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Combat Sports Injuries in Well-Trained Athletes during African Games 2015 in Brazzaville, Congo  [PDF]
Massamba Miabaou Didace, Moulongo Jean Georges André, K.M.A. Victoire, M. C. S. I. Justy, Massamba Alphonse
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.73022
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and distribution of combat sports injuries during African Games 2015. A retrospective study was?conducted from November 2016 to February 2017, including all adult patients?aged?consulted by doctor during combat or admitted to emergency medical sport?unit of complex sporting of these Games. The data collected were sex,?time and day of consulting or admission, injury risk, types, location and?causes of injuries. During these African Games, an average injury frequency of about 78.6% has been observed. Contusions (n = 104), sprains and luxations (n = 43), fractures?(n = 40) and wounds (n = 12) were the main injuries observed among 187?athletes. The lower extremities were more frequently affected than the upper extremities (150 cases versus 78 cases). In conclusion, the present study provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics injuries in combat sports. Injuries are different according to sport in their mechanisms and injury distribution. During African competition and training session, the evaluation and prevention of these factors could decrease the occurrence of such injuries.
Occupational Injuries Admitted to the Emergency Department  [cached]
Bekir Da?l?,Mustafa Serinken
Journal of Academic Emergency Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: In trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency services, occupational accidents have a significant place because of the social problems and high costs effects.Materials and Methods: This 18-month period study on patients who were admitted to the Emergency Services in Pamukkale University Hospital were evaluated prospectively.Results: During the study 538 occupational accident cases appliedand these cases composed 1.6% of applications to emergency services. The frequency of accidents in the age group 25-34 in male workers was determined and the maximum occurs between 08:00-10:00 hours, Monday (21.0%) and Saturday (17.8) was determined to increase the frequency. The most commonly physically affectedarea was the upper extremity (hand and fingers 65.3%) injuries, and cutting, penetrating and abrasion types injuries were most commonly determined Both workers and the workplace source were noted as reasons for the occupational accidents (62.5%), workers are sourced due to negligence, while the workplace was the source due to not providing protective measures in the first place. Conclusion: Most of the injuries associated with occupational accidents result in presentation to Emergency Departments. The data in Emergency Departments may help reveal details of occupational injuries and prevent workplace-related accidents.
School Delay of Child in Brazzaville (Congo)  [PDF]
Jean Robert Mabiala-Babela, Steve Vassili Missambou Mandilou, Evrard Romaric Nika, Georges Marius Moyen
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.73041
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of school delay in school age children and to identify its determinants in Brazzaville. A case-control study, comparing school age children with a school delay (Group 1 or cases) to those who had not school delay (Group 2 or control), was carried out between February and July 2013. It included students of CM2 (primary 6) and those of 3ème (form 4) of both public and private schools of Brazzaville. The sample selection was made according to a random survey by strata, the number of strata was set to 2. The sample consisted of 2064 pupils including 1138 girls (55.1%). A total of 2064 students (1138 male/926 female), 792 of them had a school delay, with a prevalence of 38.3%. It was 27% in the private sector and 46.9% in the public one; 28.2% in primary education compared to 48.1% in the college; 27.8% in girls and 48.8% in boys (p < 0.001). 21.4% of students in CM2 (primary 6) of the public and 16.7% in the private sector had repeated classes 3 times; 4.2% of students in 3ème (form 4) of the public education had repeated classes 4 times. Kindergarten program attendance had a positive effect on later school performances (p < 0.05). The parent’s level of education and socio-economic status of the family (low and mean for students in CM2 of public schools and of 3ème of private schools, high for pupils in CM2 of private schools) and underweight among pupils in CM2 of the private sector were significantly correlated with school delay (p < 0.05). The prevalence of school delay was high in Brazzaville (38.3%), boys were more affected than girls. The kindergarten program attendance was found to have a positive effect on later school performances, while parent’s low level of education and low socioeconomic status of the family significantly influenced the rate of school delay in children in Brazzaville. The high prevalence of school delay in child in Brazzaville imposed substantial actions, in addition to the efforts already made.
