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Himalayan Warming and Climate Change in India  [PDF]
Vadlamudi Brahmananda Rao, Sergio Henrique Franchito, Renato Orrú Pedroso Gerólamo, Emanuel Giarolla, Surireddi Satyavenkata Venkata Siva Ramakrishna, Bodda Ravi Srinivasa Rao, Chennu Vankateswara Naidu
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2016.54038
Abstract: Recent studies showed that the Himalayan glaciers are reducing alarmingly. This is attributed to global warming. Since the melt water of Himalayan glaciers and snow is the principal source of water for several rivers, a decrease of this source is a calamity for the large fraction of global population living in nearby regions such as India. In Asia for the 60% global population only 36% of global water is available. Any further decrease of this vital necessity makes the very existence of billions of people doubtful. Here we show, using both observations and one IPCC-AR4 model with high horizontal resolution, that the Himalayan region in fact underwent a maximum warming of 2.5°C from 1950 to 1999 and would reach the highest temperature rise of 9°C in 2100. Temperature and rainfall variations determine a simple climate classification proposed by Köppen. We show changes that occur in climate and biosphere using this classification. Also we discussed the impact of warming and resulting changes in Köppen climates on the floods and malaria in India.
Evaluating the dominant components of warming in Pliocene climate simulations  [PDF]
D. J. Hill,A. M. Haywood,D. J. Lunt,S. J. Hunter
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-9-1599-2013
Abstract: The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project is the first coordinated climate model comparison for a warmer palaeoclimate with atmospheric CO2 significantly higher than pre-industrial concentrations. The simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period show global warming of between 1.8 and 3.6 °C above pre-industrial surface air temperatures, with significant polar amplification. Here we perform energy balance calculations on all eight of the coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations within PlioMIP Experiment 2 to evaluate the causes of the increased temperatures and differences between the models. In the tropics simulated warming is dominated by greenhouse gas increases, with cloud albedo feedbacks enhancing the warming in most of the models, but by widely varying amounts. The responses to mid-Pliocene climate forcing in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes are substantially different between the climate models, with the only consistent response being a warming due to increased greenhouse gases. In the high latitudes all the energy balance components become important, but the dominant warming influence comes from the clear sky albedo. This demonstrates the importance of specified ice sheet and high latitude vegetation boundary conditions and simulated sea ice and snow albedo feedbacks. The largest components in the overall uncertainty are associated with cloud albedo feedbacks in the tropics and polar clear sky albedo, particularly in sea ice regions. These simulations show that high latitude albedo feedbacks provide the most significant enhancements to Pliocene greenhouse warming.
Estimating the Potential for Adaptation of Corals to Climate Warming  [PDF]
Nikolaus B. M. Császár,Peter J. Ralph,Richard Frankham,Ray Berkelmans,Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009751
Abstract: The persistence of tropical coral reefs is threatened by rapidly increasing climate warming, causing a functional breakdown of the obligate symbiosis between corals and their algal photosymbionts (Symbiodinium) through a process known as coral bleaching. Yet the potential of the coral-algal symbiosis to genetically adapt in an evolutionary sense to warming oceans is unknown. Using a quantitative genetics approach, we estimated the proportion of the variance in thermal tolerance traits that has a genetic basis (i.e. heritability) as a proxy for their adaptive potential in the widespread Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora. We chose two physiologically different populations that associate respectively with one thermo-tolerant (Symbiodinium clade D) and one less tolerant symbiont type (Symbiodinium C2). In both symbiont types, pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed significant heritabilities for traits related to both photosynthesis and photoprotective pigment profile. However, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays showed a lack of heritability in both coral host populations for their own expression of fundamental stress genes. Coral colony growth, contributed to by both symbiotic partners, displayed heritability. High heritabilities for functional key traits of algal symbionts, along with their short clonal generation time and high population sizes allow for their rapid thermal adaptation. However, the low overall heritability of coral host traits, along with the corals' long generation time, raise concern about the timely adaptation of the coral-algal symbiosis in the face of continued rapid climate warming.
Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  [PDF]
Antipas T. S. Massawe
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.45033
Abstract: Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.
Sensitivity analysis of glacier systems to climate warming in China

