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Spatiotemporal pattern and its driving forces of urban growth in Shenyang City
沈阳市城镇扩展时空格局及其驱动力

WU Xiao-qing,HU Yuan-man,HE Hong-shi,BU Ren-cang,XI Feng-ming,
吴晓青
,胡远满,贺红士,布仁仓,郗凤明

应用生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: By using time series Landsat TM satellite images and adopting GIS spatial analysis and landscape pattern analysis methods,this paper studied the spatiotemporal diversity of urban growth and the evolution of urban landscape pattern in Shenyang,and examined their driving forces.The results showed that in 1988-2004,the urban area in Shenyang increased persistently,and the growth intensity enhanced consistently,with the peaks occured in 2000-2004.The spatial differentiation of urban growth in the City was also distinct,with the southwest direction as the leading orientation,and the urban edges and different level economic development zones as the main growth areas.The urban landscape pattern became more and more complex,and the compactness index of urban development decreased.The evolution of urban landscape pattern was related to the characteristics of urban growth,which also showed spatiotemporal diversity.The urban growth and urban landscape pattern evolution in Shenyang were mainly attributed to the development of industrialization and the construction of different level economic development zones,the proper policies of local governments and the urban planning,as well as the development of traffic infrastructure.
The influencing factors of urban land expansion in Changsha

ZHOU Guohua,HE Yanhua,

地理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: This research systematically analyses land-use map of Changsha city in different periods of time. The spatial form and structural evolution was analysed by studying indices such as city land-use structure proportion, expansion intensity, economic flexibility, population flexibility, changing compactness index and so on. The dynamic mechanism of urban land expansion has been discussed by integrating the regional social economy development situation and many aspects such as the physiographical surrounding, population and eco-nomic development, traffic infrastructure, planning and regional development tactic and system innovation. The research indicates that the urban land expansion speed and intensity have steadily increased in Changsha from 1949 to 2004. The expansion form has been from a single external expansion to a combination form of external and internal expansion, from a circular or linear continuous form to a blocky or agglomeration shape. Overall, the urban land expansion of Changsha city is a phasic, diversified and complex process. And no matter what the stage is, it is an organic system containing multiple speed, pattern and shape, which are driven by multiple impetuses. The dominant feature at different stages was highlighted be-cause of the balance and fluctuation between different forces, and the existing urban land border and shape have resulted from the joint efforts of these phasic forces.
The influencing factors of urban land expansion in Changsha
长沙城市土地扩张特征及影响因素

ZHOU Guohua,HE Yanhua,
周国华
,贺艳华

地理学报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: This research systematically analyses land-use map of Changsha city in different periods of time. The spatial form and structural evolution was analysed by studying indices such as city land-use structure proportion, expansion intensity, economic flexibility, population flexibility, changing compactness index and so on. The dynamic mechanism of urban land expansion has been discussed by integrating the regional social economy development situation and many aspects such as the physiographical surrounding, population and economic development, traffic infrastructure, planning and regional development tactic and system innovation. The research indicates that the urban land expansion speed and intensity have steadily increased in Changsha from 1949 to 2004. The expansion form has been from a single external expansion to a combination form of external and internal expansion, from a circular or linear continuous form to a blocky or agglomeration shape. Overall, the urban land expansion of Changsha city is a phasic, diversified and complex process. And no matter what the stage is, it is an organic system containing multiple speed, pattern and shape, which are driven by multiple impetuses. The dominant feature at different stages was highlighted be- cause of the balance and fluctuation between different forces, and the existing urban land border and shape have resulted from the joint efforts of these phasic forces.
Cities as Organisms: Allometric Scaling of Urban Road Networks
Horacio Samaniego,Melanie E. Moses
Journal of Transport and Land Use , 2008,
Abstract: We propose a statistical approach to determine the features of urban road networks affecting accessibility. Our approach is inspired by metabolic scaling theory (MST) in biology (West et al. 1997).We study the structure of road networks across 425 cities of different sizes in the USA. We show decentralization as an important difference between urban road networks and biological vascular networks. Per capita road capacity is independent of the spatial extent of cities. Driving distances do depend on the size of the city, although not as much as is predicted by a completely centralized model. This intermediate pattern between centralized and decentralized extremes may reflect a mixture of different travel behaviors.The approach presented here offers a novel macroscopic perspective on the differences between small and large cities and on how the road infrastructure and traffic might change as cities grow.
The spatial distribution,transition and residential pattern of low-income residents in Beijing
北京市低收入人群的居住空间分布、演变与聚居类型

