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A study on genotypes of hepatitis B virus among hemodialysis patients in Khuzestan province
Niloofar Neisi,Manochehr Makvandi,Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of Hepadnaviridae and a major causative agent of chronic and acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genotype determination of HBV is based on PCR-RFLP and sequencing of genome of the virus. The genotype formation is mainly due to mutations of HBV precore, S, and YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate motif in the C domain of the HBV DNA polymerase gene) genome area. Moreover, some of the mutant HBV remains undetectable by serological tests (occult hepatitis). Since the genotypes of HBV and occult hepatitis B has not been studied in our area, this study was conducted to determine both occult hepatitis B infection and genotypes among hemodialysis patients.Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty hemodialysis patients were selected in this study. The sera of the patients were collected and the extracted DNA was used as template of PCR to amplify a 479bp fragment of the viral genome. The PCR products were digested by Ava2 and Mbo1 restriction enzymes. Based on RFLP patterns, the genotypes were determined. The HBV markers including; HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis Bc antibody (HBcIgG), hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus e antibody (HBeAb) were carried out for all the patients by ELISA test.Results: Fifty (20%) out of 250 sera showed positive HBV by PCR. Out of the 50 positive cases for HBV, 46(92%) belonged to genotype D2 and 2(4%) cases of them were B6 genotype. Ten cases were positive for HBV by PCR test but negative by ELISA test (4% occult hepatitis). Conclusion: Prevalence of HBV infection was high among the dialysis patients (20%), and occult hepatitis B was 4% in these patients. The dominant genotype of HBV was D2 (92%) followed by genotypes B6 (4%) in hemodialysis patients.
Hepatitis B Virus Genotype G Infection in a Turkish Patient Undergoing Hemodialysis Therapy  [cached]
Agustin Castiella
Hepatitis Monthly , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Genotype G is the least common of all the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. The existence of the genotype G strain of HBV was first noted in 2000 and little information is available on its global geographical distribution. Previous studies have demonstrated the dominance of genotype D in patients with HBV infections in Turkey.Objectives: To report for the first time in Turkey, the case of a 61 year old male patient who developed the HBV genotype G infection.Case report: According to HBV genotyping using phylogenetic analysis and an INNO-LiPA assay, the patient was infected with genotype G and G+A, respectively.Conclusions: The present clinical study suggests that the transmission of an HBV genotype other than genotype D, namely HBV genotype G, is possible in Turkey. Epidemiological and clinical information on genotype G infection is currently limited, and this is most likely due to its low prevalence throughout the world. Therefore, it may be important to determine the epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of the HBV genotype G as it relates to chronic hepatitis, to enable better understanding of its circulation and progression around the world.
Prevalence of hepatitis C and B infection and HC V genotypes among hemodialysis patients in Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran  [cached]
Assarehzadegan Mohammad,Shakerinejad Ghodratollah,Noroozkohnejad Reza,Amini Akram
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2009,
Abstract: Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infection are the most important infections transmitted by the parenteral route in hemodialysis patients. This study is the first report of prevalence of viral hepatitis and hepatitis C virus genotypes in southwest Iran among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 214 hemodialysis patients of the Central hemodialysis unit, from March 2005 to August 2006. Serum samples were tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV using specific enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) kits and confirmed by PCR (HBV) and RT PCR (HCV). HCV genotypes were determined with HCV genotype specific primers using HCV genotype kit. Out of 214 hemodialysis patients, 34 were positive for anti-HCV (7.9%, 95% CI: 4.32-11.56) and 11 for HBsAg (5.1%, 95% CI: 2.18-8.1). The duration of treatment by hemo-dialysis was significantly associated with HBV and HCV positivity (P< 0.001). The predominant HCV genotype in the region was 1a (41.1%, 7/17), whilst genotypes 3a and 1b were found in 35.2% (6/17) and 23.5% (4/17) subjects, respectively. In conclusion although anti-HCV and HBsAg positivity in hemodialysis patients in Khuzestan province are smaller than those found in some other Iranian provinces and neighboring countries, they are still high. Enforcement of universal precautions in infection control, routine testing of patients, and serial determination of hepatic enzymes should be the common practice in dialysis centers in Iran.
