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Resettling Displaced Residents from Regularised Informal Settlements in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: Challenges Faced by House Owners  [PDF]
D. L. Magembe-Mushi, J. M. Lupala
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.32007
Abstract: Regularisation is a process that attempts to restructure informal and unauthorised settlements in terms of physical, legal, official and administrative set ups of land management as well as improving the living condition of its dwellers. In Dar-es-Salaam city about, 80 per cent of its residents live in informal settlements. These settlements lack the basic services of water supply, access roads, waste water management and storm water drainage systems. Regularisation has been practiced in order to provide these basic services. This paper focuses on physical regularisation which was implemented through Community Infrastructure Upgrading Project (CIUP) within sixteen settlements in Dar-es-Salaam City. Through explorative research using case study strategy, displaced residents were traced. For those who were found an in-depth interview was conducted and narrations of their experience before during and after displacement and resettlement were obtained. The paper analyses the process of displacement and resettlement caused by regularisation through the country’s policy and legal frameworks. It also used the justice and collaborative theories in reflecting the processes in the affected settlements. Through narrations of individual displaced residents and reflections from theories and legal frameworks, a number of challenges were identified and discussed.
Informal Urban Settlements and Cholera Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  [PDF]
Katherine Penrose ,Marcia Caldas de Castro,Japhet Werema,Edward T. Ryan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000631
Abstract: Background As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the range of access to improved sanitation and improved water sources was quite narrow at the ward level, limiting our ability to discern relationships between these variables and cholera incidence. Analysis at the individual household level for these variables would be of interest. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that ongoing global urbanization coupled with urban poverty will be associated with increased risks for certain infectious diseases, such as cholera, underscoring the need for improved infrastructure and planning as the world's urban population continues to expand.
Aspects on Healthcare Provision in Romanian Rural Areas, Geographical Accessibility  [cached]
Marius CIUTAN,Carmen SASU
Management in Health , 2008,
Abstract: The accessibility of health services in rural areas represents a high priority for the Romanian Ministry of Public Health; in this context, the improvement of the access of rural population to primary care services (provided as much as possible in a continuously manner) and to emergency and pharmaceutical services, is considered a strategic objective in the health reform medium term plan of the Ministry of Public Health.
Tenure Security, Land Titles and Access to Formal Finance in Upgraded Informal Settlements: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  [PDF]
Shaaban A. Sheuya, Marco M. Burra
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.44029
Abstract: Pro-poor land policies have recently emerged in reconceptualising access to housing finance in low income settlements in developing countries. In Tanzania, this concept has been adopted to enable dwellers in urban informal settlement to enjoy perceived tenure security. Settlement upgrading has further increased perceived security. Interestingly, titling projects aimed at facilitating access to credit from formal financial institutions have been implemented in already upgraded settlements. Based on empirical investigations in two settlements in Dar es Salaam, the paper explores the take-up of titles and subsequent use to access credit. Findings show that take-up is slow and very few property owners have accessed credit. In contrast to arguments by several scholars, tenure security is not a simple matter of being legal or illegal or formal or informal. In the illustrated cases, loans were neither used to improve houses nor open businesses, but to expand on-going profitable businesses. Loans were repaid and no property has been taken away, presenting a win-win situation. The paper concludes that the use of titles to expand on-going profitable businesses provides new lens with which to look at alternative uses of residential licenses (RLs). Through this lens, property owners were able to use titles to access relatively large microenterprise development loans. It recommends further, that there is a need to promote the acquisition and use of titles. Financial institutions are challenged to design and implement context specific housing microfinance products that make ownership of RLs a necessary condition for accessing loans.
Provision of Family Planning Services in Tanzania: A Comparative Analysis of Public and Private Facilities
DC Kakoko
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health facilities. Majority of public facilities (95.4%) offered family planning services, whereas more than half of private facilities (52.1%) did not offer those. Public facilities were more likely to offer modern contraceptives as compared to private facilities. However, private facilities were more likely to offer counseling on natural methods of family planning [AOR = 2.12 (1.15-3.92), P 0.001]. Public facilities were more likely to report having guidelines or protocols for family planning services and various kinds of visual aids for family planning and STIs when compared to private facilities. This comparative analysis entails the need to enforce the standards of family planning services in Tanzania (Afr J Reprod Health 2012; 16[4]:140-148).