CHEN Li,ZHANG Wen-zhong,DANG Yun-xiao,YU Jian-hui,
谌丽
,张文忠,党云晓,余建辉

地理研究 , 2012,
Abstract: China's rapid urbanization and economic restructuring have given rise to a growing social stratum that is considered as low-income citizens.This research intends to expand this topic by analyzing the residential pattern of low-income citizens in Beijing,a mega-city experiencing a rapid transition in China.The purpose of this study is to develop a systematic understanding of low income residents,including the social-economic attributes,spatial distribution,and residential patterns.Based on the large-scale survey from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing,this study used the method of Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis and Factor Analysis to examine the residential differentiation of low-income citizens across a total of 47 blocks,covering eight districts and five representative suburban regions.It is revealed that most of the low-income residents in Beijing were below 30 or over 50 years old,without well-educated background,and majored in labor-intensive industries.Spatially,the high incidence blocks for the urban poor were mainly distributed in urban fringes;furthermore,these people were found to spread outward with the rapid urbanization process.In addition,the distribution of low-income residents in 2009 reflected a tendency of centralization compared with 2005.The most notable cluster is situated in the northwestern part of the city,including the communities of Shangzhuang,Wenquan,Malianwa and Shangdi,where the urban poor had the largest proportion.Another cluster of low-income residents is located in the inner city of Beijing.We also found the proportion of the urban poor in the eastern and northern parts of the city decreased drastically,which may be due to the development of CBD or Olympic infrastructure construction.Finally,according to Factor Analysis,factors related to the socio-economy and housing attributes of low-income residents were identified and used to divide the blocks into three distinctive groups.Among them,the local urban poor mainly lived in the old-city protective areas of inner city;the rural migrants gathered themselves together in the suburban areas of Shangzhuang,Wenquan,Malianwa and Laoshan,or in the old city areas of Shichahai and Xinjiekou;the potential urban poor,which were well educated young people,were gathered in some places close to the city center with convenient traffic facilities,such as the communities of Wangjing,Taiyanggong,Yuetan and Wanshoulu.
Spatial scale effect of urban land use landscape pattern in Shanghai City
上海市城市土地利用景观的空间尺度效应

XU Li-hua,YUE Wen-ze,CAO Yu,
徐丽华
,岳文泽,曹宇

应用生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Based on geographic information system(GIS) and remote sensing(RS) techniques,the landscape classes of urban land use in Shanghai City were extracted from SPOT images with 5 m spatial resolution in 2002,and then,the classified data were applied to quantitatively explore the change patterns of several basic landscape metrics at different scales.The results indicated that landscape metrics were sensitive to grain-and extent variance.Urban landscape pattern was spatially dependent.In other words,different landscape metrics showed different responses to scale.The resolution of 40 m was an intrinsic observing scale for urban landscape in Shanghai City since landscape metrics showed random characteristics while the grain was less than 40 m.The extent of 24 km was a symbol scale in a series of extents,which was consistent with the boundary between urban built-up area and suburban area in Shanghai City.As a result,the extent of 12 km away from urban center would be an intrinsic handle scale for urban landscape in Shanghai City.However,due to the complexity of urban structure and asymmetry of urban spatial expansion,the intrinsic handle scale was not regular extent,and the square with size of 24 km was just an approximate intrinsic extent for Shanghai City.
Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Land Expansion in Changsha
长沙城市土地扩张特征及影响因素

