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Adiposity and Age Explain Most of the Association between Physical Activity and Fitness in Physically Active Men  [PDF]
José A. Serrano-Sánchez,Safira Delgado-Guerra,Hugo Olmedillas,Amelia Guadalupe-Grau,Rafael Arteaga-Ortiz,Joaquín Sanchis-Moysi,Cecilia Dorado,José A. L. Calbet
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013435
Abstract: To determine if there is an association between physical activity assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness.
The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children  [PDF]
Xianwen Shang,Ailing Liu,Yanping Li,Xiaoqi Hu,Lin Du,Jun Ma,Guifa Xu,Ying Li,Hongwei Guo,Guansheng Ma
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/515414
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50?m sprint, and 50? 8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight ( –0.54). Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children. 1. Introduction The increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health problem in both the developed and the developing world [1–3] In Asia, there is an alarming increase in the proportion of overweight and obese children and adolescents especially in countries undergoing nutritional and lifestyle transition, such as China [1, 4]. In 1982, the prevalence of overweight and obese youngsters in China was 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively. The rates increased in triple or more with 4.4% for overweight and 0.9% for obesity in 2002 [1]. Childhood obesity is a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including heart disease, some cancers, and osteoarthritis in adulthood life. Some diseases, however, can become manifest during childhood, particularly type 2 diabetes [5]. In addition, some studies reported that overweight and obesity decreased the physical exercise capability and then reduced health-related physical fitness, such as cardiorespiratory fitness and speed of movement [6, 7]. Maintaining an appropriate level of health-related physical fitness allows a person to participate and enjoy physical activity, and reduce the risk of disease and injury. Report on the Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance of Chinese School Students in 2005, revealed that muscular explosive
The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children  [PDF]
Xianwen Shang,Ailing Liu,Yanping Li,Xiaoqi Hu,Lin Du,Jun Ma,Guifa Xu,Ying Li,Hongwei Guo,Guansheng Ma
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/515414
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50 m sprint, and 50 m?8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight (OR=0.13–0.54). Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children.
Influence of exercise habits and physical fitness level on subjective fatigue symptoms in adolescent students  [PDF]
Shinichi Demura, Takayoshi Yamada, Shigeru Shimada, Masanobu Uchiyama
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.31004
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the influence of exercise habits and physical fitness level on subjective fatigue symptoms (SFS) in adolescent students. Four hundred and one healthy young male adults (age: 16.5 +/- 1.2 yr) participated in the physical fitness test of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan and responded to the questionnaire on exercise habits and SFS. SFS questionnaire was conducted 6 times with a week interval during the physical fitness test. SFS was compared among groups with different physical fitness levels and exercise habit. Significant differences were found in difficulty with concentrated thinking, languor and low vigor, with the high physical fitness group having lower values of the three fatigue factors than the low physical fitness group regardless of affiliation with sports club and gyms, exercise frequency and time. SFS is largely affected by physical fitness level but very little by exercise habits.
Association between the Performance of the University Security Officers and Their Physical Fitness: A Case Study
A. M. Razmy, A. Jabeer
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103239
Abstract:
Physical fitness is considered to be a vital factor for performing any duty. Specially in the university security service, this factor is given more priority when employing the officers. In this case study, association between the performance of the university security officers and their physical fitness was studied. All male university security officers in the permanent and contract category working in the South Eastern University of Sri Lanka were assessed for their performance and their physical fitness were measured in terms height, weight, blood pressure, physical appearance, neck circumference and record of long lasting diseases. This study found no performance difference between permanent and contract employees but the variation in performance is much higher among the permanent employees. No relationship was established between performance and age or BMI. The physical appearance of the officer is a much influencing factor of determining the performance.
