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 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/013 Abstract: A recent analysis of XXM-Newton data reveals the possible presence of an X-ray line at approximately 3.55 keV, which is not readily explained by known atomic transitions. Numerous models of eV-scale decaying dark matter have been proposed to explain this signal. Here we explore models of multicomponent nonabelian dark matter with typical mass ~ 1-10 GeV (higher values being allowed in some models) and eV-scale splittings that arise naturally from the breaking of the nonabelian gauge symmetry. Kinetic mixing between the photon and the hidden sector gauge bosons can occur through a dimension-5 or 6 operator. Radiative decays of the excited states proceed through transition magnetic moments that appear at one loop. The decaying excited states can either be primordial or else produced by upscattering of the lighter dark matter states. These models are significantly constrained by direct dark matter searches or cosmic microwave background distortions, and are potentially testable in fixed target experiments that search for hidden photons. We note that the upscattering mechanism could be distinguished from decays in future observations if sources with different dark matter velocity dispersions seem to require different values of the scattering cross section to match the observed line strengths.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219016 Abstract: The iron line at 6.4 keV provides a valuable spectral diagnostic in several fields of X-ray astronomy. It often results from the reprocessing of external X-rays by a neutral or low-ionized medium, but it can also be excited by impacts of low-energy cosmic rays. This paper aims to provide signatures allowing identification of radiation from low-energy cosmic rays in X-ray spectra showing the 6.4 keV line. We study in detail the production of nonthermal line and continuum X-rays by interaction of accelerated electrons and ions with a neutral ambient gas. Corresponding models are then applied to XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray emission emanating from the Arches cluster region near the Galactic center. Bright 6.4 keV line structures are observed around the Arches cluster. This emission is very likely produced by cosmic rays. We find that it can result from the bombardment of molecular gas by energetic ions, but probably not by accelerated electrons. Using a model of X-ray production by cosmic-ray ions, we obtain a best-fit metallicity of the ambient medium of 1.7 plus-minus 0.2 times the solar metallicity. A large flux of low-energy cosmic ray ions could be produced in the ongoing supersonic collision between the star cluster and an adjacent molecular cloud. We find that a particle acceleration efficiency in the resulting shock system of a few percent would give enough power in the cosmic rays to explain the luminosity of the nonthermal X-ray emission. Depending on the unknown shape of the kinetic energy distribution of the fast ions above 1 GeV per nucleon, the Arches cluster region may be a source of high-energy gamma-rays detectable with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. At present, the X-ray emission prominent in the 6.4 keV Fe line emanating from the Arches cluster region probably offers the best available signature for a source of low-energy hadronic cosmic rays in the Galaxy.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306658 Abstract: We show that interactions of fast particles with the boundary shell of the local hot bubble could make an important contribution to the 0.5-1 keV diffuse X-ray background observed with ROSAT. The bulk of these nonthermal X-rays are due to line emission from fast O ions of energies around 1 MeV/nucleon. This is the typical energy per particle in the ejecta of the supernova which is thought to have energized the bubble. We find that there is sufficient total energy in the ejecta to produce X-rays of the required intensity, subject to the details of the evolution of the fast particle population since the supernova explosion (about 3 10$^5$ years ago based on the age of the Geminga pulsar). The unequivocal signature of lines from deexcitations in fast ions is their large width ($\delta E/E$~0.1 for O lines), which will clearly distinguishes them from X-ray lines produced in a hot plasma. If a small fraction of the total ejecta energy is converted into accelerated particle kinetic energy (>~30 MeV/nucleon), the gamma-ray line emission produced in the boundary shell of the local hot bubble could account for the recently reported COMPTEL observations of nuclear gamma-ray lines from a broad region towards the Galactic center.
 Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/310787 Abstract: We present a high-quality X-ray spectrum in the 3--53 keV rest-frame band of the radio-loud quasar 1508+5714, by far the brightest known X-ray source at z > 4. A simple power-law model with an absorption column density equal to the Galactic value in the direction of the source provides an excellent and fully adequate fit to the data; the measured power-law photon index Gamma = 1.42 (+0.13,-0.10). Upper limits to Fe K alpha line emission and Compton-reflection components are derived. We offer evidence for both X-ray and radio variability in this object and provide the first contemporaneous radio spectrum (alpha = -0.25). The data are all consistent with a picture in which the emission from this source is dominated by a relativistically beamed component in both the X-ray and radio bands.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.121302 Abstract: The recently discovered 3.5 keV X-ray line from extragalactic sources may be evidence of dark matter scatterings or decays. We show that dark atoms can be the source of the emission, through their hyperfine transitions, which would be the analog of 21 cm radiation from a dark sector. We identify two families of dark atom models that match the X-ray observations and are consistent with other constraints. In the first, the hyperfine excited state is long-lived compared to the age of the universe, and the dark atom mass is relatively unconstrained; dark atoms could be strongly self-interacting in this case. In the second, the excited state is short-lived and viable models are parameterized by the value of the dark proton-to-electron mass ratio $R$: for $R = 10^2-10^4$, the dark atom mass is predicted be in the range $350-1300$ GeV, with fine structure constant $\alpha'\cong 0.1-0.6$. In either class of models, the dark photon must be massive with $m_{\gamma'} \gtrsim$ 1 MeV and decay into $e^+ e^-$. Evidence for the model could come from direct detection of the dark atoms. In a natural extension of this framework, the dark photon could decay predominantly into invisible particles, for example $\sim 0.5$ eV sterile neutrinos, explaining the extra radiation degree of freedom recently suggested by data from BICEP2, while remaining compatible with BBN.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/03/P03012 Abstract: The identification of single clusters in the electronic signals produced by ionizing particles within a drift chamber is expected to significantly improve the performances of this kind of detectors in terms of particle identification capabilities and space resolution. In order to develop refined cluster recognition algorithms, it is essential to measure the response of the chamber and its electronics to single ionization clusters. This can be done by irradiating the chamber with X-rays. We report here on the studies performed on a drift chamber prototype for the MEG-II experiment at the X-ray facility of the INFN Frascati's National Laboratories "XLab Frascati". The prototype is operated with a helium-isobutane mixture and instrumented with high bandwidth custom pre-amplifiers. The results of this study have been used to develop an innovative method for cluster recognition, based on the Wiener filter technique. As a side measurement, we also performed a study of the gas gain in a configuration which is similar to that of the MEG-II experiment.
 Physics , 2011, Abstract: We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to form an almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2010.2045511 Abstract: Using highly monochromatic X-ray synchrotron irradiation ranging from 9 keV to 100 keV, accurate Lu2SiO5:Ce3+,Ca (LSO), Lu3Al5O12:Pr3+ (LuAG), Lu2Si2O7:Ce3+ (LPS) and Gd2SiO5:Ce3+ (GSO) non-proportional response curves were determined. By utilizing information from escape peaks in pulse height spectra the response curve can be extended down to several keV. A detailed study of the non-proportionality just above the K-edge is presented and from that a method, which we named K-dip spectroscopy, is obtained to reconstruct the electron response curve down to energies as low as 100 eV.
 Physics , 2011, Abstract: Imaging experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors with extraordinary performance specifications: Doses of up to 1 GGy of 12 keV photons, up to 10^5 12 keV photons per pixel of 200 \mum \times 200 \mum arriving within less than 100 fs, and a time interval between XFEL pulses of 220 ns. To address these challenges, in particular the question of radiation damage, the properties of the SiO_2 layer and of the Si-SiO_2 interface using MOS capacitors manufactured on high resistivity n-type silicon irradiated to X-ray doses between 10 kGy and 1 GGy, have been studied. Measurements of Capacitance/Conductance-Voltage (C/G-V) at different frequencies, as well as Thermal Dielectric Relaxation Current (TDRC) have been performed. The data can be described by a radiation dependent oxide charge density and three dominant radiation-induced interface states with Gaussian-like energy distributions in the silicon band gap. It is found that the densities of the fixed oxide charges and of the three interface states increase up to dose values of approximately 10 MGy and then saturate or even decrease. The shapes and the frequency dependences of the C/G-V measurements can be quantitatively described by a simple model using the parameters extracted from the TDRC measurements.
 Mathematics , 2005, Abstract: The X-ray of a permutation is defined as the sequence of antidiagonal sums in the associated permutation matrix. X-rays of permutation are interesting in the context of Discrete Tomography since many types of integral matrices can be written as linear combinations of permutation matrices. This paper is an invitation to the study of X-rays of permutations from a combinatorial point of view. We present connections between these objects and nondecreasing differences of permutations, zero-sum arrays, decomposable permutations, score sequences of tournaments, queens' problems and rooks' problems.
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