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RP-HPLC测定theacrine的血药浓度  [PDF]
张维库,续洁琨,胡界晴,王夙博,李平,栗原博,姚新生,唐炳华
中国中药杂志 , 2013,
Abstract: 目的:测定theacrine灌胃后在大鼠血浆中的血药浓度。方法:采用RP-HPLC检测血浆样品,以咖啡因为内标。色谱柱为PhenomenexLunaC18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),甲醇-水(25:75)为流动相,流速为1.0mL·min-1,检测波长为290nm,柱温为25℃。结果:Theacrine血浆中质量浓度在0.5~100mg·L-1线性关系良好(R2=0.9989),最低定量限为0.5mg·L-1。在theacrine血浆质量浓度为0.5,5.0,50mg·L-1时,日内、日间精密度均小于15%,提取回收率分别为(95.8±8.6)%,(92.5±5.0)%,(90.3±5.2)%。当给药质量浓度为30mg·kg-1时,主要药动学参数为Cmax(35.45±2.68)mg·L-1,tmax(0.51±0.13)h,t1/2(3.13±1.37)h,AUC0-∞(265.39±94.71)mg·L-1·h。结论:经过系统的方法学考察,该研究所建立的测定方法灵敏度较高、重复性良好,可为theacrine在体内的代谢研究提供依据,为探讨theacrine作用机制及药效学评价奠定基础。
A TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO HERBAL NOOTROPIC AGENTS: AN OVERVIEW
Talha Jawaid et al.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Nootropic drugs used as a memory enhancer can improve thinking, memory, and alertness in people with Alzheimer’s disease and other disease that affect the mind. Memory is perhaps the most vital of all aspects that differentiates human beings from other animals. However, memory can become faulty due to several reasons, and in that case the person is not able to make full use of his or her potentials. Since ages, drugs and natural remedies have been prescribed to enhance memories in people. 4 million people are thought to be suffering from age related memory and increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Although several nootropic drugs are available to treat memory problems. In recent years research on medicinal plants have been studied for nootropic activity. Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), Evolvulus alsinoides (Shankhpushpi), Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Acorus calamus (Bach) etc., are used as a memory enhancer drugs. The abstract refers to several plants with their activity. The main aim of this article is to give up the data reviews on plants with nootropic properties.
Effectiveness of nootropic drugs with cholinergic activity in treatment of cognitive deficit: a review
Colucci L, Bosco M, Ziello AR, Rea R, Amenta F, Fasanaro AM
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S35326
Abstract: tiveness of nootropic drugs with cholinergic activity in treatment of cognitive deficit: a review Review (1213) Total Article Views Authors: Colucci L, Bosco M, Ziello AR, Rea R, Amenta F, Fasanaro AM Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 163 - 172 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S35326 Received: 25 June 2012 Accepted: 26 August 2012 Published: 12 December 2012 Luisa Colucci,1,2 Massimiliano Bosco,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,1,2 Raffaele Rea,1,2 Francesco Amenta,1 Angiola Maria Fasanaro2 1Centro di Ricerche Cliniche, Telemedicina e Telefarmacia, Università di Camerino, Camerino, 2Unità Valutazione Alzheimer, Naples, Italy Abstract: Nootropics represent probably the first “smart drugs” used for the treatment of cognitive deficits. The aim of this paper is to verify, by a systematic analysis of the literature, the effectiveness of nootropics in this indication. The analysis was limited to nootropics with cholinergic activity, in view of the role played by acetylcholine in learning and memory. Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter identified in the history of neuroscience and is the main neurotransmitter of the peripheral, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the 5-year period 2006–2011. From the data reported in the literature, it emerges that nootropics may be an effective alternative for strengthening and enhancing cognitive performance in patients with a range of pathologies. Although nootropics, and specifically the cholinergic precursors, already have a long history behind them, according to recent renewal of interest, they still seem to have a significant therapeutic role. Drugs with regulatory indications for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, often have transient effects in dementia disorders. Nootropics with a cholinergic profile and documented clinical effectiveness in combination with cognate drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors or alone in patients who are not suitable for these inhibitors should be taken into account and evaluated further.
EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Ladde Shivakumar,Gouda Shivaraj T,N Venkat Rao,Shalam
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation tested on Actophotometer. In case of passive avoidance paradigm all dose of polyherbal formulation have shown an increased step-down latency (SDL), decreased time spent in shock zone and no of errors. SR-105 also reverse sodium nitrite induced amnesia and decreases lithium induced head twitches. In the present study. Polyherbal formulation SR-105, showed elevation of acetylcholine level by significant reduction of cholinesterase activity in rat’s brain and ultimately improved memory. In the light of above, it may be worthwhile to explore the potential of this formulation in the management of Alzheimer patients.
Nootropic Activity of Caralluma fimbriata Extract in Mice  [PDF]
Ramaswamy Rajendran, Digambar Balkrishna Ambikar, Rakesh Arun Khandare, Vrushali Dattatraya Sannapuri, Niraj Sudhakar Vyawahare, Paul Clayton
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.52019
Abstract:

We investigated the effects of a standardized extract of Caralluma fimbriata Wall (CFE) on learning and memory in mice using various behavioural models. Unusually, CFE exerts both nootropic and anxiolytic effects.

MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITIES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LEAVES IN RODENTS  [PDF]
Wangkhem Bandana Devi,Sengottuvelu S.,Haja Shrief S.,Lalitha V.
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Ficus religiosa, a sacred tree to both Hindus and Buddhists, is recognized for its medicinal as well as religious purposes in India. The ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Ficus religiosa was studied for memory enhancing activities in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice. The present study was carried out on five models such as Elevated-Plus Maze, Step through passive avoidance test, Sodium nitrite intoxication, Hebb-Williams Maze and Radial Arm Maze to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p) was used as inducing agent in Elevated-plus maze, Step through passive avoidance test and sodium nitrite (95mg/kg, s.c) was used as inducing agent in Sodium nitrite intoxication model. Piracetam (200mg/kg, i.p) was used as standard nootropic agent for all the models except for Sodium nitrite intoxication; Mentat was used as positive control for Sodium nitrite intoxication model. The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa leaves significantly improved memory and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine and hypoxia induced by sodium nitrite. The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa leaves (100 mg/kg) was comparable to that of piracetam (200 mg/kg) and Mentat (100mg/kg). From the results of the present study it is concluded that the leaf extract of Ficus religiosa might possess anti-amnesic as well as nootropic properties. Also the major active constituents present in its leaves such as amino acids may be responsible for these activities.
Supplement use in sport: is there a potentially dangerous incongruence between rationale and practice?
Andrea Petróczi, Declan P Naughton
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-2-4
Abstract: A frequent divergence between the type of supplements chosen by athletes and the rationale dictating the supplement use is hypothesized. Thus, a potentially dangerous incongruence may exist between rationale and practice.In the continued absence of reliable data on supplement use, an alternative approach of studying the reasons underlying supplement use in athletes is proposed to determine whether there is an incongruence between rationale and practice. Existing data from large scale national surveys can be used to investigate this incongruence.In this report, analyses of distinctive patterns between the use and rationale for use of supplements among athletes are recommended to explore this potentially dangerous phenomenon.'Supplement' is an overarching name for vitamins, minerals, herbal remedies, traditional Asian remedies, amino acids and other substances to be taken orally. They may also be referred to as dietary, food or nutritional supplements or ergogenic aids (supplements purported to improve athletic performance) and are typically sold in the form of tablets, capsules, soft gels, liquids, powders, and bars. In the UK, most supplements are regulated as foods and subject to the general provisions of the Food Safety Act 1990, the Food Labelling Regulations 1996 and the Trade Descriptions Act 1968. Supplements are not required to exhibit efficacy before marketing, nor are they subject to prior approval unless they are genetically modified or claimed to be new. Medicinal claims on packaging or in an advertisement for a supplement, however, are prohibited.Widespread debate has accompanied the introduction of new legislation on the use of dietary supplements within the EU. Comprehension of detailed studies, ranging from quantities and patterns of use to side-effects of supplement consumption, has been impeded by variations in terminology and practice amongst countries and user groups. Some thirty thousand supplements are commercially-available in the USA [1] with
Effectiveness of nootropic drugs with cholinergic activity in treatment of cognitive deficit: a review
Colucci L,Bosco M,Ziello AR,Rea R
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Luisa Colucci,1,2 Massimiliano Bosco,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,1,2 Raffaele Rea,1,2 Francesco Amenta,1 Angiola Maria Fasanaro21Centro di Ricerche Cliniche, Telemedicina e Telefarmacia, Università di Camerino, Camerino, 2Unità Valutazione Alzheimer, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Nootropics represent probably the first “smart drugs” used for the treatment of cognitive deficits. The aim of this paper is to verify, by a systematic analysis of the literature, the effectiveness of nootropics in this indication. The analysis was limited to nootropics with cholinergic activity, in view of the role played by acetylcholine in learning and memory. Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter identified in the history of neuroscience and is the main neurotransmitter of the peripheral, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the 5-year period 2006–2011. From the data reported in the literature, it emerges that nootropics may be an effective alternative for strengthening and enhancing cognitive performance in patients with a range of pathologies. Although nootropics, and specifically the cholinergic precursors, already have a long history behind them, according to recent renewal of interest, they still seem to have a significant therapeutic role. Drugs with regulatory indications for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, often have transient effects in dementia disorders. Nootropics with a cholinergic profile and documented clinical effectiveness in combination with cognate drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors or alone in patients who are not suitable for these inhibitors should be taken into account and evaluated further.Keywords: cholinergic nootropics, cognitive function, dementia
SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES  [cached]
Jill Anne McDowall
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices
Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model
Satyanarayana Sreemantula, Srinivas Nammi, Rajabhanu Kolanukonda, Sushruta Koppula, Krishna M Boini
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-5-1
Abstract: For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals.Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner.The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and seeds in stress induced disorders.Stress can be described as the sum total of all the reactions of the body, which disturb the normal physiological condition and result in a state of threatened homeostasis. Stress is an internationally recognized phenomenon fortified by advancement of industrialization in a demanding civilization. Thus, every individual is likely to face stressful situations in day-to-day life. Stress represents a reaction
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