Genetic, Maternal and Placental Factors in the Association between Birth Weight and Physical Fitness: A Longitudinal Twin Study  [PDF]
Robbert N. H. Touwslager, Marij Gielen, Frans E. S. Tan, Antonius L. M. Mulder, Willem J. M. Gerver, Luc J. Zimmermann, Alfons J. H. M. Houben, Maurice P. Zeegers, Catherine Derom, Robert Vlietinck, Hermine H. Maes, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Martine Thomis
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076423
Abstract: Background Adult cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength are related to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Both are possibly related to birth weight, but it is unclear what the importance is of genetic, maternal and placental factors in these associations. Design Peak oxygen uptake and measures of strength, flexibility and balance were obtained yearly during adolescence (10–18 years) in 114 twin pairs in the Leuven Longitudinal Twin Study. Their birth weights had been collected prospectively within the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. Results We identified linear associations between birth weight and adolescent vertical jump (b = 1.96 cm per kg birth weight, P = 0.02), arm pull (b = 1.85 kg per kg birth weight P = 0.03) and flamingo balance (b = ?1.82 attempts to stand one minute per kg birth weight, P = 0.03). Maximum oxygen uptake appeared to have a U-shaped association with birth weight (the smallest and largest children had the lowest uptake, P = 0.01), but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for parental BMI. Using the individual twin’s deviation from his own twin pair’s average birth weight, we found positive associations between birth weight and adolescent vertical jump (b = 3.49, P = 0.0007) and arm pull (b = 3.44, P = 0.02). Δ scores were calculated within the twin pairs as first born twin minus second born twin. Δ birth weight was associated with Δ vertical jump within MZ twin pairs only (b = 2.63, P = 0.009), which indicates importance of placental factors. Conclusions We found evidence for an association between adolescent physical performance (strength, balance and possibly peak oxygen uptake) and birth weight. The associations with vertical jump and arm pull were likely based on individual, more specifically placental (in the case of vertical jump) factors. Our results should be viewed as hypothesis-generating and need confirmation, but potentially support preventive strategies to optimize birth weight, for example via placental function, to target later fitness and health.
Association between Body Image Dissatisfaction and Goals for Physical Activity Practice in Fitness Center
Cristina Bonoto Vieira Da Cunha, Ingi Petitemberte Klain, Airton José Rombaldi, José Carlos Leitao
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104621
Abstract:
Verifying the association between body image dissatisfaction and goals to the physical activity practice. The sample consisted of 299 goers of fitness center, of both genders, with ages between 16 and 50 years old. Information about gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic level and goals for the physical activity practice were collected using a previously tests questionnaire. Regarding the goals, the participants should identify if the motivation for the practice was related to aspects health, aesthetic or social relationships aspects, choosing yes or no. The body image was determined using the set of silhouettes and to verifying the body image dissatisfaction we considered the difference between the current silhouette and the ideal silhouette pointed out by the individuals. Numerical variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as absolute and relative frequency. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to verify the associations among goals to the practice, gender, and age group. Analysis of variance was used to verify the associations between the goals to the practice and the body image dissatisfaction. There was a low statistically significant correlation between body mass index and body image dissatisfaction (rs0.29 - p < 0.001). The proportion of women (69%) who practiced physical activity with aesthetics goals was higher than that of men (31%). In addition, 92% of the sample showed body image dissatisfaction. Regarding the goals to the physical activity practice, men aimed more muscular body while the women wished more lean body. Men and women have different perceptions regarding body image.
Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men
Arja H?kkinen, Marjo Rinne, Tommi Vasankari, Matti Santtila, Keijo H?kkinen, Heikki Kyr?l?inen
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-15
Abstract: In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36) for 727 men [mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model.Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p < 0.001). Better HRQoL in terms of general health, physical functioning, mental health, and vitality were associated with better physical fitness. When the HRQoL of the study participants were compared with that of the age- and gender-weighted Finnish general population, both the good and satisfactory fitness groups had higher HRQoL in all areas other than bodily pain. In a regression analysis, higher LTPA was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL, higher physical fitness with two, and lower number of morbidities with all dimensions, while the effect of age was contradictory.Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL.The sedentary lifestyle presents a major public health challenge that must be met in order to prevent obesity and thus enhance health and well-being [1]. For substantial health benefits, current guidelines for adults recommend at least 2.5 hours of moderate-intensity or 1.25 hours of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week. Futher, moderate- or high-intensity muscle-strengthening activities for all major muscle groups two or more days a week provide additional health benefits [2]. Ac
Strong inverse association between physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a large school-based survey
Pascal Bovet, Robert Auguste, Hillary Burdette
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-24
Abstract: All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI <10th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile.Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4) in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1) in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1) of lean students, 29.6% (0.8) of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3) of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9) of obese students.This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing physical activity, might need special interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children.Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results [1-4] despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. This issue is important since physical fitness may be more predictive of health outcomes than physical activity, and fitne
Contribution of Physical Fitness, Cerebrovascular Reserve and Cognitive Stimulation to Cognitive Function in Post-Menopausal Women  [PDF]
Gail A. Eskes,Stewart Longman,Allison D. Brown,Carly A. McMorris,Kristopher D. Langdon,David B. Hogan,Marc Poulin
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00137
Abstract: Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness ( max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.
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