ZHOU Guohua,HE Yanhua,
周国华
,贺艳华

地理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Based on the analysis about actual land-use map of Changsha City in different times, this article analyzed the characteristic of urban spatial expansion of Changsha from time sequence, spatial form and structure evolution systemically by studying indexes such as city land-use structure proportion, expansion intensity index, economy flexibility index, population flexibility index, compaction degree changing index and so on. And then it discussed the dynamic mechanism of urban land expansion by integrating the regional socioeconomic development situation and many aspects such as physiographical environment, population growth and economic development, traffic infrastructure, planning and regional development strategies and system innovation. The research indicated that the urban land expansion speed and intensity got higher step by step in Changsha from 1949 to 2004, the whole trend became more and more reasonable, and the expansion form changed from a single external expansion to a combination form of external and internal expansion, from a circular or linear continuous form to a speckled or clustered discontinuous pattern. Overall, the urban land expansion of Changsha is a phasic, diversified and complex process. And no matter what the stage is, it is an organic system containing multiple speed, pattern and shape, which are driven by multiply impetuses. The dominant features in different stages presented clearly because of balance and fluctuation between different forces, and the existing urban land border and shape were formed finally under the joint efforts of these phasic forces.
The Spatial Pattern of Urban Goods Movement in Akure, Nigeria
Enosko Okoko
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study reports the pattern of urban goods movement in Akure, Nigeria. It examines a sample of the empirical pattern of urban goods movement in various landuse typologies in Akure town. The empirical pattern of interaction was subjected to gravity modeling and linear programming modeling to obtain predictions on the spatial pattern of urban goods movement, using the travel time as the impedance factor. The study identifies, through the modeling exercise, the urban landuse typologies that are major generators of urban goods transport and the landuses that are major attractors of urban goods trips in the city. Recommendations and policy issues are advanced based on the findings of the study.
Xijiang golden waterway development and restructuring of the urban system in Xijiang economic region of Guangxi
广西西江黄金水道开发与西江经济带城镇体系空间结构重构

LIU Sheng-he,LAN Xiao-xiong,FAN Jie,
刘盛和
,兰肖雄,樊杰

地理研究 , 2012,
Abstract: China has been rapidly constructing its major transportation infrastructure such as high-speed railway and highway,waterway,which have great impacts on regional city development and urban system planning,so it is urgently needed to explore the impact evaluation method and to conduct empirical case studies.By taking Xijiang waterway development as a case study with AHP method,this paper firstly puts forward an impact evaluation index system consisting of 13 indexes in 4 aspects such as the improvement of regional economic location,the improvement of water transport capacity,the improvement of regional comprehensive transportation conditions and the potential of industrial development.Then,the differential impacts of Xijiang waterway exploitation on city development in sub-areas have been evaluated by using this index system.The results are shown as follows.(1) The impacts of Xijiang waterway development on city development are strongly concentrated on the axis of Xijiang riverside and are also different in different sub-areas.Thus,different sub-areas within Xijiang economic region should adopt different urbanization development strategies.The eastern sub-area should rapidly develop the city corridor along the Xijiang mainstream,the central sun-area should actively develop the metropolitan areas such as Nanning Metropolis,and the upstream sub-area should mainly develop characteristic cities.(2) Xijiang waterway development also has strong impacts on the regional urban system and its spatial structure planning.By conducting comprehensive comparison among the three spatial models such as the "Central Radiation" model,the "Golden Triangle" model and the "Reverse-T" model pattern,this paper concludes that the "Central Radiation" model,which is proposed by the "Guangxi Urban System Planning(2006-2020) ",is no long suitable,and the latter two models or their combination are more suitable.
Urban Crime and Pattern Conceptions: Departuring from Spatiality  [PDF]
Hesam Kamalipour, Gholamhossein Memarian, Mohsen Faizi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.26051
Abstract: Various conceptions of pattern from biology, computer science, and mathematics to environmental design, psychology, and sociology give rise to the multiplicity of definitions, descriptions, applications, scales, and common features of spatial patterns in urban environments. Considering the complex relations between spatiality and sociality in place theory, the study tends to explore a growing body of knowledge in conceptions of urban crime and pattern. Placing the investigations of urban crime in relation to sociality and spatiality, the paper advocates for departuring from spatiality that is the common ground between urban crime and pattern conceptions. Hence, dismissing both deterministic and free-will approaches to environmental design and addressing the urban crime as a complex city problem, the study argues that adopting a kind of spatial knowledge and possibilistic approach is critical for both understanding and transforming the city in order to investigate the issue of urban crime in relation to spatial patterns.
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