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A New Paradigm in User Equilibrium-Application in Managed Lane Pricing  [PDF]
Asapol Sinprasertkool, Siamak Ardekani, Stephen P. Mattingly
International Journal of Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Ineffective use of the High-Occupancy-Vehicle (HOV) lanes has the potential to decrease theoverall roadway throughput during peak periods. Excess capacity in HOV lanes during peakperiods can be made available to other types of vehicles, including single occupancy vehicles(SOV) for a price (toll). Such dual use lanes are known as “Managed Lanes.” The main purposeof this research is to propose a new paradigm in user equilibrium to predict the travel demand fordetermining the optimal fare policy for managed lane facilities. Depending on their value of time,motorists may choose to travel on Managed Lanes (ML) or General Purpose Lanes (GPL). In thisstudy, the features in the software called Toll Pricing Modeler version 4.3 (TPM-4.3) aredescribed. TPM-4.3 is developed based on this new user equilibrium concept and utilizes it toexamine various operating scenarios. The software has two built-in operating objective options: 1)what would the ML operating speed be for a specified SOV toll, or 2) what should the SOV toll befor a desired minimum ML operating speed.A number of pricing policy scenarios are developed and examined on the proposed managedlane segment on Interstate 30 (I-30) in Grand Prairie, Texas. The software provides quantitativeestimates of various factors including toll revenue, emissions and system performance such asperson movement and traffic speed on managed and general purpose lanes. Overall, among thescenarios examined, higher toll rates tend to generate higher toll revenues, reduce overall COand NOx emissions, and shift demand to general purpose lanes. On the other hand, HOVpreferential treatments at any given toll level tend to reduce toll revenue, have no impact on orreduce system performance on managed lanes, and increase CO and NOx emissions.
Travel in Pregnancy: The Impact of Zika  [PDF]
Erin E. Curcio, Jonathan D. Baum, Debra Gussman, Mark Martens
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.710107
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine current travel patterns and behaviors of pregnant women. METHODS: We developed a questionnaire adapted from a publication by Kingman and Economides to examine the travel behavior of women during pregnancy in a suburban community. RESULTS: A convenience sample of 102 patients completed the travel questionnaire. Forty-six (45.1%) traveled during the current pregnancy. Thirty-one (30.4%) traveled more than once. A total of 257 trips were taken by the participants: 113 (43.9%) trips were taken in the first trimester, 87 (33.8%) in the second and 59 (22.9%) in the third trimester. Trip length ranged from 2-90 days with a mean of 11 days. Reasons for travel included: 193 (75.1%) for leisure, 37 (14.4%) work related, 10 (3.9%) trips for emergencies, and 3 (0.4%) trips for relocation.?Eighteen women (17.6%) traveled internationally. One (1.0%) woman was hospitalized while traveling. Manner of travel was as follows: car 167 (65.0%), plane 67 (26.1%), train 13 (5.1) %, bus 10 (3.9%) and none by boat. Nineteen (41.3%) women sought travel advice. Thirteen (68.4%) asked for advice from a doctor, 2 (10.5%) from a nurse, 2 (10.5%) from family and/or friends, 1 (5.3%) from the Internet and 1 (5.3%) from a travel book. Seventeen (37%), traveled without suitable insurance. DISCUSSION: Travel rates during pregnancy have remained surprisingly stable over the past 60 years. Almost 50% of our cohort traveled during pregnancy, and the majority did not seek advice prior to travel. In light of new infectious disease threats, obstetric practice and advice needs reassessment. The majority of travel during pregnancy remains optional. Improved patient education and consultations prior to travel could decrease health risks.
