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ETHNIC IDENTITY OF TIBETAN UNDERGRADUATES
藏族大学生的民族认同

Wan Minggang,
万明钢
,王亚鹏

心理学报 , 2004,
Abstract: As a member of minority nationalities, after Tibetan undergraduates entered other cultures from their familiar mother culture, on the one hand, they faced dilemma of ethnic identity, on the other hand, they faced torture of acculturation, and at the same time, they also faced disturbance of mental alienation. Combining with qualitative and quantitative study, this study employed 285 Tibetan undergraduates to examine relationships among Tibetan undergraduates, ethnic identity, acculturation and mental alienation. The results showed that:1,Tibetan undergraduates, ethnic identity mainly involved in three aspects: negative ethnic identity, positive ethnic identity and mainstream culture identity. Different aspects of ethnic identity were affected by different factors. But generally speaking, Tibetan undergraduates, ethnic identity might be predicted by the number of Han nationality friends, by the time of learning Chinese, by parents' nationality identity and the reception of Han nationality.2,There existed abroad positive correlation or negative correlation between ethnic identity and acculturation strategies.3, There existed remarkable positive correlation between negative ethnic identity and normlessness, social loneliness and culture separation;But there was no remarkable correlation between host culture identity and positive ethnic identity and normlessness, social isolation,culture separation and self-separation.
Visual Challenges among Drivers: A Case Study in Delhi, India  [PDF]
DR. NEELIMA CHAKRABARTY, ARUN LAKSHMAN, KAMINI GUPTA, ANKIT BHATNAGAR
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: During the last two decades, developing countries such as India have been exhibiting rapid increase in human population and vehicles, and increase in road accidents. Inappropriate driving behaviour is considered one of the major causes of road accidents in India as compared to defective geometric design of pavement or mechanical defects in vehicles. Apart from the other factors causing accidents such as poor road design ,vehicle conditions, driver characteristics of frequent traffic violations, increase in crashes due to self-centred driving, etc. it can also be resulted in conditions such as lack of psychophysical abilities e.g. poor eye sight, poor vision at night time, glare blindness etc. Hence, improved driver screening facilities accompanied by availability of good driving aids such as anti glare glasses can be an effective and preventive measure to inhibit crash risks. This article is based on a case study jointly done by CSIR-Central Road Research Institute and Institute of Driver Training & Research, Maruti, Loni Border, Delhi, India to highlight visual limitations among the learner drivers which can influence (as per the literature review) driving behaviour with crash chances, which can be reduced through improving safety accompanied with better driver screening, providing free visual aids and modifying present licensing procedures.
Daily life in the enclave Vitina  [PDF]
Zlatanovi? Sanja M.
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gei0553083z
Abstract: The paper is based on a fieldwork performed in 2003 in the enclave Vitina, Kosovo. The aim of the paper is to provide an ethnographic brief account of the post-war daily life in the researched area. Since 1999 and the establishment of the international protectorate over the area, the enclave’s daily life has changed profoundly. The people from Vitina are very much concerned about their daily troubles, especially the ones involving the relationship with the Albanian population. The daily life in Vitina is saturated with the war related traumas, existential insecurity and unpredictability, experiences of ghetto, paralyzed everyday life, and the time that appears to stand still. The Kosovo area is characterized by especially complex historical, political and cultural contexts. It is a borderline area, so identities seem to be undefined, varying, ambivalent and situational. In the last decades of the 20th century, the identities became homogenous, developing fixed boundaries. The ethnic identification thus becomes more relevant than any other membership or affiliation. A need to designate and preserve an ethnic identity in Kosovo has lead to a paroxysm. The dominant, Albanian population displays its ethnic symbols openly, while the Serbs demonstrate their symbols more alluringly but with the same amount of fervor. The ethnicity is being articulated in everyday life, in different answers to its requirements and challenges while a daily life is usually equalized with privacy and female sphere, therefore, the paper also discusses a relationship between the ethnic and gender identities.
A study of visual and musculoskeletal health disorders among computer professionals in NCR Delhi
Talwar Richa,Kapoor Rohit,Puri Karan,Bansal Kapil
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence of health disorders among computer professionals and its association with working environment conditions. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 200 computer professionals, from Delhi and NCR which included software developers, call centre workers, and data entry workers. Result: The prevalence of visual problems in the study group was 76% (152/200), and musculoskeletal problems were reported by 76.5% (153/200). It was found that there was a gradual increase in visual complaints as the number of hours spent for working on computers daily increased and the same relation was found to be true for musculoskeletal problems as well. Visual problems were less in persons using antiglare screen, and those with adequate lighting in the room. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be significantly lesser among those using cushioned chairs and soft keypad. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the computer professionals were found to be having health problems and this denotes that the occupational health of the people working in the computer field needs to be emphasized as a field of concern in occupational health.
Ethnic Variation in the Prevalence of Visual Impairment in People Attending Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK)  [PDF]
Sobha Sivaprasad, Bhaskar Gupta, Martin C. Gulliford, Hiten Dodhia, Samantha Mann, Dinesh Nagi, Jennifer Evans
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039608
Abstract: Purpose To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom). Methods The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK) Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London) or August 2009 (West Yorkshire) were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks (“Black/African/Caribbean/Black British”) and South Asians (“Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent”). We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a) loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9) (b) visual impairment (<6/12) and (c) severe visual impairment (<6/60), standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population. Results Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 3.5%) and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%). Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively) compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%). Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire. Conclusions Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK.
