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One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses
George Thomson, Nick Wilson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-64
Abstract: Data were collected from publicly available survey reports, and from government departments and interviews. This included data on smoking in bars, attitudes to smokefree bars, bar patronage, socially cued smoking, and perceived rights to smokefree workplaces.The proportion of surveyed bars with smoking occurring decreased from 95% to 3% during July 2004 – April 2005. Between 2004 and 2005, public support for smokefree bars rose from 56% to 69%. In the same period, support for the rights of bar workers to have smokefree workplaces rose from 81% to 91%. During the first ten months of the smokefree bars policy, there were only 196 complaints to officials about smoking in the over 9900 licensed premises. The proportion of smokers who reported that they smoked more than normal at bars, nightclubs, casinos and cafés halved between 2004 and 2005 (from 58% to 29%).Seasonally adjusted sales in bars and clubs changed little (0.6% increase) between the first three quarters of 2004 and of 2005, while café and restaurant sales increased by 9.3% in the same period. Both changes continued existing trends. Compared to the same period in 2004, average employment during the first three quarters of 2005 was up 24% for 'pubs, taverns and bars', up 9% for cafés/restaurants, and down 8% for clubs (though employment in 'pubs, taverns and bars' may have been affected by unusually high patronage around a major sports-series).The proportion of bar managers who approved of smokefree bars increased from 44% to 60% between November 2004 and May 2005. Bar managers also reported increased agreement with the rights of bar workers and patrons to smokefree environments. The main reported concerns of the national and regional Hospitality Associations, in 2005, were the perceived negative effects on rural and traditional pubs.As in other jurisdictions, the introduction of smokefree bars in New Zealand has had positive overall health protection, economic and social effects; in contrast to the predictio
An Assessment of Health Risks and Mortality from Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Chinese Restaurants and Bars  [PDF]
Ruiling Liu, Yuan Jiang, Qiang Li, S. Katharine Hammond
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084811
Abstract: Introduction Smoking is generally not regulated in restaurants or bars in China, or the restrictions are not fully implemented if there are any, while the related hazard health effects are not recognized by the majority of the Chinese population. Objectives This study aims to assess the excess health risks and mortality attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars for both servers and patrons to provide necessary evidence for advancing tobacco control in this microenvironment. Methods Two approaches were used for the assessment. One is a continuous approach based on existing field measurements and Repace and Lowrey’s dose-response model, and the other is a categorical approach based on exposure or not and epidemiological studies. Results Based on the continuous approach, servers were estimated to have a lifetime excess risk (LER) of lung cancer death (LCD) of 730 to 1,831×10?6 for working five days a week for 45 years in smoking restaurants and 1,862 to 8,136×10?6 in smoking bars, and patrons could have a LER of LCD of 47 to 117×10?6 due to visiting smoking restaurants for an average of 13 minutes a day for 60 years, and 119 to 522×10?6 due to visiting smoking bars. The categorical approach estimated that SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone caused 84 LCD and 57 ischemic heart disease (IHD) deaths among nonsmoking servers and 1,2419 LCDs and 1,689 IHD deaths among the nonsmoking patron population. Conclusions SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone can impose high lifetime excess risks of lung cancer death and ischemic heart disease deaths to both servers and patrons, and can cause a significant number of deaths each year in China. These health risks and deaths can be prevented by banning smoking in restaurants and bars and effectively implementing these smoking bans.
National smokefree law in New Zealand improves air quality inside bars, pubs and restaurants
Nick Wilson, Richard Edwards, Anthony Maher, Jenny N?the, Rafed Jalali
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-85
Abstract: We included 34 pubs, restaurants and bars, 10 transportation settings, nine other indoor settings, six outdoor smoking areas of bars and restaurants, and six other outdoor settings. These were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. The number of lit cigarettes among occupants at defined time points in each venue was observed and a portable real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure fine particulate levels (PM2.5).No smoking was observed during the data collection periods among over 3785 people present in the indoor venues, nor in any of the transportation settings. The levels of fine particulates were relatively low inside the bars, pubs and restaurants in the urban and rural settings (mean 30-minute level = 16 μg/m3 for 34 venues; range of mean levels for each category: 13 μg/m3 to 22 μg/m3). The results for other smokefree indoor settings (shops, offices etc) and for smokefree transportation settings (eg, buses, trains, etc) were even lower. However, some "outdoor" smoking areas attached to bars/restaurants had high levels of fine particulates, especially those that