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Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study  [PDF]
Jennifer Daubenmier,Jean Kristeller,Frederick M. Hecht,Nicole Maninger,Margaret Kuwata,Kinnari Jhaveri,Robert H. Lustig,Margaret Kemeny,Lori Karan,Elissa Epel
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/651936
Abstract: Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI ) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time. 1. Introduction Many of the adverse health effects of excess weight are associated with abdominal obesity independent of total weight. Visceral obesity, in particular, produces inflammatory molecules which promote insulin resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome [1]. Thus, abdominal adiposity is an important target for reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [2]. One modifiable risk factor that may contribute to abdominal adiposity is chronic psychological stress. Low socioeconomic status and job stress, two indicators of chronic stress, are associated with greater abdominal adiposity in cross-sectional and prospective studies [3–5]. Stress can impact abdominal adiposity through repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in hypersecretion of cortisol. Cortisol binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR) on fat cells activating lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that converts circulating triglycerides into free fatty acids in adipocytes [6]. Increases in cortisol in combination with increased levels of insulin mobilize amino acids and fatty acids from peripheral to abdominal regions for immediate use by the liver for gluconeogenesis and ketones for energy use by the brain [7, 8]. A greater density of GR’s are found on visceral compared to peripheral fat cells partly explaining why fat stores are redistributed to intra-abdominal regions in the
Toxicity of abdominal fat  [PDF]
Shawn Mathew, Constantine E. Kosmas, Robert R. Siegel, Timothy J. Vittorio
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3014
Abstract:

Abdominal fat or truncal obesity consists of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. It has been found that visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. The low-level inflammation linked with abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance and with increases in the release of inflammatory adipokines and cytokines. As a result of these changes, abdominal fat can cause a variety of health conditions. In this review, we focus on the adverse effects of abdominal fat on the body and how it can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke and cancer. Additionally, we discuss how abdominal fat can be reduced as a result from correction of hormonal deficiencies.

Clinical significance of visceral fat reduction through health education in preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Lesson from the Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study: A Japanese perspective
Ken Kishida, Tohru Funahashi, Iichiro Shimomura
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-57
Abstract: Adipocytes store excess energy as triglyceride, and also function as part of the self-defense system against starvation. Recent advances in research on adipocyte biology have demonstrated that adipocytes synthesize and secrete into the circulation various bioactive substances known as adipocytokines, including angiogenic factors, cytokines, complement factors and anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic factors, and adiponectin [1]. Masses of adipocytes, i.e., the adipose tissue, exist in many areas of the human body, and play important roles in angiogenesis, wound healing and also act as a mechanical shock absorber. Visceral fat is a specialized adipose tissue located in the mesentery and omentum, and can provide fatty acids and glycerol to the liver directly via the portal vein [2]. However, accumulation of visceral fat exceeding the physiological range results in adipocyte dysfunction. The imbalance in blood levels of adipocytokines; i.e., overproduction of offensive adipocytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and underproduction of defensive adipocytokines such as adiponectin, disturbed metabolism of free fatty acids, and fat-derived reactive oxygen species, is the postulated molecular mechanism of injury of arteries and various organs [2].Obesity is an inevitable physical status in many countries worldwide where physical inactivity and over-eating are common lifestyles, and has become the basis of various lifestyle-related disorders including impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, hyperuricemia, chronic kidney disease, sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD). The increased incidence of ACVD in working-age individuals is a worldwide health problem, including East-Asians who have a smaller body mass index compared to their counterparts in Western countries. In Japanese, accumulation of intra-abdominal visceral fat rather than absolute body
Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments  [PDF]
Scott M. Grundy,Ian J. Neeland,Aslan T. Turer,Gloria Lena Vega
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/454285
