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The future of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Nigeria
M Anastassia, O Fredrick, W Malcolm
Science World Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the techniques for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. This article reviews the current status of CCS technology, highlights costs and discusses legal and regulatory issues of CCS. The main purpose of the article is to review CCS and CO2-EOR experience from ongoing projects in different parts of the world and give recommendations on how this knowledge can be applied in Nigeria. A potential demonstration CO2-EOR project in Nigeria under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is discussed.
Growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) for climate change mitigation
Jennie C. Stephens
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2006,
Abstract: Interest in technologies associated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been growing rapidly in both the public and private sectors over the past five to ten years as governments, industry, and individuals grapple with how to reconcile increased energy demand with the need to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to mitigate the risks of climate change. CCS technology involves capturing the CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion and storing it in underground geologic reservoirs instead of emitting it into the atmosphere. The idea of engineering the storage of carbon in a reservoir has developed from relative obscurity to an increasingly recognized approach to stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This paper (1) identifies several influential nongovernmental stakeholders and discusses their contributions to CCS and (2) describes how governmental influence through political positions, government-supported research and development, and regulations and international treaties have influenced CCS initiatives. While the relative strength of nongovernmental and governmental influences is not quantified, this treatment of the various factors contributing to the advancement of CCS technology highlights the complexity associated with integrating developments in science and engineering into sustainable practices.
The importance of CO2 capture and storage: A geopolitical discussion  [PDF]
Johnsson Filip,Kj?rstad Jan,Odenberger Mikael
Thermal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tsci120608135j
Abstract: The CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology is since more than ten years considered one of the key options for the future climate change mitigation. This paper discusses the implications for the further development of CCS, particularly with respect to climate change policy in an international geopolitics context. The rationale for developing CCS should be the over-abundance of fossil fuel reserves (and resources) in a climate change context. From a geopolitical point, it can be argued that the most important outcome from the successful commercialisation of CCS will be that fossil fuel-dependent economies with large fossil fuel resources will find it easier to comply with stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets (i.e. to attach a price to CO2 emissions). This should be of great importance since, from a geopolitical view, the curbing on GHG emissions cannot be isolated from security of supply and economic competition between regions. Thus, successful application of CCS may moderate geopolitical risks related to regional differences in the possibilities and thereby willingness to comply with large emission cuts. In Europe, application of CCS will enhance security of supply by fuel diversification from continued use of coal, especially domestic lignite. Introduction of CCS will also make possible negative emissions when using biomass as a fuel, i.e. in so called Biomass Energy CCS (BECCS). Yet, the development of BECCS relies on the successful development of fossil fuelled CCS since BECCS in itself is unlikely to be sufficient for establishing a cost efficient CCS infrastructure for transport and storage and because BECCS does not solve the problem with the abundant resources of fossil fuels. Results from research and development of capture, transport and storage of CO2 indicate that the barriers for commercialization of CCS should not be technical. Instead, the main barriers for implementation of CCS seem to be how to reach public acceptance, to reduce cost and to establish a high enough price on CO2 emissions. Failure to implement CCS will require that the global community, including Europe, agrees to almost immediately to start phasing out the use of fossil fuels, an agreement which seems rather unlikely, especially considering the abundant coal reserves in developing economies such as China and India. [Acknowledgements. The research on which the current work is based is funded by the project “Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems” and by the PLANETS project of the EU 7th Framework Program.]
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Nigeria: fundamental science and potential implementation risks
A Galadima, Z.N Garba
Science World Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is a novel global technology encompassing the isolation and transportation of CO2 from emission points followed by storage in appropriate geological formations. Although the process had been projected to play a great role in enhancing oil recovery from partly depleted oil and gas reservoirs as well as mitigating global climate change by 2030, the science, technology, and potential consequences of its application are not well understood in many African countries like Nigeria that are majorly dependent on oil and gas economy and contributing emitters of greenhouse gases. This paper described the fundamental science of CCS and addressed the potential risks of its future implementation in Nigeria. Critical analysis of the country’s oil and gas activities coupled with economic and political situation indicates that CCS project in Nigeria would be faced with challenges such as long implementation time, inefficient technology, gas leakage from geological storage, capture and storage costs and implementation decision and strategies.
