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WéGOUBRI, the sahelian bocage: an integrate approach for environment preservation and social development in sahelian agriculture (Burkina Faso)
H. Girard
Field Actions Science Reports (FACTS) , 2009, DOI: 10.5194/facts-2-33-2009
Abstract: The NGO Terre Verte pursues the realisation of bocage perimeters (wégoubri in the mooré language) in Burkina Faso. They are an innovative concept of rural development that has been established in the 1990s in the experimental farm of Guiè and is now adopted in other experimental farms in Burkina Faso. The deterioration of the rural landscape in the Sahel region has worsened in the last decades, endangering local populations. The creation of bocage perimeters in this rural landscape is a way to remediate problems linked to overly extensive agriculture. Through a holistic approach to the problem, the experimental farm of Guiè has been able to integrate environmental preservation into the Sahel agriculture thanks to three axes of intervention: applied research, education and direct help to the peasants. An experimental farm relies on five technical teams, each supervised by a coordinator. The concept is based on the creation of bocage perimeters in a mixed propriety regime, comprising individually owned plots and common grounds, managed by an association of beneficiaries. The result is a restored environment, in which agriculture is no longer tantamount to erosion and livestock farming to overgrazing, where trees and bushes are harmoniously integrated into the environment. The increase in agricultural yields observed after a few years of soil restoration leads to the conclusion that those projects will be economically viable. A system of credits for farmers could allow the implementation of such a system, which represents the only solution for the millions of hectares of degraded soil in the Sahel region.
WéGOUBRI, the sahelian bocage: an integrate approach for environment preservation and social development in sahelian agriculture (Burkina Faso)  [cached]
H. Girard
Field Actions Science Reports , 2009,
Abstract: The NGO Terre Verte pursues the realisation of bocage perimeters (wégoubri in the mooré language) in Burkina Faso. They are an innovative concept of rural development that has been established in the 1990s in the experimental farm of Guiè and is now adopted in other experimental farms in Burkina Faso. The deterioration of the rural landscape in the Sahel region has worsened in the last decades, endangering local populations. The creation of bocage perimeters in this rural landscape is a way to remediate problems linked to overly extensive agriculture. Through a holistic approach to the problem, the experimental farm of Guiè has been able to integrate environmental preservation into the Sahel agriculture thanks to three axes of intervention: applied research, education and direct help to the peasants. An experimental farm relies on ve technical teams, each supervised by a coordinator.The concept is based on the creation of bocage perimeters in a mixed propriety regime, comprising individually owned plots and common grounds, managed by an association of bene ciaries. The result is a restored environment, in which agriculture is no longer tantamount to erosion and livestock farming to overgrazing, where trees and bushes are harmoniously integrated into the environment.The increase in agricultural yields observed after a few years of soil restoration leads to the conclusion that those projects will be economically viable. A system of credits for farmers could allow the implementation of such a system, which represents the only solution for the millions of hectares of degraded soil in the Sahel region. L’ONG Terre Verte réalise au Burkina Faso des périmètres bocagers (wégoubri en langue mooré). Il s’agit d’un concept novateur de développement rural mis au point dans la ferme pilote de Guiè dans les années 1990, adopté depuis par d’autres fermes pilotes du pays. La dégradation du paysage rural du Sahel s’est aggravée au cours de ces dernières décennies, mettant en péril les populations locales. La création des périmètres bocagers est un moyen de résoudre les problèmes liés à une agriculture exagérément extensive. Par une approche globale du problème, la ferme pilote de Guiè a réussi à intégrer la conservation de l’environnement dans l’agriculture sahélienne grace à trois axes d’intervention : recherche appliquée, formation et aide directe aux paysans. Une ferme pilote s’appuie sur cinq équipes techniques, chacune supervisée par un coordonnateur. Le concept repose sur la création de périmètres bocagers en copropriété, avec des parcelles individuelles et des pa
Recharge Estimation of Hard Rock Aquifers under Sahelian Climate Conditions Using Water Table Fluctuation: Case Study of Tougou Catchment, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Mahamadou Ko?ta, Wennegouda Jean Pierre Sandwidi, Amagana Emmanuel Dara
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.912092
Abstract: This study aims to characterize water table fluctuations and estimate groundwater recharge in the Tougou catchment located in the Sahel zone of Burkina Faso. Water table fluctuation and groundwater budget approaches are developed on an experimental site equipped with observation wells. The trends of water fluctuations in the different layers of the weathering profile are similar. There is a time-lag response of groundwater recharge to the daily precipitation occurrences. The interaction between the upper (clayey alteration) and lower (transition zone-fractured schist complex) parts of the weathering profile shows that generally the hydraulic head in the upper part is higher than that of the lower part due to difference in drainage porosity. The latter varies at the catchment scale between 0.006 and 0.009 and is inversely proportional to the saturated thickness of the clayey alteration layer. The groundwater recharge is annually estimated between 36 and 49 mm, which correspond to 6% and 9% of mean annual rainfall in the catchment. Annual evapotranspiration was estimated to be about 223 to 443 mm.
