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Proximate, Antinutrients and Mineral Composition of Raw and Processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds from Southern Kaduna, Northwest Nigeria  [PDF]
Uche Samuel Ndidi,Charity Unekwuojo Ndidi,Abbas Olagunju,Aliyu Muhammad,Francis Graham Billy,Oche Okpe
ISRN Nutrition , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/280837
Abstract: This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference ( ) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference ( ) in the levels of moisture, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, gross energy, true protein, and crude fiber between the processed and unprocessed S. stenocarpa. Analyses of the antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150–400?mg/100?g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2–45?mg/100?g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria. 1. Introduction Legumes are staple foods for many people in different parts of the world. The seeds have an average of twice as much protein as cereals by percentage and usually contain more balanced profile of essential amino acids [1]. They range from the highly utilized legumes such as soybean, groundnut, and cowpea to the lesser known ones like Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Mucuna cochinchinensis, and Mucuna flagellipes. African Yam Bean (AYB), Sphenostylis stenocarpa, is a grain legume cultivated in Central African Republic, Zaire, East Africa, and Ethiopia for its tubers and in the southeastern Nigeria for its edible seeds [2]. It is believed to be one of the most important tuberous legumes in Africa [2]. The seed grains and tubers are the two major organs of immense economic importance as food for Africans. However, there are cultural and regional preferences. In West Africa, the seeds are preferred to the tubers but tubers are relished in East and Central Africa [3]. In Southeastern Nigeria, the seeds are roasted and eaten with kernel seed. In addition, the seeds are also eaten as porridge when prepared with yam. It has been discovered that the plant is also found in some parts of Southern Kaduna,
Effect of Germination on the Performance Characteristics of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst ex A Rich) Seed Meal on Albino Rats
CF Onwuka, CC Ikewuchi, CJ Ikewuchi, OE Ayalogu
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2009,
Abstract: The performance characteristics or quality of protein from ungerminated and germinated African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seeds on male Wistar albino rats was investigated. The proteins were found to have high true digestibility (TD) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The net protein retention (NPR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE), Net protein value (NPV), Nitrogen efficiency ratio (NER), feed efficiency ratio (FER) and relative NPR (RNPR) of the ungerminated seeds were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those of the germinated seeds, while their net protein utilization (NPU) were not significantly different. This implies a great potency of Sphenostylis stenocarpa seed protein as a source of high quality protein especially in the preparation of protein supplements and formulation of new diets: and the possibility of improvement by germination
Protein and Amino Acid Compositions of Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Sesamum indicum, Monodora myristica and Afzelia africana Seeds from Nigeria  [PDF]
O.A. Ojiako,C.U. Igwe,N.C. Agha,C.A. Ogbuji
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Flours produced from raw, blanched and boiled seeds of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (African yam bean), Sesamum indicum (Sesame seed), Monodora myristica (Calabash nutmeg) and Afzelia africana (African oak) were evaluated for total protein and amino acid compositions. The results show that the seeds of S. indicum had the highest total protein content (24.74±0.56%) relative to those of S. stenocarpa (18.90±0.35%), M. myristica (12.83±0.40%) and A. africana (9.56±0.12%). The amino acid contents followed the pattern 0.030±0.010 mol/l for S. stenocarpa >0.025±0.005 mol/l for A. africana >0.014±0.003 mol/l for M. myristica >0.010±0.002 mol/l for S. indicum. The seeds were found to be rich in amino acids especially the essential amino acids which relative to the non-essential amino acids had high percentages of 81, 80, 77 and 70% for S. stenocarpa, M. myristica, S. indicum and A. Africana respectively. Boiling significantly (p<0.05) reduced the protein and amino acid contents of all the seeds, while blanching only significantly (p<0.05) reduced the amino acid contents of S. stenocarpa, S. indicum and A. Africana seeds. The results suggest that the seeds are potentially important plant sources of proteins and amino acids especially the essential amino acids necessary for human and livestock nutrition.
Genetic Assessment of Three Colour Variants of African Yam Bean[Sphenostylis Stenocarpa] Commonly Grown in the Midwestern Region of Nigeria
International Journal of Modern Botany , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmb.20120202.01
Abstract: Three varieties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were collected from six different locations in Edo State, Nigeria (Ekpoma, Benin City, Auchi, Igueben, Igbanke and Sabongida Ora). These seeds were then characterized based on seed colour into black, brown, and light grey. The seeds were screened in the field for agronomic and yield associated characters as well as chemical composition of the seeds. Considerable variations were observed in both agronomic and yield associated characters like shoot height, leaf area, grain yield and total ash content of the seeds. The black colour variant was significantly (p<0.05) highest in grain yield per hectare (1542.28kg/ha) compared to both brown variant (1304.23kg/ha) and the light grey type (1259.97kg/ha).
