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Research Status and Development Direction of Piezoelectric Wind Energy Harvesting Technology  [PDF]
Hongbing Wang, Chunhua Sun
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.73001
Abstract: In recent years, with the rapid development of large-scale distributed wireless sensor systems and micro-power devices, the disadvantages of traditional chemical battery power supply mode are becoming more and more obvious. Piezoelectric energy collector has attracted wide attention because of its simple structure, no heating, no electromagnetic interference, environmental protection and easy miniaturization. Wind energy is a reproducible resource. Wind energy harvester based on piezoelectric intelligent material can be named piezoelectric wind energy harvesting which converts wind energy into electric power and will have great application prospect. To promote the development of piezoelectric wind energy harvesting technology, research statuses on piezoelectric wind energy harvesting technology are reviewed. The existing problem and development direction about piezoelectric wind energy harvester in the future are discussed. The study will be helpful for researchers engaged in piezoelectric wind energy harvesting.
Piezoelectric Vibration Harvesters Based on Vibrations of Cantilevered Bimorphs: A Review  [PDF]
Anam Khalid, Amit Kumar Redhewal, Manoj Kumar, Anupam Srivastav
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.69084
Abstract: With the advancement in the technologies around the world over the past few years, the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have gained much attention in harvesting the energy for wireless, self-powered and MEMS devices. In the present era, many devices are available for energy harnessing such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generator and these devices are designed based on its ability to capture the different form of environment energy such as solar energy, wind energy, thermal energy and convert it into the useful energy form. Out of these devices, the use of a piezoelectric generator for energy harvesting is very attractive for MEMS applications. There are various sources of harvestable energy including waste heat, solar energy, wind energy, energy in floating water and mechanical vibrations which are used by the researchers for energy harvesting purposes. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in harvesting mechanical vibrations as an energy source by various generators (such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generators). Also, the design and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, using vibrations of cantilevered bimorphs, for MEMS have also been reviewed here. Electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generators presented in the literature are reviewed by taking into an account the power output, frequency, acceleration, dimension and application of each generator and the coupling factor of each transduction mechanism has also been discussed for all the devices.
Power Consideration in a Piezoelectric Generator  [PDF]
Rémi Tardiveau,Frédéric Giraud,Adrian Amanci,Francis Dawson,Christophe Giraud-Audine,Michel Amberg,Betty Lemaire-Semail
Smart Materials Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/410567
Abstract: A piezoelectric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity and is used in energy harvesting devices. In this paper, synchronisation conditions in regard to the excitation vibration are studied. We show that a phase shift of ninety degrees between the vibration excitation and the bender’s displacement provides the maximum power from the mechanical excitation. However, the piezoelectric material is prone to power losses; hence the bender’s displacement amplitude is optimised in order to increase the amount of power which is converted into electricity. In the paper, we use active energy harvesting to control the power flow, and all the results are achieved at a frequency of 200?Hz which is well below the generator’s resonant frequency. 1. Introduction A piezoelectric generator (PEG) [1] can be used to extract energy from ambient vibrations. For that purpose, a proof mass is firmly attached to one end of a bender, while the other end is fixed onto a vibrating case [2]. The voltage supplied to the piezoelectric material produces internal stresses, which create active damping [3]. The power which brakes the movement of the proof mass is not dissipated into heat but is converted into electrical power and fed back to an electrical load. For a given design of the PEG, the harvested power depends on the operating conditions. First, the resonant behaviour of the bender and its proof mass lead to a strong dependency of harvested power on vibrations [2]. Moreover, the impedance of the PEG and of the load should match [4], and, then, there exists an optimal electric load to be connected to the PEG connection [5, 6]. Optimal energy harvesting can be achieved using active solutions. For example, [7] proposes to use a full H-bridge in order to accurately control the voltage supplied to the PEG. For an excitation close to the resonant frequency of the PEG, semiactive (or semipassive) solutions can also be used. The SSHI technique, for example, uses a switched inductor to reverse the voltage across the piezoelectric generator and synchronises the voltage on maxima and minima of the displacement [8]. The SECE technique [9] uses a flyback topology to extract the charges for the piezoelectric generator at each maximum of the voltage. In this way, energy scavenging is obtained at any load value and can be used to charge up a battery, in a wireless communication application [10], for example. In this work, we are using active energy harvesting, because we control the instantaneous voltage across the piezoelectric material. However, this voltage is not synchronised
Electroaeroelastic Modeling and Analysis for Flow Energy Piezoelectric Harvester  [PDF]
Zhang Jiantao, Wu Song, Shu Chang, Li Chaodong
- , 2017, DOI: 10.16356/j.1005-1120.2017.01.009
Abstract: An electroaeroelastic model for wind energy harvesting using piezoelectric generators is presented. The flow field is mapped in detail. The force which the fluid flow exerts on the generator is formulated. The output voltage levels generated from the mechanical strain within the piezoelectric elements are determined. An analytical model is developed with consideration of the interactions between the fluid, solid and electric. Various analytical results are obtained, such as flow velocity contour and pressure contour for the flow, moving trajectories, stress contour and output voltage of the harvester. A prototype is fabricated and tested. The simulation result is close to the experimental result. The model developed in this paper can predict the performance and behavior of different energy harvesters. And it also can be used as a design tool for optimizing the performance of the harvester.
