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Controlling Smart Matter  [PDF]
Tad Hogg,Bernardo A. Huberman
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: Smart matter consists of many sensors, computers and actuators embedded within materials. These microelectromechanical systems allow properties of the materials to be adjusted under program control. In this context, we study the behavior of several organizations for distributed control of unstable physical systems and show how a hierarchical organization is a reasonable compromise between rapid local responses with simple communication and the use of global knowledge. Using the properties of random matrices, we show that this holds not only in ideal situations but also when imperfections and delays are present in the system. We also introduce a new control organization, the multihierarchy, and show it is better than a hierarchy in achieving stability. The multihierarchy also has a position invariant response that can control disturbances at the appropriate scale and location.
Simulation of the Agro-Energy Farm with the X-Farm Model: Calibration of the Crop Module for Sorghum Yield
Francesco Danuso,Alvaro Rocca,Valeria Andreoni,Elena Bulfoni
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.275
Abstract: This paper presents the X-farm model, a dynamic farm simulation model created to manage sustainable farming systems and to improve the planning capability of farms. X-farm considers an “agro-energy farm” where energy self-sufficiency results from the production, transformation and use of biomass obtained from the farm crops. The X-farm model is formed by different modules, integrated to describe the components of the agro-energy farm and grouped into management, production, soil and accountability (in terms of energy, environment and economy) sections. The main farm productions are the field crop yields. The model simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk and meat can be sold or reused. A preliminary calibration of the crop module of X-farm has been performed using experimental data from Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench) trials. X-farm has been implemented and calibrated using the SEMoLa language and simulation framework. Simulations of different cropping scenarios have been performed to test the X-farm capabilities to simulate complex farming systems, in order to be used as a decision-support tool.
Power Markets for Controlling Smart Matter  [PDF]
Oliver Guenther,Tad Hogg,Bernardo A. Huberman
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Embedding microscopic sensors, computers and actuators into materials allows physical systems to actively monitor and respond to their environments. This leads to the possibility of creating smart matter, i.e., materials whose properties can be changed under program control to suit varying constraints. A key difficulty in realizing the potential of smart matter is developing the appropriate control programs. We present a market-based multiagent solution to the problem of maintaining a physical system near an unstable configuration, a particularly challenging application for smart matter. This market control leads to stability by focussing control forces in those parts of the system where they are most needed. Moreover, it does so even when some actuators fail to work and without requiring the agents to have a detailed model of the physical system.
A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework  [PDF]
Luis Hernández,Carlos Baladrón,Javier M. Aguiar,Lorena Calavia,Belén Carro,Antonio Sánchez-Esguevillas,Diane J. Cook,David Chinarro,Jorge Gómez
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120911571
Abstract: One of the main challenges of today’s society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.
Effect of galliform birds on microbial pollution of soil and water in a chosen agro-tourist farm
Milena Józwik, Beata Trawińska, Marta Kowaleczko
Annales UMCS, Zootechnica , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10083-009-0001-2
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of galliform birds on the microbial pollution of soil and water in a chosen agro-tourist farm, where the median samples of bird litter, soil and water from a pond were collected. The bacteriological qualitative and quantitative evaluation was performed of the samples in the laboratory in compliance with the obligatory norms. The analysis included coli titres, total count of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, bacteria from coli group, proteolytic, actinomycetes, etc. Besides, the basic macro- and microclimatic parameters were established.
Enhancing On-Farm Conservation Of Agro-Biodiversity Through Community Seed Bank: An Experience Of Western Nepal  [PDF]
Shree Kumar Maharjan,Assa Ram Gurung,BR Sthapit
Journal of Agriculture and Environment , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/aej.v12i0.7573
Abstract: The community seed bank (CSB) is emerged as an effective rural institution at the community level to strengthen farmers’ access to diversity of crop genetic resources as well as seeds that contribute to local food security for poor farmers and also to ensure the conservation of agro-biodiversity on-farm. This paper presents some evidences from the community of western Nepal to demonstrate that CSB is one of the options to conserve and use agro-biodiversity on farm. Biodiversity Conservation and Development Committees (BCDCs) and farmers have established six CSBs in western terai with the support of Agrobiodiversity component of Western Terai Landscape Complex Project (WTLCP-ABD) in Bardia (1 CSB), Kanchanpur (2 CSBs) and Kailali (3 CSBs) districts. These CSBs are functional with prearranged community developed mechanisms for collection, conservation, replication and distribution of seeds. Communities have collected and conserved 88 (Belwa), 77 (Beldandi), 99 (Gadariya), 78 (Masuriya), 76 (Patharaiya) and 82 (Shankarpur) number of accessions of different crops in CSBs. CSB enhanced farmer’s seed system and strengthened social networks for exchange of seeds to cope with impacts of climatic adversity by providing immediate access to locally adapted germplasm as community based adaptation strategy. CSB is becoming a reliable local adaptation practice that minimizes the potential negative impacts of climate change in addition to accessibility, conservation and use of genetic resources in western terai of Nepal.