Ascertaining gene flow patterns in livestock populations of developing countries: a case study in Burkina Faso goat
Amadou Traoré, Isabel álvarez, Iván Fernández, Lucía Pérez-Pardal, Adama Kaboré, Gisèlle MS Ouédraogo-Sanou, Yacouba Zaré, Hamidou H Tambourá, Félix Goyache
BMC Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-13-35
Abstract: A total of 520 goat were sampled in 23 different locations of Burkina Faso and genotyped for a set of 19 microsatellites. Data deposited in the Dryad repository: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.41h46j37 webcite. Although overall differentiation is poor (FST = 0.067 ± 0.003), the goat population of Burkina Faso is far from being homogeneous. Barrier analysis pointed out the existence of: a) genetic discontinuities in the Central and Southeast Burkina Faso; and b) genetic differences within the goat sampled in the Sahel or the Sudan areas of Burkina Faso. Principal component analysis and admixture proportion scores were computed for each population sampled and used to construct interpolation maps. Furthermore, Population Graph analysis revealed that the Sahel and the Sudan environmental areas of Burkina Faso were connected through a significant number of extended edges, which would be consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal. Genetic variation of Burkina Faso goat followed a geographic-related pattern. This pattern of variation is likely to be related to the presence of vectors of African animal trypanosomosis. Partial Mantel test identified the present Northern limit of trypanosome vectors as the most significant landscape boundary influencing the genetic variability of Burkina Faso goat (p = 0.008). The contribution of Sahel goat genes to the goat populations in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Sudan-Sahel area of Burkina Faso was substantial. The presence of perennial streams explains the existence of trypanosome vectors. The South half of the Nakambé river (Southern Ouagadougou) and the Mouhoun river loop determined, respectively, the Eastern and Northern limits for the expansion of Sahelian goat genes. Furthermore, results from partial Mantel test suggest that the introgression of Sahelian goat genes into Djallonké goat using human-influenced genetic corridors has a limited influence when compared to the biological boundary defined by the no
Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso
Karl Lorenz Dehane
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains uterine contraction stimulating ergot-alkaloids, but also strychnine-like toxic substances. It is reportedly effective in provoking abortions within one day of treatment, but its side-effects are severe and include heavy vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting, and death. There is a need for the rapid introduction of safer birth control methods in the region. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3[2]: 40-50) Key Words: Burkina Faso, Fulbe, Gurmance, abortion, abortifacients, ergot-alkaloids
Statut de la matière organique des sols de la zone nord-soudanienne au Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Pallo FJP.,Sawadogo N.,Zombré NP.,Sedogo MP.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2009,
Abstract: Soil organic matter status in the north sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. The objectives of the study were to enhance the knowledge on organic matter of soils under natural formations from north sudanian zone and then to compare their characteristics with those of soils located in the other climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Total carbon and nitrogen as well as the amounts of C and N involved in three particles size fractions [(0-50μm); (50-200μm); (200-2,000μm)], were determined. The results show that total C and N of these soils are higher than those of soils from the burkinabé sahelian and south sudanian zones. The chemical soil properties are positively correlated with the amount of C held by the (0-50μm) fraction. The study also indicates that organic status of the concerned soils is due to the influence of climate, soil moisture, temperature regimes and soil texture.