Using Carbon Capture and Storage CCS Techniques in Mulla Abdulla and Taza Power Plants to Mitigate the Impact of Climate Change  [cached]
Sameer S. Mustafa,Fawzi M. Omar,Bilal A. Nasir
Energy Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.est.1923847920130501.708
Abstract: In the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), it was projected that the number of CO2 emission sources from the electric power and industrial sectors will increase significantly until 2050. Because fossil fuel-fired power plants are responsible for around one-third of total global CO2 emissions, they are prime candidates for the application of CO2 capture and storage techniques. The aim of this work is to mitigate the impact of climate change by reducing the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere in Mulla Abdulla and Taza power plants in Kirkuk/ Iraq using CCS techniques, and to calculate the cost of the system components.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Deployment – Can Canada Capitalize on Experience? Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Deployment – Can Canada Capitalize on Experience? Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Deployment – Can Canada Capitalize on Experience?  [cached]
Drew Thomson,Anshuman Khare
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2009,
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of Canada’s experience with carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) initiatives. While discussing various options available, the paper examines the success Canada has had with carbon capture and storage and why it is advantageous for Canada to make it part of their environmental sustainability effort. The paper also discusses the barriers and challenges in carbon capture and storage deployment. The paper ends with some speculation about how the technology can be adopted quickly if some organizations were more proactively involved with it. Carbon capture and storage has a potential to change how we reduce our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future. However, it has a long way to go as organizations start adopting it and unanswered questions get answered in the process. It certainly is a technology worth looking at as it can affect our future climate change initiatives. This paper presents an overview of Canada’s experience with carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) initiatives. While discussing various options available, the paper examines the success Canada has had with carbon capture and storage and why it is advantageous for Canada to make it part of their environmental sustainability effort. The paper also discusses the barriers and challenges in carbon capture and storage deployment. The paper ends with some speculation about how the technology can be adopted quickly if some organizations were more proactively involved with it. Carbon capture and storage has a potential to change how we reduce our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future. However, it has a long way to go as organizations start adopting it and unanswered questions get answered in the process. It certainly is a technology worth looking at as it can affect our future climate change initiatives. This paper presents an overview of Canada’s experience with carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) initiatives. While discussing various options available, the paper examines the success Canada has had with carbon capture and storage and why it is advantageous for Canada to make it part of their environmental sustainability effort. The paper also discusses the barriers and challenges in carbon capture and storage deployment. The paper ends with some speculation about how the technology can be adopted quickly if some organizations were more proactively involved with it. Carbon capture and storage has a potential to change how we reduce our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future. However, it has a long way to go as organizations start adopting it and unanswered questions get
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Deployment: Can Canada Capitalize on Experience?
Thomson,Drew; Khare,Anshuman;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242008000200009
Abstract: this paper presents an overview of canada's experience with carbon capture & storage (ccs) initiatives. while discussing various options available, the paper examines the success canada has had with carbon capture and storage and why it is advantageous for canada to make it part of their environmental sustainability effort. the paper also discusses the barriers and challenges in carbon capture and storage deployment. the paper ends with some speculation about how the technology can be adopted quickly if some organizations were more proactively involved with it. carbon capture and storage has a potential to change how we reduce our greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions in the future. however, it has a long way to go as organizations start adopting it and unanswered questions get answered in the process. it certainly is a technology worth looking at as it can affect our future climate change initiatives.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Deployment – Can Canada Capitalize on Experience?  [cached]
Drew Thomson,Anshuman Khare
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2008,
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of Canada’s experience with carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) initiatives. While discussing various options available, the paper examines the success Canada has had with carbon capture and storage and why it is advantageous for Canada to make it part of their environmental sustainability effort. The paper also discusses the barriers and challenges in carbon capture and storage deployment. The paper ends with some speculation about how the technology can be adopted quickly if some organizations were more proactively involved with it.Carbon capture and storage has a potential to change how we reduce our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the future. However, it has a long way to go as organizations start adopting it and unanswered questions get answered in the process. It certainly is a technology worth looking at as it can affect our future climate change initiatives.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Its Potential Role to Mitigate Carbon Emission in China
CO2收集封存战略及其对我国远期减缓CO2排放的潜在作用

CHEN Wen-ying,WU Zong-xin,WANG Wei-zhong,
陈文颖
,吴宗鑫,王伟中

环境科学 , 2007,
Abstract: Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been widely recognized as one of the options to mitigate carbon emission to eventually stabilize carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Three parts of CCS, which are carbon capture, transport, and storage are assessed in this paper, covering comparisons of techno-economic parameters for different carbon capture technologies, comparisons of storage mechanism, capacity and cost for various storage formations, and etc. In addition, the role of CCS to mitigate global carbon emission is introduced. Finally, China MARKAL model is updated to include various CCS technologies, especially indirect coal liquefaction and poly-generation technologies with CCS, in order to consider carbon emission reduction as well as energy security issue. The model is used to generate different scenarios to study potential role of CCS to mitigate carbon emissions by 2050 in China. It is concluded that application of CCS can decrease marginal abatement cost and the decrease rate can reach 45% for the emission reduction rate of 50%, and it can lessen the dependence on nuclear power development for stringent carbon constrains. Moreover, coal resources can be cleanly used for longer time with CCS, e. g., for the scenario C70, coal share in the primary energy consumption by 2050 will increase from 10% when without CCS to 30% when with CCS. Therefore, China should pay attention to CCS R &D activities and to developing demonstration projects.
A New Equation of State for CCS Pipeline Transport: Calibration of Mixing Rules for Binary Mixtures of CO2 with N2, O2 and H2  [PDF]
Thomas A. Demetriades,Richard S. Graham
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: One of the aspects currently holding back commercial scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an accurate understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of carbon dioxide and relevant impurities during the pipeline transport stage. In this article we develop a general framework for deriving pressure-explicit EoS for impure CO2. This flexible framework facilitates ongoing development of custom EoS in response to new data and computational applications. We use our method to generalise a recent EoS for pure CO2 [Demetriades et al. Proc IMechE Part E, 227 (2013) pp. 117] to binary mixtures with N2, O2 and H2, obtaining model parameters by fitting to experiments made under conditions relevant to CCS-pipeline transport. Our model pertains to pressures up to 16MPa and temperatures between 273K and the critical temperature of pure CO2. In this region, we achieve close agreement with experimental data. When compared to the GERG EoS, our EoS has a comparable level of agreement with CO2 -N2 VLE experiments and demonstrably superior agreement with the O2 and H2 VLE data. Finally, we discuss future options to improve the calibration of EoS and to deal with the sparsity of data for some impurities.
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