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Potential of Small-Scale Hydropower for Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Chiyembekezo S. Kaunda,Cuthbert Z. Kimambo,Torbjorn K. Nielsen
ISRN Renewable Energy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/132606
Abstract: The importance of renewable energy such as small hydropower for sustainable power generation in relation to its capacity to contribute towards alleviating acute shortage of rural electricity supply in the sub-Saharan African region has been discussed. A relatively comprehensive small hydropower technology review has been presented. Rural electricity supply scenario in the region has been presented and, in general, the region has very low electricity access levels coupled with various challenges. Small hydropower technology has been discussed as one of the promising decentralised power generation system for rural electricity supply in the region. Despite challenges in data acquisition, this paper has shown that the SSA has significant hydropower resources, but the level of installation is very low. Challenges hampering SHP technology development in the region have been identified and discussed, such as those concerning technology, climate change, finance, and policy. This is basically a paper where the authors consulted a wide range of literature including journals, conference proceedings, and reports as well as expert knowledge in the area. It is hoped that this paper contributes to the information base on SHP technology which is quite lacking in the region. 1. Introduction Sustainable electricity supply not only supports social and economic development processes but also environmental and global climate change management and hence its importance in attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. Currently, there is an increasing electricity demand in industry, household, and services sectors in developing countries to support social-economic development activities. If this electricity is generated unsustainably and the trend is not controlled, it could lead to exacerbation of environmental and climate change management problems which the world is currently experiencing. The energy supply sector (mainly for generation of electricity), according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the largest contributor to the global human-induced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (responsible for global warming—main cause of climate change); in 2004, energy supply sector contributed to around 26% of global GHG emissions, followed by forestry (17%), agriculture (13%), and transport (13%) [1]. Developing countries, especially those from sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries (sub-Saharan Africa as a geographical term refers to the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. The countries in the sub-Saharan African region are Angola,
Large capacity cnergy from Geo- Plutonic formation for power plants with zero CO2 emissions  [PDF]
R.H. Koz?owski,B.M. Zakiewicz
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: The publication presented is a realistic, one of the practicable idea for a substitute to system power plants, consisting in the construction of combined heat and power plants using renewable resources of geo-plutonic energy.Design/methodology/approach: There are various methods of obtaining geothermal energy and various uses for it. The proposed GEO-PLUTONIC ENERGY represents an endless, renewable source of energy coming from nuclear reaction in the Earth’s nucleus, where the temperature reaches 6,000 Centigrade. Mass production of electricity from the Earth’s heat, possible in Iceland due to the volcanic nature of these resources and the shallow depth at which they occur, was difficult in other countries due to the high cost of drilling to greater depths. This barrier has been overcome by us through using a special horizontal drilling technique.Findings: In order to extract and collect the accumulated energy from the area of a large thermal field, a modified shaft/drilling system (called a Super Daisy System) equipped with a 3D grate of directional bore-holes called Jet-Stingers fitted with multi-functional heat exchangers is used. The emission-free concept of Geo-Plutonic Energy with the temperature of only over 250oC, from which we can obtain about 30 MPa of pressure on the turbine. With increased the depth the temperature and heat transmissibility will be raised significantly, which can resulted the yield even to 7-10 MWe (of electricity) from one deep heat exchanger.Research limitations/implications: From the rock mass we can collect renewable resources of ,,dry” ascending energy from the paleo heat flow coming from the great atomic furnace – the magma.Originality/value: We are experienced in using the appropriate hydro-thermodynamic theory and its applications which allows us to almost precisely forecast and control the quantity of heat not exceeding 20% of the 100% regeneration capability in the same time range.
Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria  [cached]
Godwin Effiong Akpan,Usenobong Friday Akpan
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy , 2012,
Abstract: This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM) framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption) and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.
Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries  [PDF]
Mohammed Redha Qader
Energies , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/en20401201
Abstract: CO 2, N 2O, and CH 4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Electricity consumption and the related CO 2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC)] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO 2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.
Nash equilibrium for coupling of CO2 allowances and electricity markets  [PDF]
Mireille Bossy,Nadia Maizi,Odile Pourtallier
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: In this note, we present an existence result of a Nash equilibrium between electricity producers selling their production on an electricity market and buying CO2 emission allowances on an auction carbon market. The producers' strategies integrate the coupling of the two markets via the cost functions of the electricity production. We set out a clear Nash equilibrium that can be used to compute equilibrium prices on both markets as well as the related electricity produced and CO2 emissions covered.