Valorisation de Cassia obtusifolia L. dans l'alimentation des ovins d'embouche en région sahélienne du Burkina Faso
Kiema, A.,Nianogo, AJ.,Somda, J.,Ouédraogo, T.
Tropicultura , 2008,
Abstract: Use of Cassia obtusifolia L. as Feed Resource for Ram Fattening in the Sahelian Region of Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to analyse economic and technical performances of the use of straws from Cassia obtusifolia as substitute feed to soybean straws and cotton seed cake for ram fattening in the Sahelian region of Burkina Faso. Five feed rations were tested with different levels of Cassia obtusifolia in substitution to soybean straws (Vigna unguiculata) and cotton cake at rates varying between 0 to 20%. The control ration contained 40% of cotton cake and 20% of soybean straws. The results show that Cassia obtusifolia (CO) is an efficient feed resource. The average growth rate varied from 56.6 ± 22.3 g/day/animal in the control group to 105.2 ± 33.7 g/day/animal in the groups fed CO. Economically, rations with 25% and 50% cassia substituted to cotton cake showed low variable costs and high profit. These rations are likely to be accessible to any farmers regardless to their resources. On the other hand, the diet with 50% CO substituted to soybean straws maintained high profits, in spite of high production costs. This ration could only be accessible to farmers owning relatively important resources.
The rise of the “artist” in Burkina Faso
R Rousseau
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2007,
Abstract: It is only during the last twenty years that contemporary art has found actors in Burkina Faso. Thomas Sankara's revolutionary regime was the first to offer artists a frame to promote and perfect their technique. During the 1980s, the Semaine National de la Culture (National Week of Culture), the Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (Fespaco), and the Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou International Handicraft Show) were the only major projects that allowed artists to learn new techniques and to be known. However, because Thomas Sankara's government expected the creators to participate in the revolutionary project, this left them little space for innovation and the expression of their artistic freedom. The early 1990s saw the rise of new events, which at last offered artists a space to practice their art, based on personal inspiration and competence in artistic technique. The Laongo symposium of granite sculpture, PIAMET (an event started by two well-known Burkinabè artists), and Ouaga'Art (organised by the French Cultural Centre of Ouagadougou) thus offered young artists the possibility of discovering the techniques of their colleagues from Africa and elsewhere in the world. However, except the Olorun Foundation, there is no permanent space dedicated to training and artistic exhibition. This lack is a source of obvious problems for the creator who, as a result, may find himself entrenched in a circuit where commercialism seems to dominate artistic research.
Study of Organic Matters Flows on Farms in the Western Cotton Zone of Burkina Faso
Bacyé, B.,Boro, A.
Tropicultura , 2011,
Abstract: In the sub-Sahelian zone, it has become necessary to use organic manure as a means of maintaining or improving cultivated soil fertility. The expertise developed by the farms, in terms of how various organic matters can be used by rural populations, plays an essential role when it comes to promoting the use of organic manure. In this way, organic matter inflows and outflows were quantified at farms in a village in the western cotton zone of Burkina Faso over the period of one year. Results show that the average plant biomass production was estimated at 38.1 tonnes per farm, 33.8% of which were harvested products, 65.2% crop residues (mainly cereal straw) and 1% shrub shoots. This is in addition to an average manure production estimated at 8.6 tonnes, based on average livestock numbers on each farm. However, only 30% of the organic residues produced were used on the farms, 14% of which were returned to the soil as manure. This low return ratio can lead to the depletion of organic matter in the soil, which makes it necessary to identify other methods for crop residue management on the farms.
Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Souma?la Pagabeleguem, Mamadou Sangaré, Zakaria Bengaly, Massouroudin Akoudjin, Adrien M. G. Belem, Jérémy Bouyer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049762
Abstract: Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an “epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis” cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends to a buffer area around their distribution belt, corresponding to the herd transhumance radius.
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