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Quality Characteristics of Gari as Affected by Preferment Liquor, Temperature and Duration of Fermentation  [PDF]
C.I. Owuamanam,C.C. Ogueke,S.C. Achinewhu,I.S. Barimalaa
American Journal of Food Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of preferment liquor, temperature and duration of fermentation on the cyanide content as well as the functional and sensory properties of gari were studied. Cassava roots (local cassava variety) were peeled washed and grated and immediately seeded with 3-day spent liquor concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% (m/v)) in thoroughly washed plastic containers. These were kept in ambient environment (±30°C) to ferment; samples were with drawn at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h intervals and processed into gari. The processes were repeated for controlled fermentation at 35 and 40°C using a water bath. The samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, residual cyanide and sensory evaluation (taste, appearance and general acceptability). The results show that increasing concentration of spent liquor significantly lowered residual cyanide, decreased pH and increased the titratable acid. The addition of preferment reduced the HCN concentration to 9.92 mg HCN kg-1 for 15.0% and 8.36 mg HCN kg-1 for 20.0% samples. Similarly, 15% preferment liquor, gave the highest swelling index-26.19 when, fermented at 30°C. However, the value decreased to 23.12 and 22.71 when fermented at 35 and 40°C. The sample fermented at 5.0% gave the best performance (0.6047 g cm-3) for the bulk density. The sample from 5.0% preferment treatment also gave the best performance in terms of appearance (6.0), taste (6.1) and general acceptability (6.1). The titratable acidity increased with increase in preferment concentration. Moreover, limiting the spent liquor to 5.0%, temperature, at 35°C and duration of fermentation, at 48 h gave best performance for functional and sensory qualities and also guarantees food safety.
An Integrated ISFET Sensor Array  [PDF]
Kazuo Nakazato
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91108831
Abstract: A monolithically integrated ISFET sensor array and interface circuit are described. A new high-density, low-power source-drain follower was developed for the sensor array. ISFETs were formed by depositing Au/Ti extended-gate electrodes on standard MOSFETs, then thin silicon nitride layers using catalytic chemical vapor deposition and/or SU-8 protective layers were formed on the extended-gate electrodes. Applications for the array include: (1) pH detection by statistical distribution observing time and space fluctuations; (2) DNA detection using thiol-modified or silane-coupled oligonucleotides; (3) bio-image sensing by converting photons to electrons using Photosystem I of Thermosynechococcus elongatus, and sensing the converted electric charges by ISFETs.
Visible Genotype Sensor Array  [PDF]
Yuichi Michikawa,Tomo Suga,Yoshimi Ohtsuka,Izumi Matsumoto,Atsuko Ishikawa,Kenichi Ishikawa,Mayumi Iwakawa,Takashi Imai
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8042722
Abstract: A visible sensor array system for simultaneous multiple SNP genotyping has been developed using a new plastic base with specific surface chemistry. Discrimination of SNP alleles is carried out by an allele-specific extension reaction using immobilized oligonucleotide primers. The 3’-ends of oligonucleotide primers are modified with a locked nucleic acid to enhance their efficiency in allelic discrimination. Biotin-dUTPs included in the reaction mixture are selectively incorporated into extending primer sequences and are utilized as tags for alkaline phosphatase-mediated precipitation of colored chemical substrates onto the surface of the plastic base. The visible precipitates allow immediate inspection of typing results by the naked eye and easy recording by a digital camera equipped on a commercial mobile phone. Up to four individuals can be analyzed on a single sensor array and multiple sensor arrays can be handled in a single operation. All of the reactions can be performed within one hour using conventional laboratory instruments. This visible genotype sensor array is suitable for “focused genomics” that follows “comprehensive genomics”.
Visible Genotype Sensor Array
Yuichi Michikawa,Tomo Suga,Yoshimi Ohtsuka,Izumi Matsumoto
Sensors , 2008,
Abstract: A visible sensor array system for simultaneous multiple SNP genotyping has been developed using a new plastic base with specific surface chemistry. Discrimination of SNP alleles is carried out by an allele-specific extension reaction using immobilized oligonucleotide primers. The 3 ¢ € -ends of oligonucleotide primers are modified with a locked nucleic acid to enhance their efficiency in allelic discrimination. Biotin-dUTPs included in the reaction mixture are selectively incorporated into extending primer sequences and are utilized as tags for alkaline phosphatase-mediated precipitation of colored chemical substrates onto the surface of the plastic base. The visible precipitates allow immediate inspection of typing results by the naked eye and easy recording by a digital camera equipped on a commercial mobile phone. Up to four individuals can be analyzed on a single sensor array and multiple sensor arrays can be handled in a single operation. All of the reactions can be performed within one hour using conventional laboratory instruments. This visible genotype sensor array is suitable for ¢ € focused genomics ¢ € that follows ¢ € comprehensive genomics ¢ € .
