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Gaudiebility and Psychopathological Symptoms in the Mexican Population  [PDF]
Joel Omar González-Cantero, Víctor Hugo González-Becerra, Laura Miriam Ramírez-Zamora, José Guadalupe Salazar-Estrada, Jahaziel Molina del Rio, Diana Ortiz Sánchez, Anaid Amira Villegas Ramírez
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.95057
Abstract: It is necessary to identify variables of Positive Psychology related to mental health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the relationship between gaudiebility and psychopathological symptoms in the Mexican population. The participants were 285 Mexicans between 14 and 78 years old. Gaudiebility was measured with the Gaudiebility Scale of Padrós & Fernández-Castro and psychopathological symptoms with the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Results show a statistically significant and negative correlation (-.324, p < .001) in which the higher the gaudiebility, the lower the level of Global Severity Index. Although more research is needed, results suggest that the development of gaudiebility could be a protective factor for mental health.
Predictive Capacity of Psychopathological Symptoms for Spanish Adolescents’ Future Expectations
Laura Verdugo, Yolanda Sánchez-Sandoval
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104546
Abstract:
This study examines the association between psychopathological problems and future expectations in Spanish early adolescents. Participants were 781 students (48.5% female) from 11 secondary schools, aged 11 - 15 years (M = 12.37, SD = 0.66). The students were of middle and middle-low socioeconomic status. Participants with higher levels of psychopathological problems (emotional and behavioral problems) had lower future expectations. Regression analysis confirmed that certain psychopathological dimensions (anxious/depressed, delinquent behavior, thought problems, social problems) predict some variability of future expectations in early adolescence. The main contribution of this research is to further our comprehension of the development of adolescents’ future expectations and the way in which psychopathological problems have an impact on such development. Future expectations are an important protective factor for healthy development in adolescence, as thinking about the future motivates everyday behavior and influences choices, decisions, and future activities. This paper emphasizes the need for preventive intervention, and at early ages, on cognitive processes related to the future temporal perspective in cases of psychopathological problems.
Do methadone and buprenorphine have the same impact on psychopathological symptoms of heroin addicts?
Angelo Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Pier Pani, Matteo Pacini, Francesco Lamanna, Fabio Rugani, Elisa Schiavi, Liliana Dell'Osso, Icro Maremmani
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-10-17
Abstract: Drug addiction history was collected by means of the Drug Addiction History Rating Scale (DAH-RS) and psychopathological features were collected by means of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), using a special five-factor solution. Toxicological urinalyses were carried out for each patient during the treatment period.No statistically significant differences were detected in psychopathological symptoms, including 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatization', and 'panic-anxiety'. Methadone proved to be more effective on patients characterized by 'sensitivity-psychoticism', whereas buprenorphine was more effective on patients displaying a 'violence-suicide' symptomatology.Heroin-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities may benefit from opioid agonist treatment not only because it targets their addictive problem, but also, precisely due to this, because it is effective against their mental disorder too.While psychiatric comorbidity has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of opioid use disorders [1-9], studies carried out in the context of Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs (MMTPs) to evaluate outcomes strictly linked with methadone efficacy have not demonstrated any such negative influence [10-14].The complex nature of psychopathology in substance abuse disorders (SUDs), is particularly difficult to assess at the moment of admission to treatment, when the heterogeneity of the psychological/psychiatric conditions displayed impairs the attribution of symptoms to psychiatric conditions preceding the initial use of substances, to the effects of heroin and/or other substances, to neurobiological addictive processes, or to psychosocial stress associated with addictive behavior [15-18]. On these bases a unitary perspective has been proposed, foreseeing the inclusion of symptoms of anxiety, mood and impulse-control domains in the psychopathology of addiction, but also taking into account symptoms and syndromes that are under the threshold for the d
Gender Differences in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Patients: A Study on Psychopathological Symptoms  [PDF]
Mohsen Naraghi, Mohammad Atari
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2016.51001
Abstract: The aim of the current study was to investigate the gender differences in aesthetic rhinoplasty candidates in dimensions of psychopathology. Considering the existing body of literature, it was hypothesized that women would score higher in different dimensions of psychopathology. SCL-90-R was used to evaluate the differences. This instrument consists of 10 subscales which measure depression, anxiety, phobia, hostility, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and added items of psychopathology. Independent t-test between male patients (n = 19) and female patients (n = 32) was performed. Findings indicated that women had higher scores in four subscales. Women had higher scores in anxiety (P < 0.01), obsessive-compulsive symptoms (P < 0.05), depression (P < 0.05), and added items (P < 0.05). Effect size measures were calculated in order for better interpretation of statistical significance tests. Findings supported the notion that women who applied for aesthetic rhinoplasty showed higher scores of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and general psychopathological symptoms. Surgeons can utilize validated psychometric instruments in order to screen psychologically disturbed patients as these patients are more likely to show dissatisfaction after the surgery.