A Review of VF Controller for an Asynchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion System  [PDF]
D.K.NISHAD,DIG VIJAY SINGH,DEEPAK SINGH
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: VF controller for wind energy conversion system employing a self-excited asynchronous generator, that has the capability for harmonic elimination, load balancing , and neutral current compensation along with voltage and frequency. This paper presents a review of VF controllers, other related economic and technical aspects, and their selection for specific applications. It is aimed at providing a broad perspectives or the status of VF controller for researchers and application engineers dealing with VF controlling issues. A list of more than 50 research publications on the subject is also appended for quick reference.
Study of Wind Power Generation Using Slip Ring Induction Generator
Ms. K. Y. Patil,Prof. D. S. Chavan
International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Wind energy is now firmly established as a mature technology for electricity generation. There are different types of generators that can be used for wind energy generation, among which Slip ring Induction generator proves to be more advantageous. To analyze application of Slip ring Induction generator for wind power generation, an experimental model is developed and results are studied. As power generation from natural sources is the need today and variable speed wind energy is ample in amount in India, it is necessary to study more beneficial options for wind energy generating techniques. From this need a model is developed by using Slip ring Induction generator which is a type of Asynchronous generator.
THE INFLUENCE ESTIMATION OF THE WIND FLOW INSTABILITY ON THE ROTATION SPEED OF WINDWHEEL OF DOUBLE-ROTOR WIND POWER PLANT GENERATOR DURING THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Оценка влияния нестабильности ветрового потока на частоту вращения ветроколеса ветроустановки с двухроторным генератором в ходе экспериментальных исследований
Morenko K. S.
Polythematic Online Scientific Journal of Kuban State Agrarian University , 2013,
Abstract: The article deals with the basic regulations which allow us to estimate the influence of the velocity variation of wind upon the rotation speed of the windwheel. The method of experimental determination of the inertia of the wind power plant was described. The formulas for the determination were also described
永磁同步风力发电机组建模和控制策略研究
Modeling and Control Research of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wind Power Generator
 [PDF]

罗亘, 刘鑫, 于兵, 许瑾
Journal of Electrical Engineering (JEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/JEE.2014.24012
Abstract:
永磁同步发电机维护少、效率高、单机容量大,在风力发电系统中已得到广泛使用。分析永磁风力发电系统相关数学理论知识,在PSIM9.0环境下设计额定功率为3 kW的永磁风力发电系统模型,当风速信号发生阶跃变化时,观察机侧输出功率信号和并网侧直流电压信号变化情况,分析并调试系统仿真结果。最终结果显示,在不同风速情况下,风力发电系统各输出信号稳定,波形良好,与理论计算相符。为永磁风力发电系统进一步试验和研究提供了良好的基础和新的平台。
Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), with less maintenance, high efficiency, large unit capacity, has been widely used in wind power generation system (WECS). This paper analyzes the mathematical theory knowledge of the permanent magnet synchronous wind power system, and designs a rated power of 3 kW permanent magnet wind power system model under PSIM9.0 environment. When the wind speed signal generation has step change, we observe the change status of the output power signal on the machine side and the DC voltage signal changes on the grid side, analyze and debug system simulation results. The final result shows that, under different wind conditions, the output signal of wind power system is stable and waveform is good, which are consistent with the theoretical calculation. It provides a good foundation and new platform for further testing and research of permanent magnet wind power system.
Matrix Converter Based Variable Speed Wind Generator System
K. Ghedamsi,D. Aouzellag,E.M. Berkouk
International Journal of Electrical and Power Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, a grid connected Variable Speed Wind Generation (VSWG) scheme using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) associated to a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) is investigated. Therefore, the dynamic behaviour of a wind generator, including models of the wind turbine (aerodynamic), DFIG, AC/AC direct converter, converter control (algorithm of Venturini) and power control is studied. This study investigates also, the control method of the FESS with a classical squirrel-cage induction machine associated to a VSWG. Simulation results of the dynamic models of the wind generator are presented, for different operating points, to show the good performance of the proposed system.
柔性压电发电机的发电性能分析
Power Performance Analysis of Flexible Piezoelectric Generator
 [PDF]

隋丽,刘国华,石庚辰,王彭颖恺
- , 2016, DOI: 10.15918/j.tbit1001-0645.2016.01.002
Abstract: 为提高微小型压电发电机的发电性能,设计了一种悬臂梁式的柔性风力发电机,通过实验与理论相结合的方法,分析了柔性悬臂梁振子的结构类型和结构尺寸对发电机输出电压的影响规律. 研究发现,合理选择压电振子的长、宽以及基底厚度,使压电振子在给定风速下产生共振将有助于提高发电机的发电能力. 在0~50 m/s的风速范围内,对不同结构尺寸的柔性压电发电机的发电能力进行了测试,实验结果表明:在压电振子能够发生共振的前提下,基底的厚度对发电性能的影响不大,而振子的长度及宽度对压电发电机的输出电压影响较大,且输出电压不随振子尺寸单调递增;在其他参数均为定值的前提下,压电振子的最优长度为40 mm,最优宽度为11.3 mm.
In order to improve the performance of micro piezoelectric generator, a design of flexible cantilever-beam piezoelectric generator was proposed. The influence of the beam's shapes and parameters on the output voltage of the piezoelectric generator, through theory and experiments was studied. Therefore a generator with appropriate structure parameters, such as length, width and substrate thickness will resonate easily on given wind speed, which helps to improve the power capacity of generator. Within a given wind speed range of 0 to 50 m/s, the power generating capacity of the flexible piezoelectric generator with different dimensions was researched. The experimental results imply that, the thickness of the substrate almost doesn't affect the power performance with resonance, but the length and width of generator has a greater influence on the output voltage, and the output voltage is not monotone increasing with the length and the width. The optimum length of piezoelectric generator is 40 mm, and the width is 11.3 mm.
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