MODELLING CO2 EMISSIONS IMPACTS ON CROATIAN POWER SYSTEM  [cached]
Robert Pa?i?ko,Slavica Robi?,?eljko Tom?i?
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci1003655p
Abstract: Today's electrical energy landscape is characterized by new challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities, and demand to cut CO2 emissions. All mentioned challenges are calling for consideration of various options (like nuclear, coal, gas or renewable scenarios) and for better understanding of energy systems modelling in order to optimize proper energy mix. Existing models are not sufficient any more and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. European emission trading scheme (EU ETS) started in 2005 and it has great influence on power system short term and long term planning. Croatia is obliged to establish a national scheme for trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances from the year 2010, which will be focused on monitoring and reporting only until accession to EU when it will be linked with EU ETS. Thus, for Croatian power system it is very important to analyze possible impacts of CO2 emissions. Analysis presented in this paper was done by two different models: mathematical model, based on short run marginal costs (SRMC, relevant for fuel switch in existing power plant and merit order change) and long run marginal costs (LRMC, relevant for new investment decisions); and electricity market simulation model PLEXOS, which was used for modelling Croatian power system during development of the Croatian energy strategy in 2008. Results of the analysis show important impacts that emission trading has on Croatian power system, such as influence of emission price rise on price of electricity and on emission quantity, and changes in power plants output that appear with emission price rise. Breakeven point after which gas power plant becomes more competitive than coal is 62 €/tCO2 for SRMC and 40 €/tCO2 for LRMC. With CO2 prices above 31 €/tCO2 wind is more competitive than gas or coal, which emphasizes importance that emission price has on competitiveness of renewables.
Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications  [PDF]
Lamiaa Abdallah,Tarek El-Shennawy
Journal of Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/845051
Abstract: Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2)—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower). Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization. 1. Introduction Global emissions in 2010 approached 30 gigatons (Gt). Approximately 12?Gt (40%) are emitted from electricity generation sector through the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas to generate the heat needed to power steam-driven turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide ( )—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming, in addition to other nitrogen and sulfur oxides responsible for various environmental impacts [1]. Over the past two centuries, mankind has increased the concentration of in the atmosphere from 280 to more than 380 parts per million by volume, and it is growing faster every day. As the concentration of has risen, so has the average temperature of the planet. Over the past century, the average surface temperature of Earth has increased by about 0.74°C. If we continue to emit carbon without control, temperatures are expected to rise by an additional 3.4°C by the end of this century. Climate change of that magnitude would likely have serious consequences for life on Earth. Sea level rise,
CARBON EMISSIONS CAPS AND THE IMPACT OF A RADICAL CHANGE IN NUCLEAR ELECTRICITY COSTS  [cached]
Benjamin D. Leibowicz,Maria Roumpani,Peter H. Larsen
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy , 2013,
Abstract: In this study we analyze the impact of a radical change in nuclear electricity costs on the optimal electricity generation technology mix (EGTM) and constrain the value of information (VOI) on future nuclear costs. We consider three nuclear cost events and four carbon emissions caps. We develop a two-stage framework for energy-economic model MARKAL to eliminate foresight of future nuclear cost movements. We examine how the EGTM responds to these movements under alternative caps and analyze how these movements affect the cost of each cap. We define the expected savings from perfect foresight (ESPF), an upper bound on the VOI. We found that with current technologies, carbon mitigation that does not rely heavily on nuclear electricity is economically insensible. The Strong Cap is extremely costly because it restricts flexibility to respond to cost signals in choosing among technologies. The ESPF is highest under the Medium Cap by a substantial margin.
Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa
J. G. Canadell, M. R. Raupach,R. A. Houghton
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2009,
Abstract: An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 Tg C y 1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 Tg C y 1) and land use change (240 Tg C y 1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 Tg C accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y 1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 t C y 1 compared to the global average of 1.2 t C y 1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US{$} of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa was 187 g C/$ in 2005, close to the world average of 199 g C/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.
Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa  [PDF]
J. G. Canadell,M. R. Raupach,R. A. Houghton
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y 1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y 1) and land use change (240 TgC y 1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y 1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y 1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y 1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US $ of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/$, close to the world average of 199 gC/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.
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