Heterogeneity in the seed globulin and albumin fractions from African yam bean Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hoechst. Ex A. Rich) harms
Jesse Machuka
African Crop Science Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Successful fractionation of albumin, globulin and vicilin fractions from dry seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was achieved using established procedures for preparation of legume seed proteins. The resulting polypeptides were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing (in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol [2-ME]) and non-reducing (without 2-ME) conditions. Based on this analysis, it was possible to establish similarities and differences among 26 different accessions of African yam beans collected from local markets in eastern Nigeria. RéSUMé Un fractionnement réussi de l'albumine, du globuline et de la viciline des graines sèches de haricot igname d'Afrique (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) a été réalisé par des procédures établies pour la préparation des protéines des graines des légumineuses. Les polypeptides qui en résultent ont été séparés par un gel d'électrophorèse de polyacrylamide natif sous les conditions de réduction (en présence du 2-mercaptoethanol [2-ME] et de no-réduction (sans 2-ME). Sur base de cette analyse, il a été possible d'établir des similarités et des differences entre les 26 accessions des haricots igname d'Afrique collectées dans les differents marchés lacaux de l'Est du Nigeria. (Af Crop Science and Production: 2001 9(4): 607-614)
Genetic variation within a collection of Nigerian accessions of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa,/I>) revealed by RAPD primers
OK Moyib, MA Gbadegesin, OO Aina, OA Odunola
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. ex A. Rich, Harms) an indigenous food crop legume in tropical Africa, is highly under-exploited. Very little information is available on the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Nigerian accession of African yam bean (AYB) particularly using molecular markers. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used to assess genetic diversity in twenty-four accessions of Nigerian collection of AYB. Eleven random decamer primers were used for PCR amplification, but only nine RAPD primers that gave distinct bands were considered for analysis. A total of Fifty-three RAPD bands were generated by the nine RAPD primers and analyzed using Numeric Taxonomy System of Statistic (NTSYS). The similarity indices ranged from 0.42 to 0.96; 8 distinct DNA cluster groups were identified at 0.80 similarity indexes. Results showed a high genetic diversity among Nigerian accession of African yam bean. Such genetic diversity is useful in facilitating the development of large number of new varieties through hybridization, transfer of useful genes, thus maximizing the use of such available germplasms as genetic resource materials for breeders.
Growth and yield responses of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex. A Rich) Harms (African yam bean) to potassium application
GC Mgbeze, B Ikhajiagbe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Responses of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) to supplementary application of potassium (K) on soil were examined. Effects of the varying levels of potassium on vegetative growth, flowering, pod maturation, yield and yield components were also evaluated. There seems to be no significant mean effect (P > 0.05) upon K application on the above ground parameters of African yam bean. Similarly, soil enrichment with K had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on below ground parameters of the crop. Mineral elemental applications had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on days to 50% flowering but their effect on the number of flowers per plant for example 192.75 ± 9.87 flowers per plant in 550 kg K/Ha treatment as against 145.13 ± 18.02 flowers per plant in the control treatment were significantly different. However, grain yield per hectare increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of K application when compared to controls.
Processed African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) in Broiler Feeding: Performance Characteristics and Nutrient Utilization  [PDF]
Emiola, I. A.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding raw and processed African yam bean (AYB) Sphenostylis stenocarpa on the performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens. The experiment utilized one hundred and twenty one day old Abor-Acre broiler chicks in 56-days intensive feeding trial. Four dietary treatments comprising a basal maize-soybean meal diet and three differently processed AYB meals were used to replace soybean at 50% protein for protein in the basal diet (raw, aqueous heating and dehulled AYB). There were four 4 treatments groups of 3 replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Birds were randomly divided into four groups in a completely randomized block design. It was revealed that a 50% protein for protein replacement of SBM with cooked AYB was equally as good as feeding SBM as protein source in diet of broiler chicks. Hence, Aqueous heating was a better processing method for African yam bean compared to dehulling or better still dehulling prior to aqueous heating to enable adequate removal of the anti-nutritional factors to the barest minimum.
Phytoassessment of a Waste Engine Oil-polluted Soil Exposed to Two Different Intervals of Monitored Natural Attenuation Using African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa)  [PDF]
B. Ikhajiagbe,G.O. Anoliefo,M.A. Jolaoso,E.O. Oshomoh
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The present study comparatively investigated the phytotoxic effects of waste engine oil (WEO)-polluted soil exposed to monitored natural attenuation up to 5 and 14 months respectively. Soil was previously polluted with WEO at 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w oil in soil. Although, there was significant reduction in heavy metal concentration of soil as well as total hydrocarbon contents, performance of Sphenostylis stenocarpa was greatly retarded when sown at 5 months after pollution (MAP), with death of all seedlings except in the control. However, growth and yield performances were significantly (p>0.05) enhanced at 14 MAP. Computation of hazard quotient showed that ecological risk factor initially posed by the presence of heavy metals in the soil at 5 MAP was significantly (p>0.05) reduced to safe levels at 14 MAP.
DPPH Radical Scavenging Capacity of Phenolic Extracts from African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa)  [PDF]
Victor N. Enujiugha, Justina Y. Talabi, Sunday A. Malomo, Aderonke I. Olagunju
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.31002
Abstract: The phenolic extracts of the seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were studied using different extraction solvents (70% ethanol, 80% acetone and acidic 70% acetone) and two heat treatment methods (dry heating on a hot plate with acid-washed sea sand at 135℃ for 25 min and wet heating in an autoclave at 120℃ for 20 min). The study examined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) of the seed extracts, as well as their free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. The raw African yam bean seed was dry heated in air oven at 100℃ for 5 min (control). Heat treatments application affected the phenolic contents of the seeds significantly (p < 0.05). The free radical scavenging activity of the phenolics were done using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The effectiveness of the extract was determined using DPPH at 50 mg/g, 10 mg/g and 5 mg/g of the extracts. At 5 mg/g, the extract was most effective indicating that higher concentration of extract gave higher antioxidant activity. The seed has high antioxidant capacity and an appreciable amount of phenolic extracts.
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