Abstract:
Land subsidence can have a considerable impact on the socio-economic viability of areas. In urban areas, land subsidence tends to damage buildings and infrastructures gradually, while in rural peat land it slowly destroys vegetation. The damages will worsen since climate change has further implications for the areas affected by land subsidence. In Indonesia, the response to land subsidence varies in different areas in terms of awareness, urgency and action on the part of both public authorities and land users. This paper systematically investigates these varied responses in urban and rural peat land areas. Interviews with experts and surveys of 330 land users in selected sub-districts were conducted and further supplemented by focus group discussions. We found that both the public authorities as well as the land users’ responses were considered as of limited value to contest land subsidence. We suggest that the endorsement of land users’ response into governmental policies would make a significant difference in improving land subsidence management.

Abstract:
Background Disease transmission patterns are needed to inform public health interventions, but remain largely unknown for avian influenza H5N1 virus infections. A recent study on the 139 outbreaks detected in Indonesia between 2005 and 2009 found that the type of exposure to sources of H5N1 virus for both the index case and their household members impacted the risk of additional cases in the household. This study describes the disease transmission patterns in those outbreak households. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared cases (n = 177) and contacts (n = 496) in the 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks detected between July 2005 and July 2009 to estimate attack rates and disease intervals. We used final size household models to fit transmission parameters to data on household size, cases and blood-related household contacts to assess the relative contribution of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission of the virus, as well as the reproduction number for human virus transmission. The overall household attack rate was 18.3% and secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable as household size increased. The mean interval between onset of subsequent cases in outbreaks was 5.6 days. The transmission model found that human transmission was very rare, with a reproduction number between 0.1 and 0.25, and the upper confidence bounds below 0.4. Transmission model fit was best when the denominator population was restricted to blood-related household contacts of index cases. Conclusions/Significance The study only found strong support for human transmission of the virus when a single large cluster was included in the transmission model. The reproduction number was well below the threshold for sustained transmission. This study provides baseline information on the transmission dynamics for the current zoonotic virus and can be used to detect and define signatures of a virus with increasing capacity for human-to-human transmission.

Abstract:
We consider classical and quantum dynamics on potentials that are asymptotically unbounded from below. By explicit construction we find that quantum bound states can exist in certain bottomless potentials. The classical dynamics in these potentials is novel. Only a set of zero measure of classical trajectories can escape to infinity. All other trajectories get trapped as they get further out into the asymptotic region.

Abstract:
The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP) is more than 40% (2003). However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1) How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2) How many households are credit constrained? (3) What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4) How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not credit constrained. Most households are credit constrained due to lack collateral and because of the self-selection problem.The econometric analysis consists of two parts. The first part explores the determinants for a household to be credit constrained, focusing on the formal credit market by using Probit model. In the second part of the analysis, we investigate the influence of being credit constrained on the rice production by applying a switching regression model. The results of the probit model show that human capital (i.e. education and age of the head of households) as well as wealth and risk-bearing indicators are significant in determining whether household is credit constrained.

Abstract:
The understanding of poverty dynamics is crucial for the design of appropriate poverty reduction strategies. Taking the case of Central Sulawesi, we investigate the determinants of both chronic and transitory poverty using data from 264 randomly selected households interviewed in 2005 and 2007. Regarding the US 1$/day poverty line, the headcount index declined from 19.3% in 2005 to 18.2% in 2007. However, we observed an increasing number of people living on less than US 2$/day expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP). The results of the estimated multinomial logit model applied in this study indicate that a lack of non-agricultural employment opportunities and low endowment of social capital are major determinants of chronic as well as transitory poverty in this province of Indonesia. These results are used to draw policy conclusions with respect to the alleviation of transitory and chronic poverty in Central Sulawesi.

Household energy consumption is strongly influenced by culture. Therefore, the study of the influence of culture on energy consumption is important for designing the most suitable energy conservation policy to increase society’s adaptation to policy. The present paper has the following aims: 1) to analyze and compare decision-making in the use of electrical appliances; and 2) to compile a strategy to improve the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances and the wise use of electricity in Indonesia to optimize households’ energy conservation. All aims are in the framework analysis of the different cultural backgrounds and ethnicities represented by two cities—Yogyakarta and Bandung. The finding indicates that people in Yogyakarta show greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than people in Bandung. Therefore, the awareness rate of energy consumed by appliances and energy efficiency of appliances is significantly higher in Yogyakarta. This study shows the integration of intervention strategy in the purchase and use of electrical appliances with regard to the consumers’ decision and behaviors within a framework of the local culture to manage electricity consumption in the household sector.

Abstract:
We prove lower and upper bounds for the chromatic number of certain hypergraphs defined by geometric regions. This problem has close relations to conflict-free colorings. One of the most interesting type of regions to consider for this problem is that of the axis-parallel rectangles. We completely solve the problem for a special case of them, for bottomless rectangles. We also give an almost complete answer for half-planes and pose several open problems. Moreover we give efficient coloring algorithms.

Abstract:
By making use of the Langevin equation with a kernel, it was shown that the Feynman measure exp(-S) can be realized in a restricted sense in a diffusive stochastic process, which diverges and has no equilibrium, for bottomless systems. In this paper, the dependence on the initial conditions and the temporal behavior are analyzed for 0-dim bottomless systems. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to find stationary quantities.

Abstract:
A new Langevin equation with a field-dependent kernel is proposed to deal with bottomless systems within the framework of the stochastic quantization of Parisi and Wu. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is shown to be a diffusion-type equation and is solved analytically. An interesting connection between the solution with the ordinary Feynman measure, which in this case is not normalizable, is clarified.

Abstract:
We consider a coloring problem on dynamic, one-dimensional point sets: points appearing and disappearing on a line at given times. We wish to color them with k colors so that at any time, any sequence of p(k) consecutive points, for some function p, contains at least one point of each color. We prove that no such function p(k) exists in general. However, in the restricted case in which points appear gradually, but never disappear, we give a coloring algorithm guaranteeing the property at any time with p(k)=3k-2. This can be interpreted as coloring point sets in R^2 with k colors such that any bottomless rectangle containing at least 3k-2 points contains at least one point of each color. Here a bottomless rectangle is an axis-aligned rectangle whose bottom edge is below the lowest point of the set. For this problem, we also prove a lower bound p(k)>ck, where c>1.67. Hence for every k there exists a point set, every k-coloring of which is such that there exists a bottomless rectangle containing ck points and missing at least one of the k colors. Chen et al. (2009) proved that no such function $p(k)$ exists in the case of general axis-aligned rectangles. Our result also complements recent results from Keszegh and Palvolgyi on cover-decomposability of octants (2011, 2012).