Perceived Environmental Risks and Challenges of Urban Waste Management in Planned and Unplanned Settlements of Dodoma Municipality in Tanzania
I.J.E. Zilihona,H.K. Mayaya,G. Mnyone,J. Nkonoki
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2013.55.63
Abstract: The problem of waste management in planned and unplanned settlement is currently a common phenomenon in developing countries. Of importance is to understand the best mechanisms through which such wastes can better be managed. It is on such basis this study aimed at analysing the perceived environmental risks and challenges of urban waste management in planned and unplanned settlements of Dodoma Municipality in Tanzania. In soliciting the required information, a total of 226 respondents of which 200 are from household level and the remaining 26 as key informants were involved in the study. The data generated were analysed through the use of descriptive statistics, multiple responses, cross tabulation and sometimes of combination of the above data analysis techniques. The study established that despite the commonality in the problem of waste management in Dodoma Municipality, there are some differences in terms of sources, types and composition of wastes between planned and unplanned settlements. Furthermore, the study revealed that epidemic diseases, blockage of water drainage systems, air pollution and environmental dirtiness are among the perceived environmental risks associated with poor waste management. The study also established that efforts and initiatives to deal with the problem of generated wastes encounter managerial, technical and awareness challenges and hence reducing their effectiveness. It is on the basis of the study findings, this study concludes that the problem of wastes in the municipality will continue to pose more environmental risks and hence the need to scale up its waste management efforts by investing on waste management infrastructures, awareness creation, promotion of stakeholders involvement and capacity building among waste management institutions and stakeholders.
Analysis of Cost Impact of HIV/AIDS on Health Service Provision in Nine Regions, Tanzania: Methodological Challenges and Lessons for Policy
GM Mubyazi, AJ Mwisongo, EA Makundi, K Pallangyo, HM Malebo, JM Mshana, KP Senkoro, WN Kisinza, Y Ipuge, P Hiza, SM Magesa, AY Kitua, MN Malecela
Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Tanzania is one of African countries that have since 1983 been facing the human immuno-deficiency virus-acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) pandemic, thereby, drawing attention to the general public, the governmental and non-governmental organizations and government’s partner development agencies. Due to few socio-economic studies done so far to evaluate the impact this pandemic, a study was designed and undertaken in 2001 to analyse how this disease had impacted on health service provision in Tanzania from a cost perspective. Methods: The study involved a review of health service management information documents at selected health facilities in nine regions within mainland Tanzania, interviews with health service workers (HWs) at selected health facilities and health managers at district and regional levels as well as focus group discussions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA). Findings: We noted that on average, HIV/AIDS caused 72% of all the deaths recorded at the study hospitals. The health management information system (HMIS) missed some data in relation to HIV/AIDS services, including the costs of such services which limited the investigators’ ability to determine the actual costs impact. Using their experience, health managers and HWs reported substantial amounts of funds, labour time, supplies and other resources to have been spent on HIV/AIDS preventive and curative services. The frontline HWs reported to face a problem of identifying the PLWA among those who presented multiple illness conditions at HF levels which means sometimes the services given to such people could not be separated for easy costing from services delivered to other categories of the patients. Such respondents and their superiors (i.e. Health managers) testified that PLWA were being screened and receiving treatment. HWs were concerned with spending much time on counselling PLWA, attending home-based care, sick-leaves and funeral ceremonies either after their relatives or co-staff have died of AIDS, lowering time for delivering services to other patients. HWs together with their superiors at district and regional levels reported increasing shortages of essential supplies, office-working space and other facilities at HF levels, although actual costs of such items were not documented. Conclusion: The cost impact of HIV/AIDS to the health sector is undoubtedly high even though it is not easy to establish the cost of each service delivered to PLWA in Tanzania. As adopted in the present study, designers of methods for analysing impacts of diseases like this should consider a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Meanwhile concerted measures are needed to improve health service record keeping so as enhancing data usability for research and rational management decision-making purposes.
