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Famale participation in the labour market of Botswana: Results from the 2005/06 labour force survey data
H Siphambe, M Motswapong
Botswana Journal of Economics , 2010,
Abstract: This is an empirical paper that looks at the major determinants of labour market participation of females in Botswana using the 2005/06 Labour Force Survey(LFS) data, probit and logit models. Results show that education increases females chances of participating in the labour market. Marriage impacts negatively on female labour force participation. Moreover, females who live in urban areas are more likely to participate in the labour market than those who live in rural areas and females who are household heads are more likely to participate in the labour market than those who are not. The results also showed that females prefer to work in a private sector than working in the other sectors. Policy implications are that efforts to address the problem of females access to the labour market should focus on improving their access to education. The government should continue developing rural areas and create more employment opportunities.
Fertility, Health and Female Labour Force Participation in Urban Cameroon  [cached]
Roger A. Tsafack Nanfosso,Christian M. Zamo-Akono
International Business Research , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v3n2p136
Abstract: Many studies report empirical relationship either between fertility and labour supply or, between health and labour market outcomes. In this paper, an extension of these ideas involves explicitly considering how fertility and health affect each other, and how they interrelate with labour force participation. A unifying framework is provided and a simultaneous three equations model developed to capture the interdependence between these variables as well as their respective determinants. The model is estimated using a cross-section data set obtained from a survey of the urban Cameroon population. The results indicate that: (i) fertility and health status are significantly interrelated, thus separate estimations of fertility (or health status) and participation will produce misleading results; (ii) working in either sector of the labour market significantly reduces fertility but, unlike many previous studies, fertility has a positive impact on the probability of labour force participation; (iii) there is strong evidence that health and disability status is a significant determinant of employment, but the reverse depend on the labour market sector and on the health indicator used.
Structural characteristics of labor market and ssue of women’s labor force participation in Turkey  [cached]
Ilyas KARABIYIK
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Despite having an important role in the economy, female employment and labor force participation rates of women are distinctly lower in Turkey. This article analyses the reasons behind the lower labor force participation of women in Turkey and compares it with different countries. In this study, apart from consulting the relevant literature, a large number of statistical data also has been collected from ILO, OECD, EU and TUIK(Turkish Statistical Institute). The research results reveals that, in addition to economic factors, socio-cultural factors particularly related to women’s role splits over as worker in social life and as the main responsible person in housework build up an important problem scope for women in terms of female labor force participation rates in Turkey. For this reason, it is concluded that, applying employment policies which consider the nature of socio-cultural peculiarities of female labor force will help the employability of women and increase female labor force participation rate.
INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT IN TURKEY: AN OVERVIEW  [PDF]
Melika BEN SALEM,Isabelle BENSIDOUN,Selin PELEK
Région et Développement , 2011,
Abstract: The Turkish labour market, like that of many developing economies, is characterised by widespread recourse to informal jobs. Several measures have recently been taken by the Turkish authorities to limit the extent of this tendency. These are in keeping with the dynamic process of accession to the EU to which Turkey has been committed since the opening of negotiations in October 2005. From Household Labour Force surveys conducted by the Turkish Statistical Institute, the study presented here de-picts a panorama of informal employment in Turkey before the implementation of these measures. It responds to the need expressed by the Council of the European Union to have an analysis of undeclared work. From a descriptive analysis of the main features of informal jobs and from the estimation of the probability of informal employment, it brings out a number of lessons on how to target policies to combat informal employment in Turkey and on the people who encounter the greatest difficulties in accessing or participating in the market.
Grandparenting and mothers' labour force participation: A comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey  [cached]
Arnstein Aassve,Bruno Arpino,Alice Goisis
Demographic Research , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND It is well known that the provision of public childcare plays an important role for women labour force participation and its availability varies tremendously across countries. In many countries, informal childcare is also important and typically provided by the grandparents, but its role on mothers' employment is not yet well understood. Understanding the relationship between labour supply decisions and grandparental childcare is complex. While the provision of grandparental childcare is clearly a function of the social and institutional context of a country, it also depends on family preferences, which are typically unobserved in surveys. OBJECTIVE We analyze the role of informal childcare provided by grandparents on mothers' labour force participation keeping unobserved preferences into account. METHODS Bivariate probit models with instrumental variables are estimated on data from seven countries (Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Russia and The Netherlands) drawn from the Generations and Gender Survey. RESULTS We find that only in some countries mothers' employment is positively and significantly associated with grandparents providing childcare. In other countries, once we control for unobserved preferences, we do not find this effect. CONCLUSIONS The role of grandparents is an important element to reconcile work and family for women in some countries. Our results show the importance of considering family preferences and country differences when studying the relationship between grandparental childcare and mothers' labour supply. COMMENTS Our results are consistent with previous research on this topic. However, differently from previous studies, we conduct separate analyses by country and show that the effect of grandparental childcare varies considerably. The fact that we also include in the analyses Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia and Georgia is an important novelty as there are no studies on this issue for these countries.
