Abstract:
A monochromatic linear source of light is rotated with certain angular frequency and when such light is analysed after reflection then a change of frequency or wavelength may be observed depending on the location of the observer. This change of frequency or wavelength is different from the classical Doppler effect [1] or relativistic Doppler effect [2]. The reason behind this shift in wavelength is that a certain time interval observed by an observer in the rotating frame is different from that of a stationary observer.

Abstract:
We report observation of reverse Doppler effect in a double negative acoustic metamaterial. The metamaterial exhibited negative phase velocity and positive group velocity. The dispersion relation is such that the wavelength corresponding to higher frequency is longer. We observed that the frequency was down-shifted for the approaching source, and up-shifted when the source receded.

Abstract:
This paper shows as the relativistic Doppler effect can be extended also to time and space associated to moving bodies. This extension derives from the analysis of the wave-fronts of the light emitted by a moving source in inertial motion in the empty space, as viewed from the stationary reference. Indeed, time and space can be represented by the same vector quantities, which appear asymmetrical in forward and back direction along the path of the moving body. Consequently, the whole size of the moving bodies dilates along the direction of their motion, as their path. Thought experiments and real facts demonstrate this issue.

Abstract:
We analyse the power spectral density δB2 and δE2 of the magnetic and electric fluctuations measured by Cluster 1 (Rumba) in the magnetosheath during 23 h, on four different days. The frequency range of the STAFF Spectral Analyser (f=8 Hz to 4 kHz) extends from about the lower hybrid frequency, i.e. the electromagnetic (e.m.) range, up to about 10 times the proton plasma frequency, i.e. the electrostatic (e.s.) range. In the e.m. range, we do not consider the whistler waves, which are not always observed, but rather the underlying, more permanent fluctuations. In this e.m. range, δB2 (at 10 Hz) increases strongly while the local angle ΘBV between the magnetic field B and the flow velocity V increases from 0° to 90°. This behaviour, also observed in the solar wind at lower frequencies, is due to the Doppler effect. It can be modelled if we assume that, for the scales ranging from kc/ωpe 0.3 to 30 (c/ωpe is the electron inertial length), the intensity of the e.m. fluctuations for a wave number k (i) varies like k ν with ν> 3, (ii) peaks for wave vectors k perpendicular to B like |sinθkB|μ with μ> 100. The shape of the observed variations of δB2 with f and with ΘBV implies that the permanent fluctuations, at these scales, statistically do not obey the dispersion relation for fast/whistler waves or for kinetic Alfvén waves: the fluctuations have a vanishing frequency in the plasma frame, i.e. their phase velocity is negligible with respect to V (Taylor hypothesis). The electrostatic waves around 1 kHz behave differently: δE2 is minimum for ΘBV> 90°. This can be modelled, still with the Doppler effect, if we assume that, for the scales ranging from k λDe> 0.1 to 1 (λDe is the Debye length), the intensity of the e.s. fluctuations (i) varies like k ν with ν> 4, (ii) peaks for k parallel to B like |cosθkB|μ with μ> 100. These e.s. fluctuations may have a vanishing frequency in the plasma frame, or may be ion acoustic waves. Our observations imply that the e.m. frequencies observed in the magnetosheath result from the Doppler shift of a spatial turbulence frozen in the plasma, and that the intensity of the turbulent k spectrum is strongly anisotropic, for both e.m. and e.s. fluctuations. We conclude that the turbulence has strongly anisotropic k distributions, on scales ranging from kc/ωpe 0.3 (50 km) to kλDe 1 (30 m), i.e. at electron scales, smaller than the Cluster separation.

Abstract:
The development of Information and Communication Technologies suggests some spectacular changes in the methods used for teaching scientific subjects. Nowadays, the development of software and hardware makes it possible to simulate processes as close to reality as we want. However, when we are trying to explain some complex physical processes, it is better to simplify the problem under study using simplified pictures of the total process by eliminating some elements that make it difficult to understand this process. In this work we focus our attention on the Doppler effect which requires the space-time visualization that is very difficult to obtain using the traditional teaching resources. We have designed digital simulations as a complement of the theoretical explanation in order to help students understand this phenomenon.

Abstract:
The development of Information and Communication Technologies suggests some spectacular changes in the methods used for teaching scientific subjects. Nowadays, the development of software and hardware makes it possible to simulate processes as close to reality as we want. However, when we are trying to explain some complex physical processes, it is better to simplify the problem under study using simplified pictures of the total process by eliminating some elements that make it difficult to understand this process. In this work we focus our attention on the Doppler effect which requires the space-time visualization that is very difficult to obtain using the traditional teaching resources. We have designed digital simulations as a complement of the theoretical explanation in order to help students understand this phenomenon.

Abstract:
We analyze fringe formation within Michelson-like experiments as viewed by relativistic inertial observers. Our analysis differs from previous work because we include optical misalignment of the beamsplitter of the interferometer due to the anamorphic geometry of relativistic Lorentz contraction. We conclude that inertial frame equivalence of Michelson-like experiments provide verification of the transverse Doppler Effect and exclude any model incorporating the relativistic Lorentz contraction effect.

Abstract:
We discussed the Doppler Effect of mechanical waves when the relative velocity is not in the direction of wave vector;and we found that the observed frequency changes with time, which is different from the results when the relativevelocity is along the wave vector direction. We showed a simple derivation of Doppler Effect equation for the light byusing time dilation principle and showed that the motion of light source and observer has the same effect on thefrequency shift

Abstract:
We report on a numerical observation of the train of zeptosecond pulses produced by reflection of a relativistically intense femtosecond laser pulse from the oscillating boundary of an overdense plasma because of the Doppler effect. These pulses promise to become a unique experimental and technological tool since their length is of the order of the Bohr radius and the intensity is extremely high $\propto 10^{19}$ W/cm$^2$. We present the physical mechanism, analytical theory, and direct particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the harmonic spectrum is universal: the intensity of $n$th harmonic scales as $1/n^{p}$ for $n < 4\gamma^2$, where $\gamma$ is the largest $\gamma$--factor of the electron fluid boundary, $p=3$ and $p=5/2$ for the broadband and quasimonochromatic laser pulses respectively.

Abstract:
The Doppler shift considered in general relativity involves mixed contributions of distinct, gravitational and kinematical origins and for most metrics or trajectories it takes a complex form. The expression for the Doppler shift may simplify due to particular symmetries. In Schwarzschild spacetime it factorizes in the case of radial fall for an observer and radial null geodesic. The resulting expression is composed of factors that can be identified with contributions arising from classical, special relativistic and general relativistic origins. This result turns out to be more general: it holds for the whole class of observers travelling parallel to the spatial path of null geodesics when receiving the signal. It also holds for a particular type of in-fall in the case of a Kerr metric.