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Online Dictionaries on the Internet: An Overview for the African Languages
G de Schryver
Lexikos , 2003,
Abstract: The main purpose of this research article is rather bold, in that an attempt is made at a comprehensive overview of all currently available African-language Internet dictionaries. Quite surprisingly, a substantial number of such dictionaries is already available, for a large number of languages, with a relatively large number of users. The key characteristics of these dictionaries and various cross-language distributions are expounded on. In a second section the first South African online dictionary interface is introduced. Although compiled by just a small number of scholars, this dictionary contains a world's first in that lexicographic customisation is implemented on various levels in real time on the Internet.
DEVELOPING AN ONLINE CORPUS OF FORMOSAN LANGUAGES
Li-May Sung,Lily I-wen Su,Fuhui Hsieh,Zhemin Lin
Taiwan Journal of Linguistics , 2008,
Abstract: Information technologies have now matured to the point of enabling researchers to create a repository of language resources, especially for those languages facing the crisis of endangerment. The development of an online platform of corpora, made possible by recent advances in data storage, character-encoding and web technology, has profound consequences for the accessibility, quantity, quality and interoperability of linguistic field data. This is of particular significance for Formosan languages in Taiwan, many of which are on the verge of extinction. As a response to the recognition of this burgeoning problem, the key objectives of the establishment of the NTU Corpus of Formosan Languages aim to document and thus preserve valuable linguistic data, as well as relevant ethnological and cultural information. This paper will introduce some of the theoretical bases behind this initiative, as well as the procedures, transcription conventions, database normalization, in-house system and three special features in the creation of this corpus.
Impacto de la ansiedad social, las habilidades sociales y la cibervictimización en la comunicación online (Impact of Social Anxiety, Social Skills and Cyberbullying on Online Communication)  [PDF]
Raúl Navarro,Santiago Yubero
Escritos de Psicología , 2012,
Abstract: The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812). In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items related to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were measured using the Matson Questionnaire subscale and cyberbullying using the Victimization Scale via Internet. The results show that the group with high social skills and low levels of anxiety spend more time communicating online and use instant messages to talk to friends. In contrast, the online behaviour of the group with high levels of anxiety and low social skills are more motivated to communicate online by their desire to make new friends. Cybervictims spend more time online, use chat rooms and communicate more with strangers than those who do not suffer cyberbullying. These findings suggest that the Internet offers opportunities to maintain and extend social networks but also exposes young people to online risks.
Online Dictionaries on the Internet: An Overview for the African Languages  [cached]
Gilles-Maurice de Schryver
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/13--719
Abstract: : The main purpose of this research article is rather bold, in that an attempt is made at a comprehensive overview of all currently available African-language Internet dictionaries. Quite surprisingly, a substantial number of such dictionaries is already available, for a large number of languages, with a relatively large number of users. The key characteristics of these dictionaries and various cross-language distributions are expounded on. In a second section the first South African online dictionary interface is introduced. Although compiled by just a small number of scholars, this dictionary contains a world's first in that lexicographic customisation is implemented on various levels in real time on the Internet. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, TERMINOLOGY, DICTIONARIES, INTERNET, ONLINE, LOOK-UP MODE, BROWSE MODE, AFRICAN LANGUAGES, SESOTHO SA LEBOA, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, FUZZY SF, CUSTOMISATION Senaganwa: Dipukunt u t a online t e di lego mo Inthaneteng: Ponokakaret oya maleme a Afrika. Morero wo mogolo wa taodi wana ye ya nyaki i o ke wo otiilego ka ge teko e dirilwe ka tebelelo ya kakaret o ye e tlet ego go dipukunt u ka moka t a Inthanetet eo di et ego di le gona mo malemeng a Afrika. Sa go makat a ke gore go et e go na le paloye nt i ya dipukunt u t e bjalo mo malemeng a mant i gape di na le badiri i ba bant i. Go hlalo wadipharologant ho t e bohlokwa t a dipukunt u t e le ka moo diphatlalat o di dirwago ka gonagare ga maleme a mant i a go fapana. Mo karolong ya bobedi go tsebi wa pukunt u ya online ye elego ya pele gape e lego ya makgonthe ya Afrika Borwa. Le ge e le gore pukunt u ye e hlamilwe kedirutegi di se kae, e et e e t ea sefoka lefaseng ka bophara. Se ke ka lebaka la gore pukunt u ye edirilwe ka tsela yeo e lego gore dilo di ka beakanywa gore di it welet e ka bot ona gomme t alokela batho ka moka bao ba e diri ago mo Inthaneteng ka yona nako yeo. Mant u a bohlokwa: TLHAMO YA DIPUKUNT U, TLHAMO YA MAREO, DIPUKUNT U,INTHANETE, ONLINE, MOKGWA WA GO NYAKA, MOKGWA WA GO LEKOLA,MALEME A AFRIKA, SESOTHO SA LEBOA, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, FUZZY SF, GOBEAKANYA DILO GORE DI BE KA MOKGWA WO O LEGO GORE O TLA GO LOKELA
The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and English Achievement of Y ld z Technical University School of Foreign Languages Preparatory Students
Didar Zeynep BATUMLU,Münire ERDEN
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education , 2007,
Abstract: The goal of this study was to determine the relation between foreign language anxiety and students’ English achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 150 A, B and C level students attending Y ld z Technical University, School of Foreign Languages, Basic English Department Prep Classes. The level of students’ foreign language anxiety was measured by ‘Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale’ developed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986). Students’ achievement level was determined by the average of their 1st and 2nd midterm grades. Pearson Correlation, t-test and ANOVA were used to test research problems. According to the findings of the study, it was found that while students’ initial foreign language anxiety didn’t vary according to their English level, their latter foreign language anxiety differed significantly for B and C level students. It was also found that neither students’ initial foreign language anxiety, nor their latter foreign language anxiety differed according to their gender. Study showed that for all levels of students, there was a significant negative relationship between students’ foreign language anxiety and their English achievement at the significance level of 0.45. Finally, it was found that B and C level students’ foreign language anxiety differs in successful and unsuccessful students. Unsuccessful students’ foreign language anxiety was higher than successful students.