Survey of Analgesic Plants Used by Tradipractitioners in Congo Brazzaville  [PDF]
J.T. Banzouzi,M.C. Makambila Koubemba,A. Prost,B. Mbatchi
International Journal of Botany , 2008,
Abstract: A series of semi-structured interviews with traditional practitioners from the South of Congo Brazzaville allowed us to gather the names of 200 plants entering traditional preparations against pain. Some were already well studied for their analgesic and/or psychotropic properties but others were very little documented. We selected 51 plants, belonging to 32 families, which seemed promising but had not yet been studied in laboratory. For each plant, we collected the following data: used plant parts, modes of preparation and administration, as well as indications relating to the treatment when they were available. Around 150 traditional recipes were thus recorded. In analgesic as well as in psychotropic preparations, leaves are the most used part (43 and 40% of citations, respectively), followed by roots or root bark (17-13%), aerial part (11-6%), stem and trunk bark (20-11%). Decoction is the major mode of preparation and in most cases the preparation is drunk or applied locally (friction, massage). As a rule, plants used, dosage and length of the treatment shall vary depending to age, sex and general health condition of the patient. Self-medication can thus be very dangerous, all the more because some of the plants we studied are easily bought in the market places of Brazzaville or Pointe Noire.
Determinants of Entrepreneurship Success: An Examination of Chinese-Owned Businesses in Congo Brazzaville  [PDF]
Edwige Kamitewoko
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.23018
Abstract: The determinants of Chinese entrepreneurship Success are widely studied in the economic literature in recent twenty years. However, in the case of Congo Brazzaville where immigrant entrepreneurship takes an important proportion in workforce, it remains an under researched area. By using the data from the Prospective Research Center Studies Survey questionnaire, this paper aims to provide clearer insights into this area.The study is based on Brazzaville which is the capital of Congo, a sensitive center of commerce and a nucleus of entrepreneurship activities; it identified the foundation factors that enable Chinese entrepreneurs to success in their entrepreneurship in Congo Brazzaville. Two hundred respondents were sampled and their responses were modeled using the logistic regression. The findings show that key factors, such as: guanxi, education, experience in trade and finance experience play an important role to the success in their entrepreneurship.
Ingestion of Caustics by Children in Brazzaville (CONGO)  [PDF]
Lucie Charlotte Atipo-Ibara Ikobo Ollandzobo, Clausina Ahoui-Apendi, Jile Florient Mimiesse-Monamou, Jean Robert Mabiala Babela, Deby-Gassaye ?, Blaise Irénée Atipo Ibara, Jean-Rosaire Ibara
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.83029
Abstract: Ingestion of caustics by children is serious because of the increase in their frequency and the difficulties due to their management. Objective: To improve the management of caustic lesions in Pediatric Department at the University Hospital of Brazzaville. Patients and Methods: Prospective study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015 in the Pediatric Departments of the UHB and centers of digestive endoscopy in Brazzaville. All children who ingested a caustic product and hospitalized were included after obtaining parentals consent. The studied parameters were: Age, sex, nature and quantity of the caustic, the family’s attitude, clinical signs, endoscopic results according to Zagar’s classification, therapeutic modalities and evolution. Results: 8292 children were hospitalized and 68 because of the ingestion of caustic, a frequency of 0.8%. The average age was 23.6 months [2 months - 16 years]. The male sex was predominant (57.4%). Ingestion was accidental in 88.2% and voluntary in 11.8%. Factors favoring ingestion were storage methods (81.5%) and parental’s inattention or negligence (10.8%). Bleach was the most incriminated caustic (54.4%) followed by caustic soda (29.4%). The estimated quantity ingested was assumed to be minimal in 61.7%. Unsuitable acts were practiced by the family before the medical consultation in 66.1%. The dominant symptoms were digestive (47%) and neurological (25%). The average time to perform endoscopy was 48 hours in 88.2%. Endoscopy revealed lesions in 51.7%, the different stages were I (12 cases), II (16 cases) and III (3 cases). The mains factors of gravity were inappropriate gestures (85%) and the non-respect of the fasting (9%). Proton pump inhibitors were used in 50%. The evolution was favorable for in 73.5%. Conclusion: Ingestion of caustics by children is most often accidental favored by the inadequate packaging and storage. Prevention is
Anesthetic Practice in Neurosurgery at University Hospital of Brazzaville (Congo)  [PDF]
Marie Elombila, Hugues Brieux Ekouele Mbaki, Gilbert Fabrice Otiobanda, Gilles Niengo Outsouta
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2017.84010
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the anesthetic management of neurosurgical patients in University Hospital of Brazzaville. Materials and methods: We performed a transversal and descriptive study during the period from January to June 2015 into operating room of the University Hospital of Brazzaville. 60 cases of anesthesia have been analyzed. Results: The neurosurgery represented 2.88% of the activity of the operating room in University Hospital of Brazzaville. The average age was 44.7 ± 18.36 years old. The sex ratio was 1.07. The scheduled interventions have concerned 83.4% of cases. Surgical indications were concerned the spine degenerative disease and spinal trauma in 40% and 18.3% of cases respectively. The patients classified ASA I and II were most represented in 40% and 46.7% of cases respectively. General anesthesia was used in 98.4% of cases. The peroperative complications were represented by arterial hypotension (31.7%), hemorrhage (11.7%), bradycardia (5%), difficult intubation (3.3%) and one case of peroperative cardiac arrest. The blood transfusion rate was 18.7%. The stay in ICU concerned 8.3% of the cases. We recorded three cases (5%) of death in our series. Conclusion: The neuroanesthesia knows an evolution in our country because of increasing number of neurosurgeons; it’s necessary to train medical staff in her practice.