Abstract: This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC), intraperitoneal fat (IPF), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black). Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF), ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82) and IPF (0.29–0.85). The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride ( (men) and 0.363 (women)) and HOMA2-IR ( (men) and 0.517 (women)); after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride ( (men) and 0.348 (women)) and HOMA2-IR ( (men) and 0.221 (women)). WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity. 1. Introduction Abdominal obesity is one component of the metabolic syndrome [1]. Clinically, abdominal obesity is identified by an increase in waist circumference (WC). Increased WC has repeatedly been linked to metabolic risk. It is unclear, however, whether this measure is a correlate of increased risk through its correlation with total abdominal fat (TAF) or a specific, metabolically unhealthy depot of adipose tissue. Many investigators postulate that the key component of body fat underlying the metabolic syndrome is intraperitoneal fat (IPF) or visceral fat [2–7]. Others nonetheless contend that abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) is a more important pathogenic factor [8–14]. Since previous studies have shown that IPF and ASF are intercorrelated [15], the more important adipose-tissue compartment underlying the metabolic syndrome is difficult to identify. The primary aim of this study was to determine the strength of the correlations between WC and TAF, and ASF and IPF measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These analyses were made for gender in whites, blacks, and Hispanics of the Dallas Heart Study [16]. We additionally correlated SAF and IPF with plasma triglyceride (TG) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) [17], both accompanying the metabolic syndrome. 2. Methods Details of
Validity and reliability of the sagittal abdominal diameter as a predictor of visceral abdominal fat
Sampaio, Lílian R.;Sim?es, Eduardo J.;Assis, Ana Marlúcia O.;Ramos, Luiz R.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302007000600013
Abstract: objectives: to evaluate the reliability of the sagittal abdominal diameter and its validity as a predictor of visceral abdominal fat, as well as to identify the most appropriate cut-off points to identify the area of visceral fat that is known to represent a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. design: validation study. subjects: 92 healthy volunteers (57 women, 35 men), age: 20-83 y, body mass index: 19.3 to 35.9 kg/m2. measurements: sagittal abdominal diameter (sad), weight, height, circumferences (waist, hip, and thigh), sub-scapular skinfold thickness, abdominal diameter index, and waist-hip ratio (whr). method of choice: computed tomography (ct). statistic: receiver operating characteristic (roc) curve. results: the reliability for sad measurement was very high (inter-class coefficient = 0.99). visceral fat as measured by vaf through ct was highly correlated with sad (women r = 0.80; men r = 0.64, p < 0.001), waist circumference (women r = 0.77; men r = 0.73, p < 0.001), and whr (women r = 0.72; men r = 0.58, p < 0.001). the roc curve indicated 19.3 cm and 20.5 cm as the threshold values for abdominal sagittal diameter in women and men (sensitivity 85% and 83%, specificity 77% and 82%, respectively). conclusions: there was a high correlation between sad and vaf. the cut-off values identified for sad presented a sensitivity and specificity that were considered adequate.
Effect of electrical stimulation on abdominal local fat thickness in young healthy women  [cached]
Maryam Hayati,Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh,Tahereh Mohamadipanah
Koomesh , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of obesity, there is no safe and low cost method for losing weight (especially local). Electrical stimulation has been suggested as an efficient method in decreasing the thickness of local fat. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of electrical stimulation on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness in healthy women. Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental research was conducted on 30 young healthy women (20 in study group and 10 in control group). In the control group, the abdominal fat thickness was measured without any therapeutic intervention at the beginning and after two weeks. In the experimental group, electrical stimulation to rectus abdominis muscles was applied 10 sessions (at 5 sessions per week) and the subject's abdominal fat thickness was measured at the baseline, and at the end of 2nd week. Comparison has been made across sessions and also between both groups. Results: In control group, the fat thickness changed from 2.17±.7(cm) at the first session to 2.18 ±.69 (cm) at the end of the 2nd week which was not significant, but in the experimental group there was a significant decrease in fat thickness from 2.59±.74 (cm) at the first session to 2.25 ± .68 (cm) at the end of the 2nd week (P=0.0001). Conclusion: This work indicated that electrical stimulation in 10 sessions is effective in reduction of abdominal fat thickness in healthy women.
Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study  [PDF]
Jennifer Daubenmier,Jean Kristeller,Frederick M. Hecht,Nicole Maninger,Margaret Kuwata,Kinnari Jhaveri,Robert H. Lustig,Margaret Kemeny,Lori Karan,Elissa Epel
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/651936
Abstract: Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI =31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.