were partly enclosed (eg, up to a 30-minute mean value of 182 μg/m3 and a peak of maximum value of 284 μg/m3). The latter are far above WHO guideline levels for 24-hour exposure (ie, 25μg/m3).There was very high compliance with the new national smokefree law and this was also reflected by the relatively good indoor air quality in hospitality settings (compared to the "outdoor" smoking areas and the comparable settings in countries that permit indoor smoking). Nevertheless, adopting enhanced regulations (as used in various US and Canadian jurisdictions) may be needed to address hazardous air quality in relatively enclosed "outdoor" smoking areas.There is growing international interest in the use of smokefree legislation for improving air quality and protecting the health of workers and the public. Comprehensive smokefree laws have been introduced in such jurisdictions as
Factors which predetermine tobacco smoke air pollution in cafes, restaurants, and bars of Donetsk city, Ukraine  [cached]
Durneva, Tetyana,Pashkova, Nadiya,Prokopenko, Anastasia,Burlakova, Svetlana
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Smoke-free policy is an effective tobacco control measure. Current legislation of Ukraine requires at least half of the premises of cafes, restaurants, and bars to be smoke-free provided that tobacco smoke does not penetrate from the smoking areas. METHODS: Data on fine particulate matter air pollution was collected in 28 facilities from December 2011 through January 2012 according to the international protocol with the use of Sidepak Aerosol Monitor. Characteristics of the facilities were recorded along with the data on whether smoking was observed. Height, length and width of premises were measured as well. To analyze factors that affect air pollution, generalized linear model utility in SPSS 15.0 was used. Results are presented as 95%confidence intervals of particulate matter concentrations.RESULTS: Among 25 facilities with designated smoking areas only nine had areas for non-smokers larger than the designated smoking areas. Particulate matter air concentrations in those three facilities where all the premises were smoke-free constituted 82-94 μ/m3. Concentrations in rooms for non-smokers and smokers in facilities with thoroughly divided premises were 144-158 μ/m3 and 411-625 μ/m3 respectively and in those without the division 384-436 μ/m3 in premises for non-smokers and 471-537 μ/m3 where smoking was allowed. With other factors controlled (facility size, type – bar present or not, ventilation, smoking occurring or not), there was no significant difference in concentrations between those premises where smoking was allowed and where it wasn’t if the facility was not totally smoke-free. CONCLUSION: Current legislation of Ukraine which requires designated smoking areas does not protect visitors against tobacco smoke, as it does penetrate to the non-smoking areas in most of the examined facilities of Donetsk. Introduction of 100% smoke-free policies will protect public health and simplify control and enforcement.
Deux restaurants à New York: l'un franco-maghrébin, l'autre africain. Two restaurants in New York : one is Franco-Maghrebian, the other is African -Recent creations of "well-tempered" exoticisms  [cached]
Jean-Pierre Hassoun
Anthropology of Food , 2010,
Abstract: L’article repose sur une enquête ethnographique conduite en 2008-2009 à Manhattan auprès de huit entrepreneurs devenus Chef et/ou managers de restaurant après avoir immigré à New York. Aucun d’entre eux n’a été formé dans une institution culinaire et tous proposent des cuisines de régions du monde (Afrique, Afrique du Nord) encore absentes, ou peu présentes à New York. A partir de deux études de cas plus détaillées, l’auteur s’interroge sur les stratégies marchandes autour de cette altérité et les limites du cosmopolitisme propre au globalisme . La trajectoire du restaurateur se transforme en héritage par le biais d’un ego-récit qui s’utilise comme une ressource commerciale. Les restaurateurs intériorisent les désirs des clients. Plus que la recherche de go ts inconnus ou d’une altérité radicale imaginée comme authentique, ceux-ci veulent avant tout identifier les ingrédients ingérés, avoir une idée de leur provenance, et respecter un ensemble (instable) de normes nutritionnelles subsumé aujourd’hui à Manhattan par la catégorie indigène healthy. Les restaurateurs anticipent ces désirs en opérant sur les plats un travail de retrait, de séparation et de substitution des ingrédients. L’exotisme s’est mis au régime. This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork (november 2008-january 2009) in Manhattan with eight entrepreneurs who became Chef and/or restaurant manager after they immigrated in New York. Not any one has an academic culinary background and they all propose food from regions (Africa, and North Africa) which are not yet offered (or not much offered) in the city. The author stresses on two cases studies to question informal market strategies, cosmopolitanism and globalism limits. Restaurant owner’s trajectory – a narrative which becomes a heritage - is used as a market resource. Restaurants internalize and anticipate customers’ desires; In fact town people doesn’t desire unknown tastes or meetings with radical otherness imagined as authentic. They want to identify the ingredients they ingest, to get an idea about their origin and to observe a set of nutritional rules (less or more stable) subsumed today in New York within the indigenous category healthy. To anticipate these desires, restaurant owners remove, separate and substitute ingredients. Exoticism is on diet.