Characterisation of a Giant Lemon Grass Acclimatised in the Congo-Brazzaville
Loumouamou Aubin Nestor,E. Biassala; Th. Silou; P. Ntondele-Nsansi; J. Diamouangana; J.M. Nzikou; J.C. Chalchat and G. Figuérédo
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study to investigate the essential oil of the giant variety of lemon grass (Poaceae) obtained from farmers in Congo-Kinshasa and tested in Congo-Brazzaville. Chemical analysis, by GC and GCMS, of the essential oil from different parts of the plant, extracted at different stages of growth, revealed the very high stability of the citral chemotype (>80%); giving it the status of interesting species for the production of citral oil. However, it could not be identified to any of the oil-yielding grasses already described in the literature. Like Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf it produces an essential oil containing more than 80% citral, but displays morphological characteristics of vigorous grasses. The botanical description of the plant and the chemical composition of its oil identify it to Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud) Stapf.
Floristic diversity and structural parameters of the Brazzaville Patte d’Oie forest, Congo  [PDF]
Victor Kimpouni, Paul Mbou, Ernest Apani, Marcel Motom
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.38061

The flora of the Patte d’Oie forest of Brazzaville is studied according to three plots of 0.5 ha, corresponding each to one of the islet, currently constituting it. With an original area of 240 ha, put in reserve in 1938, the natural forest of the Patte d’Oie of Brazzaville covers 95 ha, less than 39% compared to initial area. Because the other main forests of Brazzaville have disappeared without delivering their biodiversity, this study is the first one which emphasizes the flora of this single ecosystem of Congo. The total floristic inventory revealed 459 trees of dbh≥10 cm on 1.5 ha; it is an average of 306 trees?ha?1. 31 species are listed for 17 families, and the best represented of which (Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae) have a diversity varying from 13% to 19% of the inventory and a tree number oscillating from 15% to 36%. The Shannon (H') biological diversity index of the three plots is of 2.6 on average, for a maximum diversity (H'max) average of 2.9 versus an average true diversity of 15. The Pielou index is on average 0.9, whereas that of Simpson is 0.9. The coefficients of similarity of Jaccard (41.4% to 57.1%) and of the coefficient of S?rensen (58.5% to 72.7%) show the variations in the floristic composition. The followed ecological parameters show that this ecosystem is very few diversified compared to the tropical wet dense forests on the one hand, and, on the other hand, a non constant floristic composition is not. The analysis of the diametric structure by plot and the dominant and/or characteristic species give erratic curves, evidence of an insufficiency of the regenerative potential. Indeed, approximately 70% of the species are characteristic of the disturbed ecosystems (Macaranga sp.,Caloncoba welwitschii,Hymenocardia ulmoides,and Anthocleista sp.).

Characterization of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil Variety Congo-Brazzaville
J.M. Nzikou,L. Matos,J.E. Moussounga,C.B. Ndangui,A. Kimbonguila,Th. Silou,M. Linder,S. Desobry
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The oil from Moringa oleifera seeds variety Congo-Brazzaville was extracted using two oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet) and extraction with a mixture of chloroform:methanol (1:1) (Blye and Dyer). The oils were compared of Moringa oleifera other countries. The oil concentration ranged from 38.5% (Soxlhet) to 40% (Blye and Dyer). The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry were determined. Moringa oleifera seeds have ash content of 4.2% (with the presence of following minerals: Ca, K, Na and Mg). The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 74.93%). The dominant saturated acids were palmitic (up to 6.44%) and behenic (up to 5.33%). Moringa oleifera seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (37.6%). The oil extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications.
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