What doctors think about the impact of managed care tools on quality of care, costs, autonomy, and relations with patients
Marie Deom, Thomas Agoritsas, Patrick A Bovier, Thomas V Perneger
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-331
Abstract: Mail survey of doctors (N = 1546) in Geneva, Switzerland. Respondents were asked to rate the impact of 8 managed care tools on 4 aspects of care on a 5-level scale (1 very negative, 2 rather negative, 3 neutral, 4 rather positive, 5 very positive). For each tool, we obtained a mean score from the 4 separate impacts.Doctors had predominantly negative opinions of the impact of managed care tools: use of guidelines (mean score 3.18), gate-keeping (2.76), managed care networks (2.77), second opinion requirement (2.65), pay for performance (1.90), pay by salary (2.24), selective contracting (1.56), and pre-approval of expensive treatments (1.77). Estimated impacts on cost control were positive or neutral for most tools, but impacts on professional autonomy were predominantly negative. Primary care doctors held more positive opinions than doctors in other specialties, and psychiatrists were in general the most critical. Older doctors had more negative opinions, as well as those in private practice.Doctors perceived most managed care tools to have a positive impact on the control of health care costs but a negative impact on medical practice. Tools that are controlled by the profession were better accepted than those that are imposed by payers."Managed care" is a global term for health care systems that integrate the delivery and financing of health care. Managed care contrasts with liberal medical practice, which allows doctors to make clinical decisions and bill for their services without interference from managers or payers. Traditional forms of managed care include the staff-model health maintenance organization (HMO) and the office-based independent provider association [1,2]. However, many variants exist. Luft notes that "in reality, each HMO is a highly complex combination of economic incentives, bureaucratic structures, and personalities" [3]. Another definition characterizes managed care programs by their use of a variety of interventions, including economic incen
Examining Potential Travel Time Savings Benefits Due to Toll Rates That Vary by Lane  [PDF]
Negin Alemazkoor, Mark Burris
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2014.43024

By assigning different toll rates to different lanes during peak traffic hours, the demand for each lane of a road can be optimized. Lanes with lower travel times charge higher toll rates which are paid by those drivers who have higher values of travel time (VTT) and who want to avoid congestion in the other lanes. Conversely, travel time for those drivers with lower values of travel times will increase as they select the lower priced and slower lanes. This research examines toll rates that minimize the total value of travel time spent on the road under such a scenario. The optimum toll rates are dependent on the total road volume and distribution of VTT. The results show that total saved value of travel time can easily reach 11% of the total value of time spent traveling on the lanes when compared to a toll road with a uniform toll rate for all lanes. These savings vary based on many factors including the number of travelers on urgent trips.

The Impact of Incentives in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 on Corporate Strategies  [PDF]
Martha Garcia-Murillo,Ian MacInnes
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Rules are necessary to provide or shape the incentives of individuals and organizations. This is particularly true when free markets lead to undesirable outcomes. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 attempted to create incentives to foster competition. Ambiguity as well as the timing of the Act has led to delays in the clarification of rules and the rapid obsolescence of the document. The paper presents the strategies that common carriers adopted to try to tilt regulation in their favor, slow the entry of competitors, maintain their market leadership, and expand into other segments. Some of the strategies analyzed include lobbying efforts, court challenges, and lack of cooperation with new entrants.
The Impact of Travel Time on Geographic Distribution of Dialysis Patients  [PDF]
Saori Kashima, Masatoshi Matsumoto, Takahiko Ogawa, Akira Eboshida, Keisuke Takeuchi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047753
Abstract: Backgrounds The geographic disparity of prevalence rates among dialysis patients is unclear. We evaluate the association between travel time to dialysis facilities and prevalence rates of dialysis patients living in 1,867 census areas of Hiroshima, Japan. Furthermore, we study the effects of geographic features (mainland or island) on the prevalence rates and assess if these effects modify the association between travel time and prevalence. Methods The study subjects were all 7,374 people that were certified as the “renal disabled” by local governments in 2011. The travel time from each patient to the nearest available dialysis facility was calculated by incorporating both travel time and the capacity of all 98 facilities. The effect of travel time on the age- and sex-adjusted standard prevalence rate (SPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each census area was evaluated in two-level Poisson regression models with 1,867 census areas (level 1) nested within 35 towns or cities (level 2). The results were adjusted for area-based parameters of socioeconomic status, urbanity, and land type. Furthermore, the SPR of dialysis patients was calculated in each specific subgroup of population for travel time, land type, and combination of land type and travel time. Results In the regression analysis, SPR decreased by 5.2% (95% CI: ?7.9–?2.3) per 10-min increase in travel time even after adjusting for potential confounders. The effect of travel time on prevalence was different in the mainland and island groups. There was no travel time-dependent SPR disparity on the islands. The SPR among remote residents (>30 min from facilities) in the mainland was lower (0.77, 95% CI: 0.71–0.85) than that of closer residents (≤30 min; 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97). Conclusions The prevalence of dialysis patients was lower among remote residents. Geographic difficulties for commuting seem to decrease the prevalence rate.
