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Antimony Toxicity  [PDF]
Shyam Sundar,Jaya Chakravarty
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7124267
Abstract: Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.
炼锑中砷、铅、铜、铁的化学光谱测定  [PDF]
贺柏令,李劲枝
分析化学 , 1990,
Abstract: 炼锑中的As、Pb在浓硝酸存在下成为砷酸铅(PbHASO4),利用该化合物在加热至320时开始失水,成为在950℃下仍稳定的焦砷酸铅(Pb2As2O7)的特性。因此,用浓硝酸溶解炼锑,蒸干,烧成氧化粉末,用溶液干渣电弧法测定As、Pb、Cu、Fe。其测定范围和准确度符合国标化学法的要求,取得快速准确的满意效果。
The exposure to and health effects of antimony  [cached]
Cooper Ross,Harrison Adrian
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Context: This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. Methods: The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. Results: The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m 3 may exacerbate irritation of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential.
Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes  [PDF]
Ewa Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska,Donata Wawrzycka,Robert Wysocki
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13033527
Abstract: Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.
New pyrometallurgical process of EAF dust treatment with CaO addition  [PDF]
Romchat Chairaksa-Fujimoto,Yosuke Inoue,Naoyoshi Umeda,Satoshi Itoh,Tetsuya Nagasaka
- , 2015, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-015-1135-6
Abstract: The non-carbothermic zinc pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust was investigated on a laboratory scale. The main objective of this process was to convert highly stable zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), which accounts for more than half of total zinc in the EAF dust, into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 by CaO addition. The EAF dust was mixed with CaO powder in various ratios, pressed into pellets, and heated in a muffle furnace in air at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100°C for a predetermined holding time. All ZnFe2O4 was transformed into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 at a minimum temperature of 900°C within 1 h when sufficient CaO to achieve a Ca/Fe molar ratio of 1.1 was added. However, at higher temperatures, excess CaO beyond the stoichiometric ratio was required because it was consumed by reactions leading to the formation of compounds other than ZnFe2O4. The evaporation of halides and heavy metals in the EAF dust was also studied. These components could be preferentially volatilized into the gas phase at 1100°C when CaO was added.
炼厂缓蚀剂的研制  [PDF]
曹微,尚映虹,孙德沛,张树立
腐蚀科学与防护技术 , 1997,
Abstract: 以辽化副产残渣为原料,合成的炼厂缓蚀剂,除含有咪唑啉胺等缓蚀组份外,还含有环烷酸胺等有效组份,增强了缓蚀剂的协同效应.
Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials
Shufa Su,Gaoshao Cao,Xinbing Zhao
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183417
Abstract: Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with flat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g 1 in the first 15 cycles.
A SIMPLE FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION METHOD FOR REFINING HIGH PURITY ANTIMONY

LIU MIN-CHIH,

金属学报 , 1964,
Abstract:
离子交换法分离铜电解液中铁锑
Removal of Iron and Antimony from Copper Electrolytes Using the Ion Exchange Method
 [PDF]

文燕
Metallurgical Engineering (MEng) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/MEng.2016.33016
Abstract:
本文采用离子交换树脂分离铜电解液中铁和锑进行了实验室扩大试验研究。研究结果表明:离子交换树脂可以吸附铜电解液中50%左右的铁和99%以上的锑。经30个床体的吸附,吸附后液中的锑含量均在20 mg/L以下,采用6 M HCl脱附剂可有效地将铁和锑洗脱。该离子交换树脂也吸附一定量的铋、镍离子,用6 M HCl可将树脂所吸附的铋和镍等离子完全脱附下来。经多次循环吸附–脱附试验表明,其稳定性良好。
A lab-scale enlarging experiment on removal of iron and antimony from copper electrolytes by the ion exchange method was studied. The results show that 50% of the iron and more than 99% of the antimony are adsorbed by the ion exchange resin. After 30 bed volumes adsorption, the content of antimony in solution is less than 20 mg/L. And the adsorbed iron and antimony can be thoroughly desorbed by using 6 M HCl solution. This ion exchange resin can also adsorb some bismuth ions and nickel ions, which can be thoroughly desorbed with 6 M HCl solution. Circulation tests indicate that this method has excellent adsorption-desorption stability.
ON FACTORS CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF ANTIMONY WHITE PIGMENT

Bao Chao Huang Ji-shang,

金属学报 , 1978,
Abstract: Antimony white as a pigment is mainly judged by the degree of whiteness. With a view to improving the quality of the product, tests were carried out to investigate the effect of impurities contamination, the shape and size of the grains, and the crystal structure of antimony oxides. At the same time, methods of producing superfine antimony white on a large scale were also investigated. It was found that amongst the many factors the crystal structure of the grains was most important, thus the greater the amount of cubic antimony trioxide present, the better the quality of antimony white as revealed by its whiteness. Furthermore, long-time tests on a large scale showed that the best quality of antimony white powders could be obtained by suitable control of the primary and secondary oxidizing blast, the forced-air cooling flow, and the reaction chamber temperature.
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