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Lots Quality Assurance Survey (LQAS) as a Strategy to Achieving Quality LLIN Campaigns: The Nigerian Experience
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Dr. Abdullahi Saddiq, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Dr. Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104484
Background: Nigeria, in its quest to scale up coverage and utilization of LLINs as a strategy for malaria control, had the first long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) mass campaign across the country between 2009-2013. The NMEP with support from its RBM partners successfully distributed over 57.7 million LLINs during the period representing over 90% of the national target. In spite this, and to achieve universal coverage, the country maintained a continuous distribution through multiple channels and in particular the antenatal care outlets and the expanded programme on immunization. The Nigerian government, with support from the Global Fund and through the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and the Society for Family Health (SFH) and with technical support from the World Health Organization, once again launched the LLIN replacement campaign in some states across the country. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five states that conducted the LLIN replacement campaign using the lots quality assurance survey (LQAS) tool developed by the World Health Organization. The period of the survey across the states is between August and December 2017. The LQAS questionnaires were administered to households (HHs) by the WHO field officers trained on the use of the tool at least one week after the campaign. A total of 240 HHs were selected from 24 settlements (clusters) in 24 wards of six LGAs (lots) from each of the five (5) states that rolled out the campaign. Data collected were double entered, cleaned, crosschecked, and the results analysed using the SPSS version 24. Results: With a total of 9740 people surveyed from 1200 HHs across the five states, the average redemption rate was 95.5% (95% CI, 91.6% - 98.8%), average retention rate was 98.4% (95% CI, 97.0% - 99.8%), average hanging rate was 82.6% (95% CI, 80.0% - 85.5%), and an average card ownership of 83.5% (95% CI, 78.6% - 88.2%). While the main source of information 35.4% (95% CI, 21.8% - 49.0%) about the LLIN campaign was the health workers, the reasons for those missed out were mainly due to team performance 32.2% (95% CI, 26.8% - 37.4%) and net cards not issued 27.4% (95% CI, 23.2% - 32.0%). Similarly, the Pearson correlation (0.942, α 0.017, p < 0.05, 2-tailed test), the ANOVA test (F value of 23.751, α 0.017, p < 0.05), and Regression analysis (R-square 0.888 and Durbin-Watson 2.487), all shows significant relationships between LLIN redemption and usage with a resultant rejection of the Null Hypothesis. Conclusion: The outcome of this research underscores the need to adopt and scale up the use of the LQAS tool to assess the quality of LLIN campaigns within the shortest possible time. While the LQAS has been in use by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization cluster during polio campaigns, this is the first time that the tool was deployed by the WHO malaria unit as a strategy to identify post LLIN campaign gaps immediately after implementation. The scaling up of this strategy would undoubtedly improve LLIN campaigns that would be conducted in the remaining states across the country so as to ensure that Nigeria achieve LLIN universal access in line with the Global Technical Strategy (GTS) framework toward malaria elimination.
The quality assurance of Varian enhanced dynamic wedges using Daily QA Check 2  [PDF]
Rutonjski Laza,Kuzmanovi? Zoran,Baucal Milutin,Petrovi? Borislava
Archive of Oncology , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0802007r
Abstract: Background: Clinical implementation of enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) requires, as any other dynamic treatment, very serious quality assurance (QA) program. In this work, we presented the results of six-month evaluation of Varian enhanced dynamic wedges and detailed QA program for those wedges. Methods: The Sun Nuclear Daily QA Check 2 was used for QA purpose. The QA program included daily and monthly checks. The daily QA program included central axis dose and wedge angle measurements. Within the monthly QA program wedge factors and delivered STTs from the Dynalog files were checked. Results: Our daily QA measurements of dose and wedge angle showed the reproducibility error less than ±1.5%. On the other hand, monthly QA measurements of wedge factor the reproducibility error was less than ±0.5%. The monthly QA check of delivered STTs showed excellent agreement. Conclusion: During the six-month quality control we observed a good reproducibility in the delivery of EDW treatment. Also, the Sun Nuclear Daily QA Check 2 showed to be very satisfying in QA of the EDW treatment.
Effect of Quality Assurance (QA) BDS on The Export Activities of SME in The Plastic Sub-Sector  [PDF]
Le Nu Minh Phuong
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.34046
Abstract: The paper aims at analyzing general characteristics of the plastic sub-sector in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), in-depth quality assurance (QA) implication in the sub-sector, how plastic manufacturers use business development services to improve QA and which QA variables are strongly affected export involvement. Author’s survey had assessed to plastic manufacturers and service suppliers to determine the position of demand and supply, then find the potential improvement in BDS market for both demand and supply size. To recognize the attitude of plastic manufacturers in terms of QA awareness and identify the difficulties and weakness of service suppliers are formulated the general picture of QA in plastic sub-sector. The binominal logit model is used to assess the influence of explanatory variables, which are mainly concerned QA variables, on the probability that firm involve in international market. Our econometric analysis indicates that quality assurance level, automatic level, source of machine and ratio of quality assurance personnel are positively significant for the likelihood of international business. Interestingly, non-export group are likely to use quality assurance business development services rather than export group. QA business development services attract more concern for donors and government due to low value added for plastic exporters’ use.
