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Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing
Melissa Jardine, Nick Crofts, Geoff Monaghan, Martha Morrow
Harm Reduction Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-9-27
Abstract: After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police.Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention.Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street.Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy or training strategies to support or operationalise legalised harm reduction interventions. The practices of street police challenge harm reduction policies, entirely understandably given the competing pressures on them. For harm reduction to be effective in Vietnam, it is essential that the ambiguities and contradictions between laws to control HIV and to control drugs be resolved for the street-level police.Where there is injecting drug use (IDU), there is risk of transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBV), including HIV and hepatitis B and C (HBV/HCV). Comprehensive harm reduction approaches have been convincingly shown to diminish
Mycotoxin Detection Plays “Cops and Robbers”: Cyclodextrin Chemosensors as Specialized Police?  [PDF]
Pietro Cozzini,Gianluigi Ingletto,Ratna Singh,Chiara Dall’Asta
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9122474
Abstract: As in a cops and robbers play we discover new mycotoxins and metabolites everyday and we are forced to develop new molecules quickly as chemo- or biosensors or to modify existing molecules able to recognize these new hazardous compounds. This will result in an enormous cost saving to agro-food industry through the prevention and reduction of product recalls and reduced treatment costs. Here we present a brief review of the rapid methods used to detect mycotoxins, considering usefulness and limits. Then we propose a new fast, efficient and cheap methodology, based on a combination of computer chemistry aided design and fluorescence, that can help to drive synthesis in a more efficient way.
Differences in Reporting of Violence and Deliberate Self Harm Related Injuries to Health and Police Authorities, Rawalpindi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Umar Farooq,Mudassir Majeed,Junaid Ahmad Bhatti,Jahangir Sarwar Khan,Junaid Abdul Razzak,Muhammad Mussadiq Khan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009373
Abstract: The aim of study was to assess differences in reporting of violence and deliberate self harm (DSH) related injuries to police and emergency department (ED) in an urban town of Pakistan.
Operational use of electronic records in police work
Erik Borglund
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction. This research is about how police officers use electronic records in their operational work, reacting to calls from the dispatch centre. Method. Three different qualitative studies, involving interviews and observations, were used to collect data. The studies were performed at a police county in the north of Sweden during 2003. Analysis. The empirical data were analysed using a hermeneutical analysis technique without computer-based support. Iterative analysis was performed, where empirical data related to the use of electronic records were identified and grouped together into larger categories, which were named descriptively. Results. There is a widespread use of information retrieved from electronic records. This has changed the possibilities for police officers to get reliable and authentic information for both tactical and legal decisions, which increases the officers' ability to make correct decisions within operational work. Information technology and information systems now handle many administrative tasks, and allow access to and searching of electronic information independently of the physical location of the officer. This opens up a possibility for mobile access to trustworthy information that supports police work. Conclusion. Operational police work has changed in a positive direction by the use of electronic records, and it is possible to develop this change even further. Record management systems designed to support access independent of physical location of the police officer could open up new possibilities for working police officers.
Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan
Catherine S Todd, Naqibullah Safi, Steffanie A Strathdee
Harm Reduction Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-2-13
Abstract: Afghanistan is at a cross-roads; the country is emerging from more than twenty years of political and social unrest as the leading global producer of opium in a geographic region widely affected by drug use, particularly injection drug use, and blood-borne infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Countries bordering Afghanistan (with the exception of Turkmenistan, for which there is no available data) are experiencing concentrated epidemics of HIV and hepatitis C in IDU populations [1-4]. Afghanistan is currently at risk for these potentially destabilizing events. Historically, countries slow to respond or instituting only punitive measures for ascending rates of drug use have experienced dramatic outbreaks of HIV and hepatitis among injection drug users (IDU), often with diffusion into the general population [5-7]. The rationale for this paper is to examine the current situation and policy of Afghanistan, as little is known about substance abuse in this country. We will briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, present the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and compare the situation in Afghanistan to that of the surrounding geographic region, much of which is experiencing the most rapid increase of HIV cases due to injection drug use.We will focus on opium, the substance with greatest impact on risk of blood borne infections in Afghanistan. Information was obtained from electronic searches through PubMed and Google, with additional information obtained through site-specific searches, such as United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Selected search words were: opium, Afghanistan, trafficking, Central Asia, and heroin. While we have chosen to focus only on opium, the same routes for trafficking opium are used to transport both other illicit substances, such as cannabis/hashish (also produced in Afghanistan) and amphetamines a
Burden of alcohol use in the Uganda police in Kampala district
Emilio Ovuga, Charles Madrama
African Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease. Among members of the Uganda Police Force, alcohol dependence has been a major contributor of poor mental health, poor work output and forced retirement. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of alcohol dependence and associated psychosocial problems in the Uganda Police Force in Kampala District. Methods of Study: A sample of police officers selected by systematic sampling strategy from two large barracks in Kampala District participated. A semi-structured questionnaire designed to elicit information on the perceived impact of alcohol use was used. Prevalence rate was derived from ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence, and psychosocial problems in alcohol dependence. Results: Twenty respondents (19.2%) met criteria for alcohol use disorder, 26.0% met criteria for alcohol use problems and 9.6% reported that their health was poor. Alcohol use disorder or problems were significantly associated with lack of job satisfaction, poor health, problems in implementing personal plans, disciplinary problems, inability to save from personal earnings, debts, and absenteeism from work. Conclusion: One in five police officers met criteria for alcohol use disorder while one in four experienced psychosocial problems related to alcohol use. The results suggest serious implications for the quality of services provided by the Uganda Police. There is a need to establish measures to provide services for those affected, and a further need to establish preventative measures against alcohol dependence in the police force. African Health Sciences Vol. 6(1) 2006: 14-20
Measuring the harm of illicit drug use on friends and family
Hans Olav Melberg, Pekka Hakkarainen, Esben Houborg, Marke J skel inen, Astrid Skretting, Mats Ramstedt, Pia Rosenqvist
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-011-0012-5
Abstract: AIMS - This paper explores different approaches to quantify the human costs related to drug use. DATA AND METHODS - The data come from a representative survey of 3092 respondents above the age of 18 in four Nordic capitals: Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo and Stockholm. RESULTS - The results show that in most Nordic capitals more than half of the respondents at some time have known and worried about the drug use of somebody they know personally. Moreover, while the average reported harm was about 2 on a scale from 0 to 10, a significant minority (10%) of those knowing drug users indicated that the harm was above 5. CONCLUSIONS - Many persons have at some time personally known somebody who uses drugs. This causes significant human harm and should be included in the estimate of the social cost of illegal drugs. These results are relevant in the debate on the size of the drug problem as well as for targeting groups that experience the highest costs.
Harm reduction and “Clean” community: can Viet Nam have both?
Thu Khuat, Van Anh Nguyen, Melissa Jardine, Timothy Moore, Thu Bui, Nick Crofts
Harm Reduction Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-9-25
Abstract: The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level.To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws.Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.Viet Nam has had a major concentrated epidemic of HIV, from detection of the first case in 1990 to an estimated 280,000 infected in 2012, approximately 0.47% of the population. Around 65% of those infected have histories of injecting drug use (IDU), and among them HIV prevalence has reached 70% or more [1]. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, Viet Nam has responded with development of comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV and AIDS, including policy and legal support for harm reduction [2].How effectively do these policies translate to street level; and do they actually enable the work of implementers of harm reduction approaches? And more specifically, given that the major mechanism of implementation of laws is through law enforcement, especially by police: how effectively is law enforcement, especially community-level policing, involved in harm reduction in Viet Nam, and how can this involvement be improved?W
Police Misconduct, Racism, and Excessive Use of Force-Failure Analysis, Commentary, and Recommendations  [PDF]
Mark Malmin
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38001
Abstract: Community perceptions of police misconduct, racism, and allegations of excessive use of force vary from community to community, especially with variant population densities. Perceptual views tend to promote the idiomatic dilemma that perception is reality. This paper exegetically explores modalities of community policing, existing FBI empirical statistical evidence of Uniform Crime Reports, facts, misconceptions, the absence of uniform reporting requirements, and other perceptual contributing factors, such as media influence, that support the existing paradigm of racial profiling perceptions across the US. The pursuit and acquisition of racial justice and equality require public trust in government, unbiased factual analysis of systemic failures, better communication, community collaboration, and minority participation in the political process.
Techniques of Denial towards Excessive Use of Force by the Police among Israeli Talkbacks  [cached]
Efrat Shoham
Journal of Politics and Law , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v5n4p172
Abstract: The Internet community has become one of the main public arena, for sharing and solidarity declarations, or alternatively, of denunciation, exclusion and expulsion. This paper wishes to examine utilization of Denial techniques within online comment posters towards excessive use of police force, in which the negative components are almost irrefutable. In order to examine the legitimization level provided over the Internet, towards expressions of excessive use of police force, a qualitative analysis was made on online talkback posters regarding two different incidents of excessive use of force towards civilians, which were widely resonated through the Israeli electronic media ("the Avenging Police Officers" and the" Kicking Policeman"). Our finding suggested that in both cases, the most frequent online comments were based on responsibility denial and on denial of the victim. The neutralization of the deviant meaning of incidents involving excessive use of force was mainly based on a triple combination of rationalization techniques: undermining the credibility of the story, and especially that of the narrator; presenting an alternative order of events that turns a story of police brutality into a justified incident of self-defense; and switching the roles of criminal and victim by presenting the assaulted individual as an offensive and dangerous person. This triple combination allows the comment posters to retell stories of excessive force as logical and accepted narratives.
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