It is shown that the speed of longitudinal-extended
elastic particles, emitted during an emission time T by a source S at speed u (escape speed toward the infinity due to all the masses in space), is invariant
for any Observer, under the Newtonian mechanics laws. It is also shown that a
cosmological reason implies the light as composed of such particles moving at speed u (function of the total gravitational potential). Compliance of c with Newtonian mechanics is shown for
Doppler effect, Harvard tower experiment, gravitational red shift and time
dilation, highlighting, for each of these subjects, the differences versus the relativity.