Racial Exclusion in the Online World  [PDF]
Rebecca J. West,Bhoomi K. Thakore
Future Internet , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/fi5020251
Abstract: As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.
THE IMPACT OF LANGUAGES ON THE ONLINE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
MUSEANU ELENA,COANCA MARIANA
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: This paper deals with an analysis of the English language, as lingua franca of the Internet, mainly online business environment. If a business has already developed a Web site, it is important to translate the site into the target language of a particular foreign market. It sounds easy, but is a literal translation all that's required for a different culture? We shall see in the next parts of this paper. Indeed, nowadays, the whole humanity has at its disposal an exceptional, very powerful medium. The new communications technology is causing a revolution in many aspects of our lives, and its future effects are still unforeseeable English is an integral part of business communication, job opportunities and globalization. Cultural translation goes beyond mere linguistic translation, since it involves designing a Web site that is sensitive to the cultural differences, between the originated country and the target country. If you ask any search marketer what the main issue is when trying to optimize website(s) for Europe he will tell you: language.
The relationship between chronic whiplash-associated disorder and post-traumatic stress: attachment-anxiety may be a vulnerability factor
Tonny Elmose Andersen,Ask Elklit,Lene Vase
European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5633
Abstract: Background: In more than 90% of whiplash accidents a good explanation regarding the association between trauma mechanism, organic pathology, and persistent symptoms has failed to be provided. Objective: We predicted that the severity of chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), measured as number of whiplash symptoms, pain duration, pain-related disability, and degree of somatisation would be associated with the number of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD). Secondly, we expected attachment-anxiety to be a vulnerability factor in relation to both PTSD and WAD. Design: Data were collected from 1,349 women and 360 men suffering from WAD from the Danish Society for Polio, Traffic, and Accident Victims. The PTSD symptoms were measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. All three core PTSD clusters were included: re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Attachment security was measured along the two dimensions, attachment-anxiety and attachment-avoidance, by the Revised Adult Attachment Scale. Results: PTSD symptoms were significantly related to the severity of WAD. In particular, the PTSD clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal were associated with the number of whiplash symptoms, disability, and somatisation. Attachment-anxiety was significantly related to PTSD symptoms and somatisation but not to pain and disability. A co-morbidity of 38.8% was found between the PTSD diagnosis and WAD, and about 20% of the sample could be characterised as securely attached. Conclusions: The PTSD clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal were significantly associated with severity of WAD. The study emphasises the importance of assessing PTSD symptomatology after whiplash injury. Furthermore, it highlights that attachment theory may facilitate the understanding of why some people are more prone to develop PTSD and WAD than others.For abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online
Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach
Cherie Armour,Ask Elklit,Mark Shevlin
European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.6018
Abstract: Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post whiplash trauma.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online
Model of World; her cities, languages and countries  [PDF]
Caglar Tuncay
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1142/S0129183108012261
Abstract: The time evolution of Earth with her cities, languages and countries is considered in terms of the multiplicative noise and the fragmentation- processes, where the related families, size distributions, lifetimes, bilinguals, etc. are studied. Earlier we treated the cities and the languages differently (and as connected; languages split since cities split, etc.). Hence, two dis- tributions are obtained in the same computation at the same time. The same approach is followed here and Pareto-Zipf law for the distribution of the cities, log-normal for the languages, decreasing exponential for the city families (countries) in the rank order over population, and power law -2 for the language families over the number of languages in rank order are obtained theoretically in this combination for the first time (up to our knowledge) in the literature; all of which are in good agreement with the present empirical data.
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