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THE STATE AND CONFLICT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO  [cached]
Hussein Solomon,Cornelia Cone
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/32-1-127
Abstract: This paper will unpack the nature of the state in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.) and explore the links between conflict and the state. The aim of this paper is to ultimately provide an answer to the question: ‘Is there a link between the nature of the state in the D.R.C. and the conflict in this country?’ and ‘If so, what is the link?’ The theoretical tenets of the argument will be encapsulated in a discussion that will juxtapose ‘strong states’ with African states. The nature of the state in the D.R.C., as an African state, will subsequently be explored. Lastly, links will be established between the nature of the state and conflict with particular reference to the situation in the D.R.C.
Ocular Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Mihály Sulyok ,Lajos Rózsa,Imre Bodó,Dennis Tappe equal contributor,Richard Hardi equal contributor
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003041
Abstract: Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.
The Instability of Political and Administrative Institutions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Chelo Kpats Guyguy, Xiaojun Xu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.72005
Abstract: This article uses a historical approach to identify and analyze the factors leading to the instability of political and administrative institutions of the Democratic Republic of Congo from independence to the year 2017. There are multiple factors related to institutional instability in the DRC. Key among them includes the inadequate constitutional provisions, the difficulties caused by the non-application of democratic principles, the heterogeneity of the populace and frequent conflicts. Other contributors to the institutional instability experienced in the DRC include the politicization of the administration, the prevailing social-economic situation, poor governance, the non-observance of the laws, the poor distribution of the national wealth, foreign pressures and macroeconomic influences. The challenges due to institutional and political instability in the DRC provide opportunities for the Congolese state and its populace to re-invent itself to be a truly democratic space where the ambitions to develop and improve the living conditions of the people can be improved through stabilized and functional institutions.
Prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Dieudonne Mumba,Elaine Bohorquez,Jane Messina,Victor Kande,Steven M. Taylor,Antoinette K. Tshefu,Jeremie Muwonga,Melchior M. Kashamuka,Michael Emch,Richard Tidwell,Philippe Büscher,Steven R. Meshnick
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001246
Abstract: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Active and passive surveillance for HAT is conducted but may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. We used ELISA to screen 7,769 leftover dried blood spots from a nationally representative population-based survey, the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. 26 samples were positive by ELISA. Three of these were also positive by trypanolysis and/or PCR. From these data, we estimate that there were 18,592 people with HAT (95% confidence interval, 4,883–32,302) in the DRC in 2007, slightly more than twice as many as were reported.
Sustainable Urbanization’s Challenge in Democratic Republic of Congo  [cached]
Misilu Mia Nsokimieno Eric,Chen Shouyu,Zhang li Qin
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v3n2p242
Abstract: In the context of rapid urbanization in Democratic Republic of Congo, overpopulation in Kinshasa’s city increasingly carries out chaos, inequalities, poverty, environmental degradation, open spaces loss , socio - economic tension, and spontaneous settlements and sprawl. This rapid urban growth occurs without planning and productive employment compounded by weak government involvements. These crisis situations put to the forefront sustainable urbanization as a priority issue for urban development with reference to the globalization and technology. This requires reconsidering urbanization process to stimulate economic growth and mobilize resources at local, national and global levels. A comprehensive reform based on an integrating vision of governance and collective commitment to manage efficiently natural resources. The paper reviews pragmatic approaches in urban planning decision in its whole refers to the dynamics of management, qualification and transformation of the city. The paper presents urban renewal as remedial action holding opportunities to improve environmental quality.
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Disease in North-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Biya Nkizinkiko Robert, Mashako Ruhanga Many
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.72006
Abstract: Introduction: The emergency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to the first line drug reduced access possibility to second line drugs for appropriate treatment and required for urgent action especially in le Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which counts among the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden countries in Africa. Objective: To present prevalence and describe multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in North-Kivu Province identified by using Genexpert technology. Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in North-Kivu Province, DRC from 2017 to 2018. All cases of MDR-TB identified by Genexpert MTB/ RIB were included in this series. Result: Of 15,544 tuberculosis cases registered during the study period, 19 cases of MDR-TB were identified. 57.9% was male, 89.5% was retreatment cases and 5.3% was coinfection HIV/TB cases. Conclusion: This new molecular technology diagnostic facilitates multidrug-resistance tuberculosis detection and improves the reporting of data lack.
Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Aketi Loukia, Shiku Diayisu Joseph, Kashongwe Zacharie, Lay Gertrude, Kibadi Kapay, Kayembe Kalambay Patrick
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44026
Abstract: Setting: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not well known. Objective: This study aimed to describe the trends in TB epidemiology among children in the DRC and to compare these trends in children and adults. Design: Data from the National TB program, the WHO Global TB Report, and a demographic survey of health in the DRC were retrospectively analyzed. The study period was from 1995 to 2014. The notification rate, absolute incidence and incidence rate of TB per 100,000 population were reported. Results: In 2014, 12,785 (12.6% of adult cases) TB cases were reported in children and 101,303 in adults. Among children, 3438 (26.89%) had PTB+; 2828 (22.11%) had PTB; and 6519 (50.98%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Children under 5 years had a lower reported prevalence of TB (184 cases). The incidence rate per 100,000 population was 10 in children and 181 in adults. The TB incidence decreased between 2010 (11.47) and 2014 (10.46). The proportion of children in overall cases of PTB+ was 4% to 5% in all districts. Conclusion: Caring for childhood TB remains a challenge in the DRC. Improved diagnostic procedures and effective training of providers who care for childhood TB are needed.
Molecular Malaria Epidemiology: Mapping and Burden Estimates for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007  [PDF]
Steve M. Taylor,Jane P. Messina,Carla C. Hand,Jonathan J. Juliano,Jeremie Muwonga,Antoinette K. Tshefu,Benjamin Atua,Michael Emch,Steven R. Meshnick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016420
Abstract: Epidemiologic data on malaria are scant in many high-burden countries including the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which suffers the second-highest global burden of malaria. Malaria control efforts in regions with challenging infrastructure require reproducible and efficient surveillance. We employed new high-throughput molecular testing to characterize the state of malaria control in the DRC and estimate childhood mortality attributable to excess malaria transmission.
Preventing vertical transmission of HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a baseline survey of 18 antenatal clinics
Behets,Frieda MTF; Matendo,Richard; Vaz,Lara ME; Kilese,Nick; Nanlele,Diderot; Kokolomami,Jack; Okitolando,Emile W; Van Rie,Annelies;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006001200013
Abstract: objective: to assess the content and delivery of essential antenatal services before implementation of programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pmtct) of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). methods: we assessed 18 antenatal care centres (eight public units and ten managed by nongovernmental organizations) in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo. we used a survey to capture information about the number and type of antenatal health workers, infrastructure capacity and the delivery of basic antenatal care services such as: nutritional counselling; tetanus toxoid vaccination; prevention and management of anaemia, malaria, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis; and counselling for postpartum contraception. findings: antenatal care units differed with respect to size, capacity, cost, service delivery systems and content. for instance, 17 of the 18 sites offered anaemia screening but only two sites included the cost in the card that gives access to antenatal care. nine of the clinics (50%) reported providing the malaria prophyalxis sulfadoxine pyrimethamine as per national policy. four (22%) of the sites offered syphilis screening. conclusion: scaling up pmtct programmes in under-resourced settings requires evaluation and strengthening of existing basic antenatal care service delivery.
Democracy and elections in Africa in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Lessons for Africa
AM Mabgu, M Budeli
Law, Democracy & Development , 2008,
Abstract: André Mbata Mabgu and Mpariseni Budeli write on the trajectory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which, moving from a colonial to an independent to an oppressive state before finally emerging into democracy in 2006, resembles that of many African states. Lessons from the DRC elections for democratic consolidation and state reconstruction may therefore be considered illuminating, reflective of the post-colonial African experience with constitutionalism and democracy. The article concludes that, despite some shortcomings, the elections were particularly peaceful, thus disappointing many prophets of doom. After decades of authoritarianism and violent conflicts this is an achievement that should be celebrated across the continent and by those who assisted in the process, including the international community. The message from the DRC is also encouraging to the proponents of an African renaissance, which cannot materialise without democracy, the rule of law and development.
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