A Clinical-EEG Study of Sleepiness and Psychological Symptoms in Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy Patients Treated with Lacosamide  [PDF]
Filippo S. Giorgi,Chiara Pizzanelli,Veronica Pelliccia,Elisa Di Coscio,Michelangelo Maestri,Melania Guida,Elena Iacopini,Alfonso Iudice,Enrica Bonanni
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/593149
Abstract: Our aim was to evaluate the EEG and clinical modifications induced by the new antiepileptic drug lacosamide (LCM) in patients with epilepsy. We evaluated 10 patients affected by focal pharmacoresistant epilepsy in which LCM (mean 250?mg/day) was added to the preexisting antiepileptic therapy, which was left unmodified. Morning waking EEG recording was performed before (t0) and at 6 months (t1) after starting LCM. At t0 and t1, patients were also administered questionnaires evaluating mood, anxiety, sleep, sleepiness, and fatigue (Beck Depression Inventory; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y1 and Y2; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Epworth Sleepiness Scale; Fatigue Severity Scale). We performed a quantitative analysis of EEG interictal abnormalities and background EEG power spectrum analysis. LCM as an add-on did not significantly affect anxiety, depression, sleepiness, sleep quality, and fatigue scales. Similarly, adding LCM to preexisting therapy did not modify significantly patient EEGs in terms of absolute power, relative power, mean frequency, and interictal abnormalities occurrence. In conclusion, in this small cohort of patients, we confirmed that LCM as an add-on does not affect subjective parameters which play a role, among others, in therapy tolerability, and our clinical impression was further supported by evaluation of EEG spectral analysis. 1. Introduction Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting up to two percent of the population worldwide. Many patients show recurrent seizures despite treatment with appropriate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs’) [1, 2], and many experience AEDs side effects. In the last decades, new AEDs have been developed with the aim of balancing, as far as possible, significant efficacy with good tolerability. Among them, Lacosamide (LCM) has been recently authorized in Italy and worldwide as a new add-on AED for the treatment of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Side effects of classical AEDs often involve cognitive functions, mood, and behavior to varying degrees, and this is the case also for newer AEDs (see, for instance, [3–5]). Unfortunately, a clear evaluation of these types of side effects in the single patient is often difficult because of the subjectivity of such complaints. This assessment is even harder in patients undergoing AED polytherapy. It has been proposed by several authors the usefulness of a quantitative analysis on EEG in patients undergoing treatment with drugs acting on the CNS (for a review, see for instance, [6]), in this setting, abnormalities of EEG power spectrum have
Relationship among psychopathological symptoms, treatment adherence and quality of life in HIV/AIDS infection / Rela o entre sintomatologia psicopatológica, ades o ao tratamento e qualidade de vida na infec o HIV e AIDS  [cached]
Ana Catarina Reis,Leonor Lencastre,Marina Prista Guerra,Eduardo Remor
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2010,
Abstract: The study shows evidence of statistical association among psychopathological symptoms (BSI), treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH) and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref) in 125 HIV-positive/AIDS patients followed at Porto Hospital (Portugal). The psychopathological symptoms present a negative correlation with treatment adherence and quality of life. On the other hand, adherence was positively correlated with quality of life. The model of adherence to the antiretroviral treatment using multiple regression analysis includes absence of psychopathological symptoms, an adherence behavior (i.e. to get the medication at the hospital's pharmacy) and the experience of side effects because of medication (R2 = 0.30). Besides, psychopathological symptoms have a mediation effect between adherence and quality of life in people with HIV/AIDS.