El ambiente laboral como fuente de exposición a humo de tabaco ambiental: Estudio en trabajadores de bares y restaurantes de Santiago, Chile The work environment as a source of exposure to secondhand smoke: a study in workers of bars and restaurants of Santiago, Chile
Revista médica de Chile , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an established cause of morbidity and mortality among non-smokers. The workplace is an important source of exposure, especially among workers of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Aim: To estimate the daily occupational exposure to SHS among non-smoking workers of bars and restaurants of Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods: Environmental vapor-phase nico-tine was measured for 95 non-smoking workers of bars and restaurants of Santiago, using passive personal samplers during a daily work shift and outside the workplace. Results: The median occupational exposure to air nicotine was 9.18 μg/m3 (P25-P75 3.15-25.67 μg/m3). Higher concentrations were found among workers of places with no smoking restrictions (22.72 μg/m3; P25-P75 5.73-34.85 μg/m3), bar workers (20.75 μg/m3, P25-P75 5.03-44.67 μg/m3), waiters (20.57 μg/m3, PP25-P75 5.66-42.73 μg/m3) and bartenders (10.37 μg/m3, P25-P75 9.75-25.67 μg/m3). The median concentration of nicotine outside the workplace was 1.79 μg/m3 (P25-P75 1.02-3.00 μg/m3). Occupational exposure was 4.77 times higher compared to the non-work exposure. Conclusions: Workers of bars and restaurants are exposed to high levels of SHS at the workplace. Moreover, occupational exposure among these non-smoking workers is, in most cases, the main source of daily exposure to this pollutant.
Investigation of Noise Pollution in Restaurants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania, East Africa
D Samagwa, SL Mkoma, C Tungaraza
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2009,
Abstract: The assessment of the present status of sound levels in seven restaurants at Morogoro municipality was studied. The indoor and outdoor ambient noise levels were measured twice a day, thrice a week for a period of two months by using digital sound level meter. In addition, questionnaires survey was used to assess sources of noise pollution in restaurants environment. The results show that the measured noise level in all studied restaurants ranged from 61dBA to 64dBA. The measured indoor noise levels were higher than outdoor in B-One, High Classic and Vyakula vya Asili restaurants and vise versa in Saddiq, Princes and Malindi dishes restaurants. The correlation coefficients between the indoors and outdoors locations in all the restaurants were either negative or less than 0.3 thus suggesting little or no impact of the indoor environment on the outdoor environment’s noise level. In comparison with permissible Tanzania Bureau of Standards the measured indoor ambient noise levels in the restaurants were higher than the maximum permissible standard limit of 55dBA for mixed residential zones. As for sources of noise pollution at Morogoro municipality, the study shows that people who visit restaurants to have a meal encounter three kinds of noise pollution: the noise created by other customers, the noise from outside (the street), and the noise provided by the music systems which are run in most restaurants. Therefore, proper planning for restaurants areas and other use zones is recommended
Location Patterns of Restaurants in Istanbul  [PDF]
Hatice Ayatac, Vedia Dokmeci
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.52012
Abstract: Dining out plays an important role for the residents of the post-modern day Istanbul in terms of recreational purposes. The location of restaurants reflects the impacts of the transformation of the city’s cultural life on the urban structure. This paper investigates the spatial distribution of restaurants in Istanbul between 1997 and 2013. Over this period of time, while the number of restaurants has increased in all of the concentric zones in the city, their ratio has decreased in the core and in the intermediate zones, while it has increased in the periphery, especially in the sub-centers. In this paper, regression analysis was used to investigate the spatial distribution of restaurants. The number of restaurants was taken as the dependent variable, and the socio-economic characteristics of the districts and the distance from the sea coast were taken as the independent variables. The results of the study reveal that, in 1997, the relation between the number of restaurants and population, GNP/pc and the distance from the sea shore had a significant effect on the location of restaurants. In 2013, however, population has become less influential and income has become more significant due to the economic growth in the periphery of the metropolitan area. This is the consequence of the multi-center development of the city, the suburbanization of higher income groups to a certain extent and the increase in the consumption services on account of multiculturalism arising from globalization.
Bars within Bars in Galaxies  [PDF]
Witold Maciejewski,Linda S. Sparke
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Inner regions of barred disk galaxies often include asymmetrical, small-scale central features, some of which are best described as secondary bars. Because orbital timescales in the galaxy center are short, secondary bars are likely to be dynamically decoupled from the main kiloparsec-scale bars. We found that non-chaotic multiply-periodic particle orbits can exist in potentials with two dynamically decoupled bars.Stars trapped around these orbits could form the building blocks for a long-lived, doubly-barred galaxy. A self-consistent secondary bar appears to induce formation of inner gaseous rings rather than shocks in gas flow.
Orbits Supporting Bars within Bars  [PDF]
Witold Maciejewski,Linda S. Sparke
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03270.x
Abstract: High-resolution observations of the inner regions of barred disk galaxies have revealed many asymmetrical, small-scale central features, some of which are best described as secondary bars. Because orbital time-scales in the galaxy center are short, secondary bars are likely to be dynamically decoupled from the main kiloparsec-scale bars. Here, we show that regular orbits exist in such doubly-barred potentials and that they can support the bars in their motion. We find orbits in which particles remain on loops: closed curves which return to their original positions after two bars have come back to the same relative orientation. Stars trapped around stable loops could form the building blocks for a long-lived, doubly-barred galaxy. Using the loop representation, we can find which orbits support the bars in their motion, and what are the constraints on the sizes and shapes of self-consistent double bars. In particular, it appears that a long-lived secondary bar may exist only when an Inner Lindblad Resonance is present in the primary bar, and that it would not extend beyond this resonance.
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