Analysis of microorganisms and physicochemical properties in Zaopei during the fermentation of Chinese zhijiang-flavor liquor
M Chen, D Yang, Z Qian, D Zhen, D Peng, S Fang
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Zhijiang-flavor liquor, one of the most famous strong aroma style of Chinese liquor, is distilled from fermented grains in Hubei province of China. In order to know the diversity, the constitution, and the dynamic change of microflora and physicochemical components in Zaopei during the fermentation of Chinese Zhijiang-flavor liquor, a normal pit in Zhijiang Distillery in autumn (used as experimental pit) was studied. The analysis and comparison of microorganisms in Zaopei during the fermentation process showed that the microbial genera changed with increasing fermentation time. Knowledge of the microbial diversity provides a basis for understanding the role and the contribution of microbes in the liquor-production process. More than 200 colonies were isolated and characterized. The isolates were discriminated by phenotypic, conventional biochemical taxonomic methods and bioMerieux Vitek- 32. The presence of bacteria, moulds, yeasts and antinomycetes were revealed. The results showed that bacteria, yeasts, moulds and antinomycetes counts increased significantly during the first 4 days of the fermentation, and the latter three decreased sharply in the following 3 days; the total microbial population decreased gradually during the 7 and 24 days; the proportion of bacillus to aerobiotic bacteria had a rise after 24 days fermentation. In this study, 5 bacillus isolates were identified with species by VITEK-32 system. The 5 bacillus isolates were Bacillus cereus group, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus pumilus.
Effect of ruminant species (bovine vs buffalo) and source of inoculum (rumen liquor vs faeces) on in vitro fermentation  [cached]
M. I. Cutrignelli,S. D'Urso,R. Tudisco,M. Grossi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.295
Abstract: The role of inoculum (rumen liquor - RL vs faeces - FA) from cow or buffalo with respect to feed evaluation using in vitro gas systems was estimated in a trial using 8 substrates. The substrate influenced significantly all fermentation characteristics; with each inoculum the substrates were ranked according the same trends for organic matter digestibility (dOM) and cumulative gas volume per gram of OM incubated (OMCV). The animal species affected dOM and OMCV which were significantly higher in buffalo and cow, respectively. Buffalo showed significantly higher values of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total VFA, while isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acids were higher in cow. The inocula influenced the fermentation characteristics in both species: while in cow all parameters, except OMCV, were higher with FA than RL, in buffalo dOM, OMCV, acetic and total VFAs were higher with RL. The results confirmed the lower cellulolytic activity of FA micropopulation than RL one. All the data suggest that, while there may be scope for faeces to replace rumen fluid as inoculum for some end-point measures, is not possible to replace cow inocula to buffalo.
Deterministic Blind Beamforming for Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array
Xiaofei Zhang;Dazhuan Xu
PIER , 2008, DOI: 10.2528/PIER08080402
Abstract: Deterministic blind beamforming algorithms try to separate superpositions of source signals impinging on electromagnetic vector sensor array by using deterministic properties of the signals. This paper links electromagnetic-vector-sensor-array beamforming problem to the parallel factor (PARAFAC) model, which is an analysis tool rooted in psychometrics and chemometrics. Exploiting this link, it derives a deterministic blind beamforming algorithm. The blind beamforming algorithm doesn't require DOA (direction of arrival) information and polarization information. The simulation results reveal that the performance of the blind beamforming algorithm for electromagnetic vector sensor array is close to nonblind MMSE method, and this algorithm works well in array error condition.
Effect on the Synthesis of 1.3propanediol from Glycerol Fermentation Liquor with Ion-exchange Resin
两步发酵过程中有机酸对产1,3-丙二醇的影响

LU Ji-hong,ZHU Ge-bin,SHEN Wei,RAO Zhi-ming,FANG Hui-ying,ZHU Ge-jian,
吕吉鸿
,诸葛斌,沈微,饶志明,方慧英,诸葛健

中国生物工程杂志 , 2007,
Abstract: Effect of organic acids on the synthesis of 1,3 propanediol was studied.The adsorption of organic acids from glycerol fermentation liquor by ion-exchange resins was investigated.The results showed that organic acid and 1,3 propanediol production was in negative relationship.The static adsorption showed that ion-exchange resin 005 had the best adsorption abilities of the organic acids in the glycerol fermentation liquor.It was showed that the yield of 1,3propanediol increased by 166% after the extraction of organic acids from glycerol fermentation liquor and the convertion rate increased by 34%.
Miniature Sensor Node with Conformal Phased Array
G. A. E. Vandenbosch,A. Vasylchenko,M. Fernandez-Bolanos,S. Brebels
Radioengineering , 2011,
Abstract: This paper reports on the design and fabrication of a fully integrated antenna beam steering concept for wireless sensor nodes. The conformal array circumcises four cube faces with a silicon core mounted on each face. Every silicon core represents a 2 by 1 antenna array with an antenna element consisting of a dipole antenna, a balun, and a distributed MEMS phase shifter. All these components are based on a single wafer process and designed to work at 17.2 GHz. Simulations of the entire system and first results of individual devices are reported.
An Amperometric Sensor for Sunset Yellow FCF Detection Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole  [PDF]
Jinfeng Xu, Yi Zhang, Hao Zhou, Mingwei Wang, Peidong Xu, Juankun Zhang
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B041
Abstract:
An electrochemical method for fast detecting the concentration of sunset yellow FCF in wine samples was developed in this study. The sensor based on imprinted films which fabricated by electropolymerization of pyrrole on a glassy carbon electrode in the presence of sunset yellow FCF as the template. Comparing to the polypyrrole non-imprinted modified (NIP) electrode, the polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) electrode improved the electrochemical performance of the sensor significantly. The peak current at about 0.26 V was linear with the concentration of sunset yellow FCF from 0.4 to 2 μM and from 2 to 8 μM. It can be used for more than 10 times to maintain a stable response result. The sensor had the good selectivity on sunset yellow FCF, amaranth and tartrazine, which the selection factors were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.85respectively.
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