The Impact of Local Community Participation on Branding Ethnic Tourism Destination: A Case Study of House Renovation in Jiaju Tibetan Village  [PDF]
Xianmin Mai, Chuntao Wu, Tingting Zhang, Zhixiang Zhou, Haiyan Zhong
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.71016
Abstract: Jiaju Tibetan Village, located in Danba country, Sichuan province, is a newly developed ethic tourism destination. Based on the case study of house renovation and reconstruction, this paper studies the processes of local community participating in tourism development, and analyzes the impacts of local community’s participation on forming destination image as well as destination brand. The study methods applied in this paper are building measurement, questionnaire survey and interview with villagers. The results show that villagers have focused on selecting the icons of Gyarong Tibetan culture during the process of house re-construction and presented these icons to the tourists. It is found out that local community has contributed to Jiaju village by selecting a plain destination image and building a higher quality brand. Also, villagers have improved their living environment through the house reconstruction.
Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cut-Points in Multi-Ethnic Populations from the UK and India: The ADDITION-Leicester, Jaipur Heart Watch and New Delhi Cross-Sectional Studies  [PDF]
Danielle H. Bodicoat, Laura J. Gray, Joseph Henson, David Webb, Arvind Guru, Anoop Misra, Rajeev Gupta, Naval Vikram, Naveed Sattar, Melanie J. Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090813
Abstract: Aims To derive cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for minority ethnic groups that are risk equivalent based on endogenous glucose levels to cut-points for white Europeans (BMI 30 kg/m2; WC men 102 cm; WC women 88 cm). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional data from participants aged 40–75 years: 4,672 white and 1,348 migrant South Asian participants from ADDITION-Leicester (UK) and 985 indigenous South Asians from Jaipur Heart Watch/New Delhi studies (India). Cut-points were derived using fractional polynomial models with fasting and 2-hour glucose as outcomes, and ethnicity, objectively-measured BMI/WC, their interaction and age as covariates. Results Based on fasting glucose, obesity cut-points were 25 kg/m2 (95% Confidence Interval: 24, 26) for migrant South Asian, and 18 kg/m2 (16, 20) for indigenous South Asian populations. For men, WC cut-points were 90 cm (85, 95) for migrant South Asian, and 87 cm (82, 91) for indigenous South Asian populations. For women, WC cut-points were 77 cm (71, 82) for migrant South Asian, and 54 cm (20, 63) for indigenous South Asian populations. Cut-points based on 2-hour glucose were lower than these. Conclusions These findings strengthen evidence that health interventions are required at a lower BMI and WC for South Asian individuals. Based on our data and the existing literature, we suggest an obesity threshold of 25 kg/m2 for South Asian individuals, and a very high WC threshold of 90 cm for South Asian men and 77 cm for South Asian women. Further work is required to determine whether lower cut-points are required for indigenous, than migrant, South Asians.
Enacting trust: contract, law and informal economic relationships in a Spanish border enclave in Morocco  [PDF]
Brian Campbell
Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology , 2012,
Abstract: Small and removed from the Spanish mainland, the Enclave of Ceuta has always depended on flows of goods and labour out of the Moroccan hinterland, with individuals from different ethnic and religious groups forming informal, flexible and personal economic bonds based on mutual ‘confianza’ (trust). Since its entry into the European Union in 1986,the Spanish government has erected a border-wall around the enclave, and introduced new migration policies branding many informal workers within its borders as a threat to Spanish society. Based on my preliminary months of research, this paper compares the Ceutancontext with other research recently conducted on the topics of migration and borders in the Mediterranean region. It brings into focus key theoretical issues and assumptions that constantly emerge in such literature, particularly regarding the role of ‘a-cultural’ personal ties between migrants and locals in undermining State categories and ideology. This paper observes how the Ceutan case encourages us to expand our focuses and consequently problematise our understanding of crucial concepts such as ‘trust’ and ‘integration’.
Redes sociales y construcción de la colonia en la Ciudad de México. El caso del enclave étnico chocholteco en San Miguel Teotongo, Iztapalapa
Gissi B., Nicolás;
Cuicuilco , 2009,
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to analyze the chocholteco settlement that has been developed in the san miguel teotongo colony, iztapalapa, since 1970 to our days. the chocholtecos, coming from the mixteca alta in oaxaca and specifically from the village of teotongo, resettled in the periferic village of san miguel teotongo, becoming their first inhabitants and establishing an ethnic enclave. holding their (horizontal and vertical) ethnic network and integrating themselves into the contemporary mexican society, the chocholtecos immigrants have struggled for their right to the city. they have also adapted to the world economy "thirderisization" ("terciarización") creating stores in their own homes, shifting from an employed to a self-employed status.
“We Are All Part of the Same Family”: China’s Ethnic Propaganda
Anne-Marie Brady
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) government works hard to promote an image of ethnic harmony in China and downplays ethnic conflict by carefully controlling public information and debate about ethnic affairs. Despite such efforts, the recent clashes in Tibetan areas in 2008 and violent riots in Urumqi in 2009 reveal the weaknesses of this approach. This paper surveys the broad themes of ethnic propaganda (民族宣传, minzu xuanchuan) in present-day China, looking at the organisations involved, the systems of information management they utilise, and the current “go” and “no-go” zones for debate. The paper forms part of a larger study of the politics of ethnicity in China. It is based on primary- and secondary-source research in Chinese, secondary sources in English, and extensive interviews with Chinese bureaucrats and scholars regarding China’s ethnic affairs conducted during fieldwork in China in 2002, 2004, 2005–2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2012. Ethnic issues in China concern not only the minority peoples there, but also the majority Han – hence, my definition of ethnic propaganda incorporates materials relating to all of China’s ethnic groups. The paper uses the events in Tibetan areas in 2008 and in Urumqi as case studies to demonstrate how these policies play out in periods of crisis. It concludes with a discussion of the role that ethnic propaganda plays in maintaining China’s long-term political stability and its international affairs.
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