Effects of Nutrient Density and Photoperiod on the Performance and Abdominal Fat of Broilers  [PDF]
J.O. Oyedeji,J.O. Atteh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: The study investigated the effects of photoperiod and nutrient density on the performance and abdominal fat of broilers. Treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of two diets containing 3200kcal/kg ME and 23% Protein and 2800kcal/kg ME and 18% Protein administered to broilers under either 12hour light per day, 8hour light per day or 6 hour light per day for 8 weeks. Results at market age showed that no significant interactions existed between nutrient density and photoperiod for feed intake, body weight gain and feed gain ratio (P > 0.05, P > 0.01). Also no significant interactions existed between factors for protein retention, fat utilization, available fibre, abdominal fat and cost to benefit ratio (P > 0.05, P > 0.01). Broilers subjected to low nutrient density diets experienced reduction in body weight gain and poorer feed to gain ratio (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). There was significant reduction in feed intake and abdominal fat of broilers exposed to only 6 hours of light per day as against the usual 12 hours of light per day (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). It was concluded that no meaningful interactions existed between nutrient density and photoperiod with respect to broilers performance. However, reducing photoperiod to 6 hours per day could be used as a tool for reducing abdominal fat hence, reducing sudden death syndrome and upgrading carcass quality of broilers.
In Subfertile Couple, Abdominal Fat Loss in Men Is Associated with Improvement of Sperm Quality and Pregnancy: A Case-Series  [PDF]
Céline Faure, Charlotte Dupont, Martin A. Baraibar, Romain Ladouce, Isabelle Cedrin-Durnerin, Jean Philippe Wolf, Rachel Lévy
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086300
Abstract: Background The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Methods Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. Results After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. Conclusion This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.
Excess Early Postnatal Weight Gain Leads to Increased Abdominal Fat in Young Children  [PDF]
Annemieke M. V. Evelein,Frank L. J. Visseren,Cornelis K. van der Ent,Diederick E. Grobbee,Cuno S. P. M. Uiterwaal
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/141656
Abstract: Background. Increased childhood weight gain has been associated with later adiposity. Whether excess early postnatal weight gain plays a role in childhood abdominal fat is unknown. Design. In the ongoing Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn (WHISTLER), birth cohort weight and length from birth to age 3 months were obtained. In the first 316 five-year-olds, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat were measured ultrasonographically. Individual weight and length gain rates were assessed in each child. Internal Z-scores of weight for length gain (WLG) were calculated. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing covariates. Results. Per-1-unit increase in Z-score WLG from birth to 3 months, BMI, waist circumference, and subcutaneous fat were significantly higher; 0.51?kg/m2, 0.84?cm, and 0.50?mm, respectively. After multiple imputation, a trend towards significance was observed for intra-abdominal fat as well (0.51?mm/SD). In the associations with 5-year adiposity, no interaction between postnatal Z-score WLG and birth size was found. Conclusion. Excess early postnatal weight gain is associated with increased general and central adiposity, characterized by more subcutaneous and likely more intra-abdominal fat at 5 years of age. 1. Introduction Obesity is one of the major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and is a common health problem both in adults and in children [1]. Not only do obese children have a higher risk of becoming obese adults [2], childhood BMI is independently associated with later coronary heart disease as well [3]. Visceral fat in particular is related to an adverse metabolic profile [4] and increased CVD risk [5] through the production and secretion of metabolic active compounds like adipokines and cytokines, with effects on insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation among others [6]. From a CVD prevention point of view, early prevention of intra-abdominal fat accumulation might help reducing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Identification of early life determinants of abdominal fat distribution is therefore important. Growth patterns in early life have been suggested to be important for later fat distribution. Several studies determined an association between weight gain in the first 2-3 years of life and central adiposity, mostly assessed by larger waist circumference, in both adulthood [7] and early childhood [8–13]. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging [7], ultrasonography [10, 11], or computed tomography have seldom or never been used to assess the association between
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