Access to Improved Sanitation in Informal Settlements: The Case of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania  [PDF]
Samson Elisha Kasala, Marco Mathias Burra, Tumpale Sakijege Mwankenja
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.41003
Abstract: A large number of people in developing countries live in informal settlements. Such settlements are mostly situated in areas that are frequently flooded. In terms of sanitation, majority informal settlements dwellers use traditional pit latrine technology, which is considered cheap given their level of income. The use of pit latrines in areas that are frequently flooded causes health risks. Most of the informal settlements lack access to infrastructure services particularly sanitation facilities. This has made many residents discharge waste water from pit latrines into storm water run-offs. This often leads to environmental pollution and endangers the health of local residents. Based on the current study, this paper attempts to examine how and the extent to which residents in these informal settlements get access to improved sanitation. The paper also draws lessons to inform the way forward. The findings show that community based initiatives, partnerships and law enforcement are instrumental in improving access to sanitation in informal settlements.
Sediment Production from Settlements and Farmlands within Lake Victoria Shoreline Zone in Uganda and Tanzania
Isabirye, M.,Kimaro, D.,Semalulu, O.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: In spite of the general acceptance that the current land use changes are unlikely to yield a sustainable environment, the source of sediment that causes eutrophication in Lake Victoria is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that roads, footpaths, and compounds (settlement) are a major source of sediments. This study was conducted on the northern Lake Victoria shoreline to determine the rate of sediment generated by agricultural and settlement land use types. Results show that settlements generate significantly higher sediment yields i.e. between 17- 87 ton.ha-1. yr -1 whereas agricultural land use types produced between 0-27 ton ha-1.yr-1. The high sediment yield from settlements is attributed to high runoff coefficients and the occurrence of gully erosion. The high sediment yield from settlements justifies the need to conduct further investigations on the contribution of settlements to sediment production in catchments with different soil - landscape and climatic setting in the Lake Victoria catchment.
Estimating the Capacity for ART Provision in Tanzania with the Use of Data on Staff Productivity and Patient Losses  [PDF]
Stefan Hanson, Anna Thorson, Hans Rosling, Claes ?rtendahl, Claudia Hanson, Japhet Killewo, Anna Mia Ekstr?m
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005294
Abstract: Background International targets for access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) have over-estimated the capacity of health systems in low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO target for number on treatment by end 2005 for Tanzania was 10 times higher than actually achieved. The target of the national Care and Treatment Plan (CTP) was also not reached. We aimed at estimating the capacity for ART provision and created five scenarios for ART production given existing resource limitations. Methods A situation analysis including scrutiny of staff factors, such as available data on staff and patient factors including access to ART and patient losses, made us conclude that the lack of clinical staff is the main limiting factor for ART scale-up, assuming that sufficient drugs and supplies are provided by donors. We created a simple formula to estimate the number of patients on ART based on availability and productivity of clinical staff, time needed to initiate vs maintain a patient on ART and patient losses using five different scenarios with varying levels of these parameters. Findings Our scenario assuming medium productivity (40% higher than that observed in 2002) and medium loss of patients (20% in addition to 15% first-year mortality) coincides with the actual reported number of patients initiated on ART up to 2008, but is considerably below the national CTP target of 90% coverage for 2009, corresponding to 420,000 on ART and 710,000 life-years saved (LY's). Our analysis suggests that a coverage of 40% or 175,000 on treatment and 350,000 LY's saved is more achievable. Conclusion A comparison of our scenario estimations and actual output 2006–2008 indicates that a simple user-friendly dynamic model can estimate the capacity for ART scale-up in resource-poor settings based on identification of a limiting staff factor and information on availability of this staff and patient losses. Thus, it is possible to set more achievable targets.
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