WANG Xin,XIE Zichu,LI Qiaoyuan,WANG Shuhong,CHENG Lei,

地理学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Data of 44 glacier systems in China used in this paper were obtained from Chinese Glacier Inventories and the meteorological data were got from Meteorological Atlas of Plateau of west China. Based on the statistical analysis and functional model simulation results of the 44 glacier systems in China, the glacier systems were divided into extremely-sensitive glacier system, semi-sensitive glacier system, extremely-steady glacier system and semi-steady glacier system in terms of glacier system’s level of water-energy exchange, rising gradient of the equilibrium line altitudes and retreating rate of area to climate warming, their median size and vertical span distribution, and their runoff characteristics to climate warming. Furthermore, the functional model of glacier system to climate warming was applied in this paper to predict the average variation trends of the 4 types of glacier systems, which indicate that different sensitivity types of glacier systems respond to the climate warming differently.
Hydrologic Response and Watershed Sensitivity to Climate Warming in California's Sierra Nevada  [PDF]
Sarah E. Null,Joshua H. Viers,Jeffrey F. Mount
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009932
Abstract: This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2°, 4°, and 6°C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.
On the Origin of the CO2 Climate Warming Fallacy  [PDF]
Jean-Paul Auffray
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.615219
Abstract: We resurrect the 1896 paper in the frame of which the great Swedish physical chemist Svante August Arrhenius explains why what he called “aqueous vapour” and “carbonic acid” should be regarded as determining climate warming agents. We suggest that the designation “Green House Effect Gas” as applied to carbon dioxide should be officially banished from the climate vocabulary as being misleading.
Does the global warming modify the local Rwandan climate?  [PDF]
Sascha M. Henninger
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51A019
Abstract:

Analyses of climate measurement series from Rwandan weather stations revealed that the division into the four formerly described Rwandan climate zones is not correct any more. This could be shown in a more detailed analysis based on currently available data. In the course of discussions held with the Service Meteo Rwanda it emerged that the climate charts used in Rwandan atlases and school books are based on data covering the period from 1931 to 1960. Fortunately, since then a mass of new data have been collected, which, however, until now have only been evaluated in isolated instances for a specific local as needed. This led to the initiation of the ReCCiR project. The project’s aim was to conduct a regional climatic analysis covering all of Rwanda and visualizing it on new maps.

Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas
Jiawen Ren,Dahe Qin,Shichang Kang,Shugui Hou,Jianchen Pu,Zhefan Jing
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/BF02901744
Abstract: Repeat measurements of glacier terminus positions show that glaciers in the central Himalayas have been in a continuous retreat situation in the past decades. The average retreat rate is 5.5–8.7 m/a in Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since the 1960s and 6.4 m/a in Mt. Xixiabangma since the 1980s. In recent years, the retreat rate is increasing. Ice core studies revealed that the accumulation rate of glaciers has a fluctuating decrease trend in the last century with a rapid decrease in the 1960s and a relatively steady low value afterwards. Meteorological station record indicates that the annual mean temperature has a slow increase trend but summer temperature had a larger increase in the past 30 a. All these suggest that the glacier retreat results from precipitation decrease in combination with temperature increase, and hence glacier shrinkage in this region will speed up if the climatic warming and drying continues.
Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas
REN Jiawen,QIN Dahe,KANG Shichang,HOU Shugui,PU Jianchen,JING Zhefan,
RENJiawen
,QINDahe,KANGShichang,HOUShugui,PUJianchen,JINGZhefan

科学通报(英文版) , 2004,
Abstract: Repeat measurements of glacier terminus positions show that glaciers in the central Himalayas have been in a continuous retreat situation in the past decades. The average retreat rate is 5.5-8.7 m/a in Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since the 1960s and 6.4 m/a in Mt. Xixiabangma since the 1980s. In recent years, the retreat rate is increasing. Ice core studies revealed that the accumulation rate of glaciers has a fluctuating decrease trend in the last century with a rapid decrease in the 1960s and a relatively steady low value afterwards. Meteorological station record indicates that the annual mean temperature has a slow increase trend but summer temperature had a larger increase in the past 30 a. All these suggest that the glacier retreat results from precipitation decrease in combination with temperature increase, and hence glacier shrinkage in this region will speed up if the climatic warming and drying continues.
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