Hepatitis B virus infection profile in hemodialysis patients in Central Brazil: prevalence, risk factors, and genotypes
Ferreira, Renata C;Teles, Sheila A;Dias, Márcia A;Tavares, Viviane R;Silva, Simonne A;Gomes, Selma A;Yoshida, Clara FT;Martins, Regina MB;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762006000600019
Abstract: hemodialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection. a survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of goiás, central brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of hbv infection, to analyse associated risk factors, and also to investigate hbv genotypes distribution. a total of 1095 patients were interviewed in 15 dialysis units. serum samples were screened for hbv serological markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) positive samples were tested for hbv dna by polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. global hbv infection prevalence was 29.8% (95% ci: 27.1-32.5). multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that male gender, length of time on hemodialysis, and blood transfusion before 1993 were associated with hbv positivity. hbv dna was detected in 65.4% (17/26) of the hbsag-positive samples. thirteen of 17 hbv dna positive samples were genotyped. genotype d (61.5%) was predominant, followed by a (30.8%), while genotype f was detected in only one (7.7%) sample.
Hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection in different hemodialysis units in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Busek, Solange U;Babá, élio H;Tavares Filho, Hélcio A;Pimenta, Lermíno;Salom?o, Abra?o;Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo;Oliveira, Guilherme C;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762002000600003
Abstract: the prevalence, virological and epidemilogical aspects of the hepatitis c virus (hcv) and the hepatitis b virus (hbv) infections vary among hemodialysis patients in different countries. aiming at analyzing these aspects of hcv and hbv infections in hemodialysis patients in belo horizonte, mg, brazil, we studied three hemodialysis units including 434 patients. serology was used to detect anti-hcv and hbsag. reverse trancriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-nested-pcr) of the 5'-noncoding region was used to detect circulating hcv rna and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for genotyping. seroprevalence varied from 26.5% to 11.1% for hepatitis c and from 5.9% to 0% for hepatitis b. risk factors observed for hbv and/or hcv infections were the number of patients per dialysis unit, duration of treatment, number of clinics attended, number of blood units transfused, and lower level scholarity. alanine aminotransferase levels were altered with a higher frequency in hbv or hcv seropositive patients. half of ten patients, negative for anti-hcv, had detectable viremia by rt-nested-pcr, indicating that this technique should be used to confirm infections in this group of patients. the hcv genotype 1 was the most frequently observed, followed by the genotype 2, but no correlation was detected between genotype and clinical or epidemiological data.
Hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection in different hemodialysis units in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil  [cached]
Busek Solange U,Babá élio H,Tavares Filho Hélcio A,Pimenta Lermíno
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002,
Abstract: The prevalence, virological and epidemilogical aspects of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections vary among hemodialysis patients in different countries. Aiming at analyzing these aspects of HCV and HBV infections in hemodialysis patients in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, we studied three hemodialysis units including 434 patients. Serology was used to detect anti-HCV and HBsAg. Reverse trancriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested-PCR) of the 5'-noncoding region was used to detect circulating HCV RNA and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for genotyping. Seroprevalence varied from 26.5% to 11.1% for hepatitis C and from 5.9% to 0% for hepatitis B. Risk factors observed for HBV and/or HCV infections were the number of patients per dialysis unit, duration of treatment, number of clinics attended, number of blood units transfused, and lower level scholarity. Alanine aminotransferase levels were altered with a higher frequency in HBV or HCV seropositive patients. Half of ten patients, negative for anti-HCV, had detectable viremia by RT-nested-PCR, indicating that this technique should be used to confirm infections in this group of patients. The HCV genotype 1 was the most frequently observed, followed by the genotype 2, but no correlation was detected between genotype and clinical or epidemiological data.
Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Cordoba, Argentina unexpected high prevalence of genotype 2
Re,V.; Lampe,E; Fumiko Yoshida,C; Mendes de Oliveira,J; Lewis Ximenez,L; Spinsanti,L; Elbarcha,O; Contigiani,M;
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2003,
Abstract: to determine hepatitis c virus (hcv) genotypes circulating in the central region of argentina, 96 consecutive anti-hcv positive subjects were studied. the presence of hcv rna was detected in 60 samples by rt-nested pcr of the 5' noncoding region (5' ncr). genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 5' ncr region combined with pcr using type-specific primers of the core region. the groups of individuals in this study included hemophilia and hemodialysis patients, injecting drug users, screened blood donors, and patients with acute or chronic liver disease, all from córdoba, argentina. overall, genotype 2 was the most prevalent (55.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (38.3 %), and 3 (5.0%). within genotype 1, subtype 1b was the most prevalent. an unexpected high prevalence of genotype 2 (61.9%) was found among patients with acute or chronic hcv infection (without known risk factors). these figures differ from other cohorts from east-argentina where genotype 1 has been found as the most prevalent. this indicates that regional differences of genotype distribution might exist between central and east argentina.
Evaluation of combination therapy with Interferon and Ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C : a genotype based study
Y. Bafandeh,M. Saberi Firoozi,K. Bagheri Lankarani
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background and purpose: About 200,000 of Iranian population are infected with Hepatitis C Virus. On the basis of Iranian consensus on management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection in 2004, combination therapy with conventional α-Interferon (IFN) plus Ribavirin is the first therapeutic choice in CHC patients. Data are limited on treatment response rate in most areas of the country. To assess the treatment results, we performed this study in a referral center in province of Fars, in Iran, to compare with the response rates to therapy in Western patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 118 patients with CHC (males 88%) with mean age of 37.47 (SD 11.4) years, mean Histologic Activity Index of 8.21 (SD 4.5), and mean pretreatment Alt level of 81.26 (SD 72.86) were enrolled in the study. IFN 3 million unit/TIW plus Ribavirin 1-1.2 gr/d were administrated for 6-12 months (depending on genotype), and the patients were followed up for 6 months period to assess sustained virologic response (SVR).Results: The most common route of aquisition of the virus was intravenous drug using seen in 39.8% of patients. 40.7% were infected by genotype 3a, 22 % 1a and 9.3% by 1b.Seventy-three patients completed the course of therapy. End of treatment response (ETR) was achieved in 54 (74%) patients. SVR rate was 48% with a relapse of 13.7% . Hepatic decompensation was seen in 2 (2.7%) patients in follow-up period. With respect to the duration of therapy, genotype of viruses was not significantly different in both responders and non-responders (0.05).Conclusion: Despite the different genotyping pattern, ETR and SVR rates were comparable in Iranian CHC patients treated by combination therapy of conventional IFN plus ribavirin in comparison with Western patients. SVR was greater in cases with pretreatment lower HAI.
Prevalence, genotypes and risk factors associated with hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
Freitas, Solange Z;Cunha, Rivaldo V da;Martins, Regina MB;Teles, Sheila A;Ibanhes, Mary L;Motta-Castro, Ana RC;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762008000400016
Abstract: a survey was conducted among the hemodialysis units of the city of campo grande, located in the state of mato grosso do sul in the mid-west region of brazil, with the aim of investigating the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypes of hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection. a total of 163 patients were interviewed in five dialysis units. serum samples were screened for anti-hcv. positive samples were tested for hcv rna and genotyped. the prevalence of anti-hcv was 11% (95% ci: 6.8-17.1). a history of transfusion with blood that was not screened for anti-hcv and length of time on hemodialysis were associated with hcv infection. hcv rna was detected in 12 samples: ten were of genotype 1, subtypes 1a (75%) and 1b (8.3%), and two were of genotype 3, subtype 3a (16.7%).
Hepatitis B vaccination in hemodialysis patients: different points of view for conclusion
Alavian, Seyed Moayed;
Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-28002011000300014
Abstract: the present letter to the editor shows the other aspect of hepatitis b vaccination in hemodialysis patients.
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