Abstract:
The diagrammatic approach to the collision problems in Newtonian mechanics is useful. We show in this article that the same technique can be applied to the case of the special relativity. The two circles play an important role in Newtonian mechanics, while in the special relativity, we need one circle and one ellipse. The circle shows the collision in the center-of-mass system. And the ellipse shows the collision in the laboratory system. These two figures give all information on two dimensional elastic collisions in the special relativity.

Abstract:
Well-posedness for the initial value problem for a self-gravitating elastic body with free boundary in Newtonian gravity is proved. In the material frame, the Euler-Lagrange equation becomes, assuming suitable constitutive properties for the elastic material, a fully non-linear elliptic-hyperbolic system with boundary conditions of Neumann type. For systems of this type, the initial data must satisfy compatibility conditions in order to achieve regular solutions. Given a relaxed reference configuration and a sufficiently small Newton's constant, a neigborhood of initial data satisfying the compatibility conditions is constructed.

Abstract:
Experiments on the acoustic vibrations of elastic nanostructures in fluid media have been used to study the mechanical properties of materials, as well as for mechanical and biological sensing. The medium surrounding the nanostructure is typically modeled as a Newtonian fluid. A recent experiment however suggested that high-frequency longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles could trigger a viscoelastic response in water-glycerol mixtures [M. Pelton et al., "Viscoelastic flows in simple liquids generated by vibrating nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 244502 (2013)]. Motivated by these experimental studies, we first revisit a classical continuum mechanics problem of the purely radial vibration of an elastic sphere, also called the breathing mode, in a compressible viscous fluid, and then extend our analysis to a viscoelastic medium using the Maxwell fluid model. The effects of fluid compressibility and viscoelasticity are discussed. Although in the case of longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles, the effects of fluid compressibility were shown to be negligible, we demonstrate that it plays a significant role in the breathing mode of an elastic sphere. On the other hand, despite the different vibration modes, the breathing mode of a sphere triggers a viscoelastic response in water-glycerol mixtures similar to that triggered by the longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles. We also comment on the effect of fluid viscoelasticity on the idea of destroying virus particles by acoustic resonance.

Abstract:
We derive analytical expressions for the flow of Newtonian and power law fluids in elastic circularly-symmetric tubes based on a lubrication approximation where the flow velocity profile at each cross section is assumed to have its axially-dependent characteristic shape for the given rheology and cross sectional size. Two pressure-area constitutive elastic relations for the tube elastic response are used in these derivations. We demonstrate the validity of the derived equations by observing qualitatively correct trends in general and quantitatively valid asymptotic convergence to limiting cases. The Newtonian formulae are compared to similar formulae derived previously from a one-dimensional version of the Navier-Stokes equations.

Abstract:
We study the behaviour of a specific system of relativistic elasticity in its own gravitational field: a static, spherically symmetric shell whose wall is of arbitrary thickness consisting of hyperelastic material. We give the system of field equations and boundary conditions within the framework of the Einsteinian theory of gravity. Furthermore, we analize the situation in the Newtonian theory of gravity and obtain an existence result valid for small gravitational constants and pointwise stability by using the implicit function theorem. If one replaces the elastic material with a fluid, one finds that stable states can not exist.

Abstract:
A key observable in strongly interacting resonant Fermi gases is the contact parameter C, which governs both the pair correlation function at short distances and the momentum distribution at large momenta. The temperature dependence of C was recently measured at unitarity, where existing theoretical predictions differ substantially. We report accurate data for the contact and the momentum distribution in the normal phase of the unitary gas, obtained by Bold Diagrammatic Monte Carlo. In our scheme, C is extracted from the pair correlation function, while the C/k^4 tail of the momentum distribution, being built in at the analytical level, is free of k-dependent noise.

It is shown that the speed of longitudinal-extended
elastic particles, emitted during an emission time T by a source S at speed u (escape speed toward the infinity due to all the masses in space), is invariant
for any Observer, under the Newtonian mechanics laws. It is also shown that a
cosmological reason implies the light as composed of such particles moving at speed u (function of the total gravitational potential). Compliance of c with Newtonian mechanics is shown for
Doppler effect, Harvard tower experiment, gravitational red shift and time
dilation, highlighting, for each of these subjects, the differences versus the relativity.

Abstract:
Aerospace propulsion often involves the spray and combustion of liquids. When a liquid is sprayed, large drops form first, in a process known as primary atomization. Then, each drop breaks up into smaller droplets, in a process known as secondary atomization. This determines final drop sizes, which affect the liquid’s evaporation and mixing rates and ultimately influence combustor efficiency. Little has been published concerning the secondary atomization of visco-elastic non-Newtonian liquids, such as gels. These substances have special potential as aerospace propellants, because they are safer to handle than their Newtonian liquid counterparts, such as water. Additionally, they can be injected at varying rates, allowing for more control than solid propellants. To learn more about the atomization process of these liquids, a liquid drop generator and a high-speed camera were used to create and measure the conditions at which different breakup modes occurred, as well as the time required for the process. These results were compared to experimental and theoretical results for Newtonian liquids. Based on the data, one can conclude that solutions that are more elastic require higher shear forces to break up. In addition, while Newtonian liquids form droplets as they atomize, visco-elastic non-Newtonian solutions form ligaments. As a result, a combustion system utilizing these types of propellants must be capable of generating these forces. It may also be necessary to find a way to transform the ligaments into more spherically-shaped droplets to increase combustion efficiency.

Abstract:
the method of fusion barrier distribution has been widely used to interpret the effect of nuclear structure on heavy-ion fusion reactions around the coulomb barrier. we discuss a similar, but less well known, barrier distribution extracted from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering. we argue that this method has several advantages over the fusion barrier distribution, and offers an interesting tool for investigating unstable nuclei.

Abstract:
The method of fusion barrier distribution has been widely used to interpret the effect of nuclear structure on heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier. We discuss a similar, but less well known, barrier distribution extracted from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering. We argue that this method has several advantages over the fusion barrier distribution, and offers an interesting tool for investigating unstable nuclei.