Kad nlar n gücüne Kat l m n n Belirleyicileri: Ekonometrik bir Analiz = The Determinants of Female Participation to the Labour Force: an Econometric Analysis  [cached]
?zlem Ayvaz KIZILG?L
Dogus University Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The goal of this study is to determine the reasons of why the single and married women living in Turkey, in urban and rural areas do participate the labour force through the 2002-2008 period. In other words, this study aims to search the reasons affecting the women’s decision of working. To this end, the study is conducted via a pooled data set merged by putting together the data gathered from Household Budget Surveys of the years 2002-2008. Logit model analysis is conducted for application. The results of the analysis illustrated that, education level, household income, dependency ratio, ownership of the property and women’s age are the most important factors as to the women’s decision of participating to labour force regarding the married and single women. Furthermore, the number of children reduces the labour force participation in urban areas while increases in rural areas.
Factors Affecting Women's Participation In The Labour Force In Nigeria
Mercy O Uwakwe
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2004,
Abstract: Women are major stakeholders in the development of the society. However, their contributions are hampered by certain impediments that affect them as individuals. More women work today than ever before. This paper examines factors that affect women's active participation in the labour force and discusses some measures for correcting this anomaly. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol. 4 (2) 2004: 43-53
Labor Force Participation and Gender Inequalities: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and Malaysia  [cached]
Najeebullah Khan,Adnan Hussein,Qamar Afaq,Zahid Awan
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: In this study we analyzed gender inequalities in labour force participation of the two Asian Countries namely Pakistan and Malaysia. Gender inequalities in labour market are analyzed and updated using recent time series data of 2005 to 2009. The data are drawn from different sources including various Integrated Household Surveys, Labour Force Surveys, Economic Surveys and Labour Force Survey Reports of the two countries. The results indicate significant gender differences in the labour force participation rate and status of employment of the two countries. Labour force participation rate of female is 20% and the male is 71% in Pakistan whereas in Malaysia the participation rate of female is 46% and the male is 80%. Furthermore women of age group 25 to 29 and women of age group 35 to 39 years are the most productive age intervals in Malaysia and Pakistan, respectively. The general increase in the participation of youth in Malaysia are due to rapid expansion of educational facilities, equal access of female to every level of education, delayed marriages and reduced fertility rate while increased participation of the interval group of 35 to 39 is due to the induction of married women in the labour market in Pakistan.
Multiple Chronic Health Conditions and Their Link with Labour Force Participation and Economic Status  [PDF]
Deborah J. Schofield, Emily J. Callander, Rupendra N. Shrestha, Megan E. Passey, Richard Percival, Simon J. Kelly
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079108
Abstract: Aims To assess the labour force participation and quantify the economic status of older Australian workers with multiple health conditions. Background Many older people suffer from multiple health conditions. While multiple morbidities have been highlighted as an important research topic, there has been limited research in this area to date, particularly on the economic status of those with multiple morbidities. Methods Cross sectional analysis of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model of Australians aged 45 to 64 years. Results People with one chronic health condition had 0.59 times the odds of being employed compared to those with no condition (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.71), and those with four or more conditions had 0.14 times the odds of being employed compared to those with no condition (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.18). People with one condition received a weekly income 32% lower than those with no health condition, paid 49 % less tax, and received 37% more in government transfer payments; those with four or more conditions received a weekly income 94% lower, paid 97% less in tax and received over 2,000% more in government transfer payments per week than those with no condition. Conclusion While having a chronic health condition is associated with lower labour force participation and poorer economic status, having multiple conditions compounds the affect – with these people being far less likely to be employed and having drastically lower incomes.
Working Time Reductions and Labour Force Participation in Unemployment Contexts: A Note  [PDF]
Angel Martin-Roman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.43025
Abstract: Work-sharing measures aim to reduce unemployment. When politicians are more interested in fostering this kind of measures is when the official unemployment rate published in statistics rises. There is already an important body of research addressing this issue, but it has mainly focused on the labour demand side. Nevertheless, it must not be forgotten that unemployment is determined both by demand and supply. The neoclassical model of labour supply predicts that a reduction of standard working hours encourages labour market participation. In this paper we show that this unambiguous result vanishes precisely when high unemployment makes that search transaction costs cannot be considered negligible.
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