Mobile Infrastructure for Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting of Coastal Weather Events. Phase I: Building the Smart Drifter  [PDF]
Jiannan Zhai, Jason O. Hallstrom, Shaowu Bao, Paul Gayes, Len Pietrafesa
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2019.77009
Our goal is to address a critical need to improve monitoring and forecasting of storm-induced coastal flooding (i.e., storm surge). The fundamental element of our approach is a new class of smart drifter—low-cost, rapidly deployable sensors used to collect surge information in advance of, during, and following significant weather events. These devices, each a bit larger than a tennis ball, will be deployed in advance of oncoming storms. The devices will log surge information used for post processing. In this paper, we present the Phase I of the project: the design and development of the smart drifter.
The Radiant Agro-ecological Engineering and Its Function--A Case Study From Xinghuo Husbandary Farm

Zhang Bin,Zhang Xi-gu,
张 斌

中国生态农业学报 , 1993,
Abstract: In this paper the basic concept of radiant agro-ecoengineering is presented.With Xinghuo Husbandary Farm as an example,the radiant functions of the farm on the Production systems of the households around it are studied.Then the mechanism of the radiant action is probed into.
A Smart Service Model Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Networks Using Vertical Farm Ontology  [PDF]
Saraswathi Sivamani,Namjin Bae,Yongyun Cho
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/161495
Abstract: Application of the technology systems is growing in various fields and the agriculture is not an exception. Agriculture is also reaping the benefits of technological innovation which helps in quantitative and qualitative food production. Vertical farm, one of the agricultural practices, is considered to be the future of agriculture with the rate of population migrating into urban areas. Ubiquitous computing in agriculture is emerging remarkably in this fast processing pervasive environment, owing to wireless sensor network (WSN). Building a context aware system for the vertical farm is complex without the semantic interoperability between the Internet of things (IOT). In this paper, we propose a vertical farm ontology (VFO), an OWL based ontology model which helps in more understanding of the relationship between the domain factors. With the proposed model, the information from the Internet of things is recomposed as context information and made understandable for the other systems. For the sake of agriculture, we hope that our proposed model will pave great path for the development of smart and intelligent agricultural services. 1. Introduction Recently, ubiquitous computing technology has been flourishing widely in agricultural field [1]. Some of the progresses in this area include automation process on the u-agriculture and smart services to control the activities. Such advancement in the ubiquitous computing encourages the agricultural researchers and even farmers to apply automation in the process. Agriculture is a fundamental human activity and also inseparable from human life. As per the history, human started cultivating crop around 10,000 years ago, also referred as the Neolithic Age [2]. Starting from using simple tools such as stick and stones to advanced wireless computing technology, the development agricultural technology has major contribution [3]. Agriculture technique takes different form of advancement through centuries according to the lifestyle of the people. It is also estimated that 80% of the world population is expected to live in the urban areas by 2050. Also the rapid increase in population may be a threat to farmland [4]. For the future agriculture, existing indoor cultivation method is improved with the expert engineering and termed as vertical farming. Vertical farming is already in practice in many countries. Currently, vertical farms are rapidly evolving in the large-scale production of variety of crops in the urban centres [5]. Vertical farming is a fully automated system without any human intervention, which is also
Farmers’ Agro forestry in Pakistan, Farmers’ Role-Trends and Attitudes  [cached]
Tanveer Hussain,Ghulam Sarwar Khan,Shahid Ali Khan,Nasir Masood
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the beliefs that underlie farmers’ decisions to engage in agro-forestry, defined as intension to plant trees in the farms. The less proportion of forest land and perpetual degradation of existing forest plantation are confronting serious threats to the sustainability of forest plantation in Pakistan. Agro forestry has been identified the most feasible solution; especially in irrigated areas of Punjab. The application of theory of planned behavior during the survey of 64 farmers in three different ecological zones showed/depicted that farmers’ willingness to plant trees on their fields is a result of their attitudes towards the advantages and disadvantages of trees, their perception of the opinions of salient referents and factors those encourage and discourage farm level tree planting. Farmers’ viewed farm forestry as economically beneficial and environment friendly. Tree planting was being perceived as increasing income, providing wood for fuel and furniture, controlling pollution and providing shade for human and animals. Farmers viewed the hindrance in agriculture operations and the harboring of insects pests and diseases as negative impacts of tree planting; however, they were outweighed by their perceptions of positive impacts. Tree growing decisions of the farmers were influenced by the opinions of the family, owners/tenants, fellow-farmers. Farm forestry programs are more likely to be successful, if they acknowledge and address the factors, which underlie farmers’ reasons for planting or not planting trees.
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