Financial Incentives and their Impact for Attracting FDI Survey with Foreign Investitures in Albania
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction to market economy brought the need to attract FDI in Albanian economy. Governments of different countries often used several incentives to attract foreign investors. In this aspect, Albania has attempted to attract FDI by applying several measures in order to create a favorable environment to foreign investments. This study considers the relation between demanders of financial aspects taking into account thus the incentive packages, the business sector where these packages are applied, tax levels and the opportunity for foreign investments in the coming years. In order to provide thorough information, the study will be focused on analyzing the conclusions of the interviews made to foreign investors who have their activity on Albania. The study will include also the results of a statistical analysis. It is used to verify if there exist a relation between incentives and FDI level. The contingency test is χ2.
An Empirical Analysis to the Impact of Tax Incentives on FDI after WTO  [PDF]
Jue Yan
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.711121
Abstract: Based on 36 cities’ datum, We build a model to examine whether a series of tax incentives to promote FDI inflows have a significant effect or not after 2001. The results showed that: After WTO, preferential tax policies which were taken to promote FDI inflows and upgrade industrial structure indeed had a certain effect. From sub-regional perspective, preferential tax policies for central and western regions still attract FDI, while the eastern region is no longer significant.
Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa - methods and results in Northern Malawi
Houben Rein MGJ,Van Boeckel Thomas P,Mwinuka Venance,Mzumara Peter
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-11-49
Abstract: Background Decentralised health services form a key part of chronic care strategies in resource-limited settings by reducing the distance between patient and clinic and thereby the time and costs involved in travelling. However, few tools exist to evaluate the impact of decentralisation on patient travel time or what proportion of patients attend their nearest clinic. Here we develop methods to monitor changes in travel time, using data from the antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out in a rural district in North Malawi. Methods Clinic position was combined with GPS information on the home village of patients accessing ART services in Karonga District (North Malawi) between July 2005 and July 2009. Potential travel time was estimated as the travel time for an individual attending their nearest clinic, and estimated actual travel time as the time to the clinic attended. This allowed us to calculate changes in potential and actual travel time as new clinics opened and track the proportion and origin of patients not accessing their nearest clinic. Results The model showed how the opening of further ART clinics in Karonga District reduced median potential travel time from 83 to 43 minutes, and median actual travel time fell from 83 to 47 minutes. The proportion of patients not attending their nearest clinic increased from 6% when two clinics were open, to 12% with four open. Discussion Integrating GPS information with patient data shows the impact of decentralisation on travel time and clinic choice to inform policy and research questions. In our case study, travel time decreased, accompanied by an increased uptake of services. However, the model also identified an increasing proportion of ART patients did not attend their nearest clinic.
Cultural Sensitivity Associated with Domestic Travel Study Program: Long-Term Impact  [PDF]
Jessica R. Eosso, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Ryan T. Pohlig, Laura M. Lessard, Sandra D. Baker
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.101008
Abstract: Domestic and international travel study programs have grown in length and popularity since they began in 1923. Regardless of the field of study, the goal of most programs is to enhance student cultural sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of an undergraduate food-focused domestic travel study program on long-term cultural sensitivity based on the ASKED model. A travel study program focused on transcultural food and cuisine was initiated in 1987 and as of 2017, implemented 22 times. The program length varied between 3 and5 weeks and was offered in two locations in the United States. A survey developed to explore the long-term impact of the program incorporated the ASKED model of cultural competence. This model includes five domains: cultural awareness, skill, knowledge, encounters, and desire. The survey was validated and found to be reliable. University of Delaware alumni who participated in the travel study program (n = 461) and a comparison group of alumni (n = 402) who did not participate in the program were invited to complete the survey. The majority of respondents majored in nutrition and dietetics. Alumni who participated in the travel study program had significantly higher total cultural sensitivity scores and also higher scores on 3 domains, namely cultural skill, knowledge, and desire compared to those that did not. Of the 11 program activities participants were asked to rank as contributors to cultural sensitivity, dining experiences and farm to table tours were rated as the top two, respectively. The study findings provided evidence that a short-term, domestic travel study program enhanced long-term cultural sensitivity. Since domestic programs may be a more cost-effective option and align more closely with employment opportunities in healthcare than international travel programs for college graduates, educators should provide opportunities and encourage dietetic students to participate in these travel programs.
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