A fully electronic intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) process implemented in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify, and delivery systems
Daniel W Bailey, Lalith Kumaraswamy, Matthew B Podgorsak
Radiology and Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10019-010-0017-9
Abstract: Background. The purpose of this study is to implement an electronic method to perform and analyze intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) using an aSi megavoltage electronic portal imaging device in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify (R&V), and delivery systems. Methods. A verification plan was generated in the treatment planning system using the actual treatment plan of a patient. After exporting the treatment fields to the R&V system, the fields were delivered in QA mode with the aSi imager deployed. The resulting dosimetric images are automatically stored in a DICOM-RT format in the delivery system treatment console computer. The relative dose density images are subsequently pushed to the R&V system. The absolute dose images are then transferred electronically from the treatment console computer to the treatment planning system and imported into the verification plan in the dosimetry work space for further analysis. Screen shots of the gamma evaluation and isodose comparison are imported into the R&V system as an electronic file (e.g. PDF) to be reviewed prior to initiation of patient treatment. A relative dose image predicted by the treatment planning system can also be sent to the R&V system to be compared with the relative dose density image measured with the aSi imager. Results. Our department does not have integrated planning, R&V, and delivery systems. In spite of this, we are able to fully implement a paperless and filmless IMRT QA process, allowing subsequent analysis and approval to be more efficient, while the QA document is directly attached to its specific patient chart in the R&V system in electronic form. The calculated and measured relative dose images can be compared electronically within the R&V system to analyze the density differences and ensure proper dose delivery to patients. Conclusions. In the absence of an integrated planning, verifying, and delivery system, we have shown that it is nevertheless possible to develop a completely electronic IMRT QA process.
Quality assurance in microbiology
Arora D
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2004,
Abstract: Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stages of microbiological procedures should be incorporated in SOPs. The laboratory must be well lit with dust-free air-conditioned environment. Environmental conditions should be monitored. Supervisory and technical personnel should be well qualified. The laboratory should participate in external and internal quality assurance schemes.
Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training
Guimar?es Morais,J.A.; Cavaco,A.M.; Rombaut,B.; Rouse,M.; Atkinson,J.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552011000400003
Abstract: a survey of quality assurance (qa) systems in european faculties of pharmacy was carried out under the auspices of the european association of faculties of pharmacy pharmine consortium. a questionnaire based on the quality criteria of the international pharmaceutical federation and the accreditation council for pharmacy education (usa) was sent out to european faculties. replies were obtained from 28 countries. just above half has a working qa system. qa scores were high concerning matters such as complete curriculum and training, use of european credit transfer system, students' representation and promotion of professional behavior. qa scores were low concerning matters such as evaluation of achievement of mission and goals, and financial resources. the pharmine consortium now has a basis upon which to elaborate and promote qa in european pharmacy faculties.
Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training
Guimar?es Morais JA,Cavaco AM,Rombaut B,Rouse M
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2011,
Abstract: A survey of quality assurance (QA) systems in European faculties of pharmacy was carried out under the auspices of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy PHARMINE consortium. A questionnaire based on the quality criteria of the International Pharmaceutical Federation and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (USA) was sent out to European faculties. Replies were obtained from 28 countries. Just above half has a working QA system. QA scores were high concerning matters such as complete curriculum and training, use of European Credit Transfer System, students’ representation and promotion of professional behavior. QA scores were low concerning matters such as evaluation of achievement of mission and goals, and financial resources. The PHARMINE consortium now has a basis upon which to elaborate and promote QA in European pharmacy faculties.
Quality assurance of e-learning processes  [PDF]
Zbigniew Mrozek
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: A quality assurance system (QA) should ensure that student needs are met. It also respects accreditation requirements and student perceptions, supports training and development of teaching staff, controls costs and improves efficiency of e-learning system.
Study of quality assurance regulations for linear accelerators in Korea: A comparison study between the current status in Korea and the international guidelines  [PDF]
Hyunho Lee,Seonghoon Jeong,Yunhui Jo,Myonggeun Yoon
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Quality assurance (QA) for medical linear accelerators is indispensable for appropriate cancer treatment. Some international organizations and western advanced countries provide QA guidelines for linear accelerators. Currently, QA regulations for linear accelerators in Korean hospitals specify a system in which each hospital stipulates its independent hospital-based protocols for QA procedures (HP_QAPs) and conducts QA based on these HP_QAPs while regulatory authorities verify whether items under these HP_QAPs have been performed. However, because this regulatory method cannot guarantee the quality of universal treatment, and QA items with tolerance criteria are different in many hospitals, the presentation of standardized QA items and tolerance criteria is essential. In this study, QA items in HP_QAPs from various hospitals and those presented by international organizations. Concordance rates between QA items for linear accelerators that were presented by the aforementioned organizations and those currently being implemented in Korean hospitals were shown to exhibit a daily QA of 50%, a weekly QA of 22%, a monthly QA of 43%, and an annual QA of 65%, and the overall concordance rates of all QA items were approximately 48%. In comparison between QA items being implemented in Korean hospitals and those being implemented in western advanced countries, concordance rates were shown to exhibit a daily QA of 50%, a weekly QA of 33%, a monthly QA of 60%, and an annual QA of 67%, and the overall concordance rate of all QA items were approximately 57%. The results of this study indicate that the HP_QAPs currently implemented by Korean hospitals as QA standards for linear accelerators used in radiation therapy do not meet international standards. To solve this problem, it is necessary to develop national standardized QA items and procedures for linear accelerators.
QA/QC activities and ecological monitoring in the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET)
Sase H,Nakayama S,Leong CP,Kamisako M
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0481-002
Abstract: An overview is presented of Quality assurance/Quality control QA/QC activities and current features of the ecological monitoring in the frame of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia EANET. It is stressed that standardization of the methodologies applicable for new topics, such as the catchment analysis and ozone impacts, should be investigated for future monitoring.
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