Abstract:
We assume that the coupling between particles and photons is defined by a surface area and a temperature, and that the square of the temperature is the inverse of the surface area (h_bar=c=1). By making assumptions regarding stimulated emission and effects associated with the finite length of a string that forms the particle surface, the fine structure constant is calculated to be ~1/137.04. The corresponding calculated fundamental unit of charge is 1.6021E-19 C.

Abstract:
We report a calculation of the fine structure splitting in light helium-like atoms, which accounts for all quantum electrodynamical effects up to order \alpha^5 Ry. For the helium atom, we resolve the previously reported disagreement between theory and experiment and determine the fine structure constant with an accuracy of 31 ppb. The calculational results are extensively checked by comparison with the experimental data for different nuclear charges and by evaluation of the hydrogenic limit of individual corrections.

Abstract:
A possible explanation is offered for the longstanding mystery surrounding the meaning of the fine structure constant. The reasoning is based on a discrete self-similar cosmological paradigm that has shown promise in explaining the general scaling properties of nature's global hierarchy. The discrete scale invariance of the paradigm implies that "strong gravity" governs gravitational interactions within atomic scale systems. Given the revised gravitational coupling constant and Planck mass, one can demonstrate that the fine structure constant is the ratio of the strengths of the unit electromagnetic interaction and the unit gravitational interaction within atomic scale systems. [Abridged]

Abstract:
In the present report the author presents a simple and systematically defined formula for the fine structure constant based only on the number $\pi$. The difference between the suggested value and the currently known experimental one is about 60 times smaller than the uncertainty interval.

Abstract:
In the report submitted here, an elementary formula is presented that allows calculation of the fine structure constant, derived on the basis of the unified theory of the electromagnetic and gravitational field elaborated by the author. This theory is based on the laws of relativity and quantum mechanics, in a brand new insight into the interpretation of gravitational forces. The electron model designed by the author then offers a remarkable reply to the problem of the electric charge essence. A direct implication of this theory is the functional dependence of the charge upon the Planck constant and the speed of light, therefore the fine structure constant can be identified with arbitrary numerical accuracy. There is no visible difference between the presented value of this constant and the experimental result stemming from the area related in a way to this theory, the quantum Hall effect.

Abstract:
In this paper the aging of the Universe is investigated in the frame of quantum hyperbolic heat transport equation. For the open universe, when t to \infty, hbar to \infty, c to 0 and fine structure constant alpha is constant. Key words: Quantum heat transport; Open universe; Fine structure constant.

Abstract:
It is considered that quasars evolve into normal galaxies by means of expansion of matter. The order of magnitude of the expansion velocity can be estimated. The Doppler shift caused by such expansion explains the supposed variation of the fine structure constant. This variation has been based on observations of absorption lines of gas clouds seen against background quasars. These ideas maintain the constancy of the fine structure constant.

Abstract:
Future space missions, TPF and Darwin will focus on searches of signatures of life on extrasolar planets. In this paper we look for model independ definition of the habitable zone. It will be shown that the radius of the habitable sphere depends only on the constants of the Nature. Key words: Habitable sphere, fine structure constant.

Abstract:
Within the Machian model of the universe the dark energy is identified with the Machian energy of collective gravitational interactions of all particles inside the horizon. It is shown that the fine structure constant can be expressed in terms of the observed radiative, baryon and dark energy densities of the universe and the densities of various matter components are interrelated via it.

Abstract:
We study the dependence of the peak luminosity of Type Ia supernovae on the fine structure constant $\alpha$. We find that decreasing (increasing) $\alpha$ enhances (reduces) the luminosity. Future experiments like SNAP could determine the variation of $\alpha$ to a precision of $10^{-2}$.