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Cáncer anal en la era del VIH: papel de la citología anal
CATA?O CORREA,JUAN CARLOS;
Iatreia , 2004,
Abstract: anal cancer used to be an uncommon neoplasia that affected mainly women and people aged over 65 years, but recently its incidence has been growing, mostly due to the hiv pandemic, and it will become worse because highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) at the same time that lengthens life expectancy in hiv positive subjects, will increase the possibility to develop anal cancer; it has already been demonstrated that haart does not prevent the evolution of intraepithelial squamous lesions to anal cancer. anal cytology has demonstrated to be an useful and cost-effective screening tool for detection of precancerous lesions associated with human papillomavirus (hpv) infection in the anal canal of homosexual and bisexual men, specially in those that are hiv positive. this article is an update of the state of the art about anal cancer, highlighting the benefits of anal cytology for high-risk populations.
HIV Incidence, Risk Factors, and Motivation for Biomedical Intervention among Gay, Bisexual Men, and Transgender Persons in Northern Thailand  [PDF]
Suwat Chariyalertsak, Natthapol Kosachunhanan, Pongpun Saokhieo, Radchanok Songsupa, Antika Wongthanee, Chonlisa Chariyalertsak, Surasing Visarutratana, Chris Beyrer
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024295
Abstract: Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) persons is high and increasing in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Objectives To describe demographic, socioeconomic, sexual behavior and interest in future HIV prevention trials among gay and bisexual MSM and TG presenting for HIV testing (VCT) and pre-screening for the iPrEx pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis trail. Methods In 2008–09, MSM/TG participants attending VCT were interviewed and tested for HIV and STI. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were done to assess associations with HIV infection. Results A total of 551 MSM clients (56.1% gay, 25.4% TG, and 18.5% bisexual (BS)) were enrolled. The mean age was 23.9 years. HIV prevalence among MSM overall was 12.9% (71/551); 16.5% among gay men, 9.3% among TG, and 6.9% among BS. Consistent use of condom was low, 33.3% in insertive anal sex and 31.9% in receptive anal sex. Interest in participation was high, 86.3% for PrEP, 69.7% for HIV vaccine trials, but 29.9% for circumcision. HIV was independently associated with being gay identified, aOR 2.8, p = 0.037 and with being aged 25–29, aOR 2.7, p = 0.027. Among repeat testers, HIV incidence was 8.2/100 PY, 95% CI, 3.7/100PY to 18.3/100PY. Conclusion HIV risks and rates varied by self-reported sexual orientation and gender identity. HIV was associated with sexual practices, age, and being gay-identified. These are populations are in need of novel prevention strategies and willing to participate in prevention research.
Sexual behavior patterns and HIV risks in bisexual men compared to exclusively heterosexual and homosexual men
Izazola-Licea,José Antonio; Gortmaker,Steven L; Gruttola,Víctor de; Tolbert,Kathryn; Mann,Jonathan;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003001100012
Abstract: objective: to compare patterns of sexual behavior among bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual men. material and methods:a household probability survey was carried out in mexico city in 1992-1993 using the national health surveys sampling frame. information from 8 068 men was obtained; however, the main analysis of this paper refers only to men sexually active in the previous 5 years. results: bisexuals reported more prevalent anal intercourse with women (16% vs. 3%, p=0.01), and more sexual encounters with female sex workers than exclusive heterosexuals (10% vs. 4%; p=0.04). bisexuals used condoms more often with sex workers than did heterosexuals (p=0.01). most of the bisexuals (79%) did not engage in anal receptive or insertive intercourse with males in the previous year, practicing instead oral insertive sex or only masturbation; 35% of homosexuals did not report practicing anal sex. bisexuals who engaged in anal intercourse had less anal receptive behavior than homosexuals (13% vs. 60%, p<0.01); of these, due to condom use, only 7% of bisexuals and 18% of homosexuals had unprotected anal receptive sex in the last intercourse with a male. conclusions: bisexuals practice less risky sexual behavior with males than exclusive homosexuals. this finding may imply that bisexual men in mexico are an ineffective epidemiological bridge for hiv transmission.
Cáncer anal en la era del VIH: papel de la citología anal Anal cancer in the HIV era
Juan Carlos Cata?o Correa
Iatreia , 2004,
Abstract: El cáncer anal solía ser una neoplasia infrecuente que afectaba principalmente a mujeres y personas mayores de 65 a os, pero recientemente su incidencia ha venido en aumento debido a la pandemia de VIH, fenómeno que tiende a empeorar porque la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (HAART, por su sigla en inglés) no solo alarga la vida de los pacientes, sino que al mismo tiempo hace posible una prolongada evolución de las lesiones precancerosas que conducen a cáncer anal; además, está plenamente demostrado que la HAART no evita la evolución de las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas hacia cáncer anal. La citología anal ha demostrado ser una prueba de tamización poblacional útil y costoefectiva para el diagnóstico de las lesiones precancerosas producidas por Papilomavirus humano en el canal anal de hombres homosexuales y bisexuales, principalmente de aquellos positivos para VIH. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo llamar la atención sobre la creciente incidencia de cáncer anal en la población de pacientes VIH positivos, y sobre la utilidad del diagnóstico temprano utilizando la citología anal en este grupo de pacientes de riesgo. Anal cancer used to be an uncommon neoplasia that affected mainly women and people aged over 65 years, but recently its incidence has been growing, mostly due to the HIV pandemic, and it will become worse because highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the same time that lengthens life expectancy in HIV positive subjects, will increase the possibility to develop anal cancer; it has already been demonstrated that HAART does not prevent the evolution of intraepithelial squamous lesions to anal cancer. Anal cytology has demonstrated to be an useful and cost-effective screening tool for detection of precancerous lesions associated with human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anal canal of homosexual and bisexual men, specially in those that are HIV positive. This article is an update of the state of the art about anal cancer, highlighting the benefits of anal cytology for high-risk populations.
