of the CRP-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7553007 in liver metastasis on the CRC-specific survival (CSS) of patients after colorectal liver metastasectomy. Results We found no significant differences in genotype distributions and allele frequencies at the CRP SNP rs7553007 between CRC patients with liver metastasis and the control group. CSS rates were low in the subgroup of patients with synchronous metastasis with the A-allele (A/A and A/G) at rs7553007 or mutated KRAS/BRAF in liver metastatic specimens. Furthermore, the CRP SNP rs7553007 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.101; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.011–1.200; P = 0.027) and KRAS/BRAF mutations (HR = 2.377; 95% CI = 1.293–4.368; P = 0.005) remained predictive for the CSS of CRC patients with synchronous liver metastasis in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Both the CRP SNP rs7553007 and KRAS/BRAF mutations were independent prognostic factors for CRC patients with synchronous liver metastasis.
Clinical Research of EGFR and KRAS Mutation in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Specimens of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma  [PDF]
Zhihui ZHANG, Xilan WU, Jianming YING, Junling LI, Tian QIU, Huiqin GUO, Huan ZHAO, Ling SHAN, Yun LING
- , 2015, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2015.04.05
Abstract: Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS must be detected mutation status before patients of lung cancer use targeted drugs. The aim of this study is to elucidate the significance of EGFR and KRAS mutation in fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology suspension specimens of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Methods EGFR gene exons 18-21 and KRAS codons 12, 13 of exons 2 were performed by Real-time PCR methods in fine needle aspiration cytology suspension specimens of lymph nodes. Results 85 metastasis lymph nodes were detected in fine needle aspiration cytology samples of lung cancer. EGFR mutation rate was 37.3%. KRAS mutation rate was 7.2%. 19 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were available and match cytology specimens. Analysis of EGFR mutation status in those samples revealed agreement with the results obtained in cytological samples (kappa=1.0). Clinical follow-up was available for 13 who presented with stage IV disease. Based on the identification of such mutations, these patients received subsequent therapy with a TKI in clinic. We observed two cases complete remission (16.7%) and 8 cases partial remission (66.7%) and three had ongoing stable disease. Conclusion Fine-needle aspiration cytology samples were detected EGFR and KRAS mutation. The method which collects samples was easier, simple and convenient. This method has higher application value in clinical treatment.
Detection and Analysis of EGFR and KRAS Mutations ?in the Patients with Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas  [PDF]
Hui ZHANG, Xinjie YANG, Na QIN, Xi LI, Huiyi YANG, Jingying NONG, Jialin LV, Yuhua WU, Quan ZHANG, Xinyong ZHANG, Jinghui WANG, Dan SU, Shucai ZHANG
- , 2015, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2015.10.04
Abstract: Background and objective Activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS are important markers in non-small cell lung cancer. However, EGFR and KRAS gene mutations in lung squamous cell carcinoma are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to analyze EGFR and KRAS gene mutation rate and their relationship with clinical features in patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas. Methods A total of 139 patients undergoing treatment for na?ve lung squamous cell carcinomas with tumor tissue samples available for testing were recruited. EGFR and KRAS mutation statuses of the tumor samples were detected using a mutant enriched liquid chip. Results Of the 139 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma, EGFR mutations were detected in 25 cases (18%), KRAS mutations were detected in 7 cases (5%), and the presence of both EGFR and KRAS mutations was detected in 1 case (0.7%). EGFR mutations occurred more often in females than in males (33.3% vs 16.5%) and in patients that never smoked than in those who smoke (29.6% vs 16.1%). However, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed in age, stage, and different biopsy type. KRAS mutations occurred more often in males than in females (5.5% vs 0%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed in age, stage, different biopsy type, and smoking status (P>0.05). Conclusion EGFR and KRAS mutations were low in lung squamous cell carcinomas, and had no significant correlation with clinical features. Before using tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted therapy, EGFR and KRAS mutations should be detected in patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas.
Incidence and patterns of ALK FISH abnormalities seen in a large unselected series of lung carcinomas  [cached]
Dai Zunyan,Kelly JoAnn C,Meloni-Ehrig Aurelia,Slovak Marilyn L
Molecular Cytogenetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8166-5-44
Abstract: Background Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements have been reported in 2-13% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with ALK rearrangements do not respond to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, they do benefit from small molecule inhibitors targeting ALK. Results In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a break-apart probe for the ALK gene was performed on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to determine the incidence of ALK rearrangements and hybridization patterns in a large unselected cohort of 1387 patients with a referred diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (1011 of these patients had a histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma). The abnormal FISH signal patterns varied from a single split signal to complex patterns. Among 49 abnormal samples (49/1387, 3.5%), 32 had 1 to 3 split signals. Fifteen samples had deletions of the green 5′ end of the ALK signal, and 1 of these 15 samples showed amplification of the orange 3′ end of the ALK signal. Two patients showed a deletion of the 3′ALK signal. Thirty eight of these 49 samples (38/1011, 3.7%) were among the 1011 patients with confirmed adenocarcinoma. Five of 8 patients with ALK rearrangements detected by FISH were confirmed to have EML4-ALK fusions by multiplex RT-PCR. Among the 45 ALK-rearranged samples tested, only 1 EGFR mutation (T790M) was detected. Two KRAS mutations were detected among 24 ALK-rearranged samples tested. Conclusions In a large unselected series, the frequency of ALK gene rearrangement detected by FISH was approximately 3.5% of lung carcinoma, and 3.7% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, with variant signal patterns frequently detected. Rare cases with coexisting KRAS and EGFR mutations were seen.
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