Resting EEG Activity and Ovarian Hormones as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women without a Diagnosis of Major Depression  [PDF]
Silvia Solís-Ortiz, Elva Pérez-Luque, Maria del Pilar Pacheco-Zavala
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.329126
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of depressive symptoms on resting EEG and their corre- lation with endogenous hormone levels in postmenopausal women without a diagnosis of major depress- sion. Fifty postmenopausal women aged 48 to 60 years were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. EEG activity was recorded during rest with eyes closed in 23 participants with minimal and 27 with moderate depressive symptoms. Relative power for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 were analyzed and compared between women with minimal and moderate depressive symptoms. Hormonal levels of estrone, estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and lu- teinizing hormone were obtained and correlated with the EEG parameters. The women with moderate de- pressive symptoms showed more relative alpha1power (p = .01) and less relative beta 2 power (p = .03). Relative theta and alpha2 power, estradiol levels and menopausal years were predictors of depressive symptoms. Progesterone was negatively correlated with the theta band (p = .005) and positively correlated with the beta2 band (p = .02) in women with moderate depressive symptoms. Estrone was negatively cor- related with the alpha2 band (p = .05), and estradiol was positively correlated with the theta band (p = .02) and negatively correlated with the beta2 band (p = .05) in women with minimal depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that slow and fast EEG relative power, menopausal status and estrogen levels pre- dict depressive symptoms and that progesterone is related with moderate depression.
The psychopathological factors of refractory schizophrenia
Alves, Tania Maria;Pereira, Júlio César Rodrigues;Elkis, Hélio;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462005000200007
Abstract: objectives: the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations in schizophrenia has lead to the study of symptom clusters through psychopathological assessment scales. the objective of this study was to elucidate clusters of symptoms in patients with refractory schizophrenia which may also help to assess the patients' therapeutical response. methods: ninety-six treatment resistant patients were evaluated by the anchored version brief psychiatric rating scale (bprs-a) as translated into portuguese. the inter-rater reliability was 0.80. the 18 items of the bprs-a were subjected to exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation. results: four factors were obtained: negative/disorganization, composed by emotional withdrawal, disorientation, blunted affect, mannerisms/posturing, and conceptual disorganization; excitement, composed of excitement, hostility, tension, grandiosity, and uncooperativeness, grouped variables that evoke brain excitement or a manic-like syndrome; positive, composed of unusual thought content, suspiciousness, and hallucinatory behavior; and depressive, composed of depressive mood, guilt feelings, and motor retardation, clearly related to depressive syndrome. conclusions: the study reproduced the four factors described in the literature, either in refractory or non-refractory patients. the bprs-a allowed the distinction of psychopathological factors, which are important in the evaluation of treatment response of patients with schizophrenia.
Research on psychopathological consequences of refugeeism  [PDF]
Opali? Petar D.
Medicinski Pregled , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0310465o
Abstract: The study examined mental and psychopathological consequences of refugeeism and included (109) refugees from refugee camp in Krnja a. Their reactions were compared with the reactions of (70) somatically injured patients from Orthopedic Hospital of the Clinical Centre in Belgrade and subjects (105) from Belgrade denying any traumatic experience whatsoever. Apart from the questionnaire on socio-demographic features, subjects were asked to provide answers to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-10) scale, Brief Eysenck’s Personality Inventory, Family Homogeneity Inventory and Impact of Events Scale. By implementation of appropriate statistical procedures (variance analysis), the significance of differences among certain features within the experimental group of refugees was examined, as well as the difference concerning presence of mental and psychopathological features among all three subgroups. It was determined that within the refugee group, males more significantly and more frequently reacted with PTSD symptoms, as well as with signs of general neuroticism and that married refugees more frequently presented with PTSD symptoms. In comparison to non-refugees, refugees more significantly and more frequently present with PTSD symptoms, which is probably caused by PTSD chronicity in this category of subjects. Subjects denying any significant traumatic experience in their lives presented with symptoms of general neuroticism more than the rest of examinees. This is an interesting finding that can be explained by the fact that the same group achieved the highest values on the extraversion scale (using the same Eysenck instrument), or may be correlated to the increase of neurotic reactions in the whole population of Serbia and Montenegro. The above mentioned and other results were compared to the findings of similar researches performed by other authors.
Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms  [PDF]
Panagiotis Oulis
Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.
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