Awareness and Willingness to Use HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis amongst Gay and Bisexual Men in Scotland: Implications for Biomedical HIV Prevention  [PDF]
Ingrid Young, Jessica Li, Lisa McDaid
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064038
Abstract: Objectives To investigate the awareness of, and willingness to use, HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and willingness to take part in a PrEP study among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 17 gay commercial venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh in May 2011 (N = 1515, 65.2% response rate); 1393 are included in the analyses. Results Just under one-third of participants had heard of PrEP (n = 434; 31.2%), with awareness associated with being aged older than 35 years, talking to UAI partners about HIV, and with having had an HIV or STI test in the previous 12 months. Around half were willing to take part in a PrEP study (n = 695; 49.9%) or to take PrEP on a daily basis (n = 756; 54.3%). In multivariate analysis, willingness to take PrEP was associated with lower levels of education, regular gay scene attendance, ‘high-risk’ unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and testing for HIV or STI in the previous 12 months. Reasons for not wanting to participate in a PrEP study or take PrEP included perceptions of low personal risk of HIV and concerns with using medication as an HIV prevention method. Conclusions There is a willingness to engage in new forms of HIV prevention and research amongst a significant number of gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Future biomedical HIV interventions need to consider the links between sexual risk behaviour, testing, and potential PrEP use.
Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence in homosexual and bisexual men screened for admission to a cohort study of HIV negatives in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Project Horizonte
Carneiro, Mariangela;Cardoso, Fabíola Adriane;Greco, Marília;Oliveira, Edson;Andrade, Júlio;Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu;Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo;,;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000300006
Abstract: project horizonte, an open cohort of homosexual and bisexual human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) negative men, is a component of the aids vaccine program, in belo horizonte, minas gerais, brazil. the objective of this study was to compare volunteers testing hiv positive at cohort entry with a sample of those who tested hiv negative in order to identify risk factors for prevalent hiv infection, in a population being screened for enrollment at project horizonte. a nested case-control study was conducted. hiv positive volunteers at entry (cases) were matched by age and admission date to three hiv negative controls each. selected variables used for the current analysis included demographic factors, sexual behavior and other risk factors for hiv infection. during the study period (1994-2001), among the 621 volunteers screened, 61 tested positive for hiv. cases were matched to 183 hiv negative control subjects. after adjustments, the main risk factors associated with hiv infection were unprotected sex with an occasional partners, or = 3.7 (ci 95% 1.3-10.6), receptive anal intercourse with an occasional partner, or = 2.8 (95% ci 0.9-8.9) and belonging to the negro racial group, or = 3.4 (ci 95% 1.1-11.9). these variables were associated with an increase in the risk of hiv infection among men who have sex with men at the screening for admission to an open hiv negative cohort.
Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence in homosexual and bisexual men screened for admission to a cohort study of HIV negatives in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Project Horizonte  [cached]
Carneiro Mariangela,Cardoso Fabíola Adriane,Greco Marília,Oliveira Edson
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: Project Horizonte, an open cohort of homosexual and bisexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) negative men, is a component of the AIDS Vaccine Program, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective of this study was to compare volunteers testing HIV positive at cohort entry with a sample of those who tested HIV negative in order to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection, in a population being screened for enrollment at Project Horizonte. A nested case-control study was conducted. HIV positive volunteers at entry (cases) were matched by age and admission date to three HIV negative controls each. Selected variables used for the current analysis included demographic factors, sexual behavior and other risk factors for HIV infection. During the study period (1994-2001), among the 621 volunteers screened, 61 tested positive for HIV. Cases were matched to 183 HIV negative control subjects. After adjustments, the main risk factors associated with HIV infection were unprotected sex with an occasional partners, OR = 3.7 (CI 95% 1.3-10.6), receptive anal intercourse with an occasional partner, OR = 2.8 (95% CI 0.9-8.9) and belonging to the negro racial group, OR = 3.4 (CI 95% 1.1-11.9). These variables were associated with an increase in the risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men at the screening for admission to an open HIV negative cohort.
Male Sex Workers Who Sell Sex to Men Also Engage in Anal Intercourse with Women: Evidence from Mombasa, Kenya  [PDF]
Priya Mannava, Scott Geibel, Nzioki King’ola, Marleen Temmerman, Stanley Luchters
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052547
Abstract: Objective To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. Results From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days – of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one’s own children, and lower education. Conclusions We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.
Contracting Quadratic Operators of Bisexual Population  [PDF]
N. N. Ganikhodjaev,U. U. Jamilov
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we find a sufficient condition under which the operator of bisexual population is contraction and show that this condition is not necessary.
HIV Sero Prevalence Among Pregnant Women Residing Selected Slums Of Delhi  [cached]
Kant S,Patel M.S,Seth P,Booth B
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1998,
Abstract: Research question: How much is HIV sero-positivity among residing in the slums of Delhi? Objective: To find out the HIV sero-positivity rate among women residing in slums of Delhi. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Ante-natal clinics operated by a non-governmental organization in 13 slum communities in East and South Delhi, India Participants: All pregnant women, regardless of gestational period, who had stayed for six months or more in the preceding one year, in the selected slums. Outcome variable: HIV sero-positivity. Results: None of the 1521 blood specimens was positive for HIV antibody. There may have been selection bias. The sample size was inadequate to detect a sero-prevalence of less than 0.5% with 95% C.I. The findings could not be generalised to other population sub-groups.
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