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Sensitivities Of Citrobacter, Proteus And Providencia Isolates To Sulbactam-ampicillin, Trimethoprim-S Ulfamethoxazol And Ticarcillin-Clavulanic Acid Antibiotics
G Uraz, KOK Turhan, HD Binnet
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Gram negative bacterias which belong to Enterobacteriaceae family which is critically important as a matter of human health, are comperatively prevalent in nature and foods. Infections formed by bacterias resistant to antibiotics significantly cause mortality and economical losses. Sensitivities of gram-negative bacterias isolated from miscellaneous samples to sulbactamampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid were analysed. In this study, Proteus is primary isolated microorganism with % 52,08. It was determined that Proteus types are proportionally 86,66% sensitive to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol and 76% resistant to Sulbactam-Ampicillin . Citrobacter is the secondary isolated microorganism (31,25%). It was determined that Citrobacter types were 86,66% sensitive to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol and % 73,3 resistant to Sulbactam-Ampicillin. Providencia types which are thirdly isolated microorganism (16%), For Providencia types, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol were determined as the most effective antibiotic again with 86,66% sensitivity. Resistance to Sulbactam- Ampicillin was however, found to be 76%. In conclusion, it is very important to conduct sensitivity tests in choosing antibiotics for chemotherapy of infections. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol is recommended in the empiric treatment of urinary tract infections in our environment
Nosocomial urinary tract infections and resistance profile to antibiotics  [PDF]
Hasan Naz,Figen ?a?lan ?evik,Nevil Ayk?n
Dicle Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors, laboratuary results, distrubition of pathogens and sensitivity to antibiotics in patients with hospital acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI). 161 HAUTI patients were diagnosed. The most common predisposing factors were identified as long term hospitalization, urinary catheterization, hospitalization at intensive care unit and neurologic diseases. The most commom pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 33 (29.5 %), Pseudomonas spp. 32 (28.6 %) and Klebsiella spp. 12 (10.7 %). The lowest rates of resistance in E.coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. were observed to amikacin (respectively 3 %, 9 %, 8 %), to imipenem (9 %, 41 %, 8 %), to piperacilin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) (24 %, 47 %, 17 %) and to ciprofloxasin (52 %, 69 %, 25 %). Mortality was detected in 31(19%) of 161 patients diagnosed with HAUTI. As a result, high rate resistance was found in bacterial microorganism, especially in Pseudomonas spp.
Urinary Tract Infection: Analysis of Prescribing Pattern of Antibiotics  [PDF]
MAHADEVAMMA L,BHIMARAY KRISHNAGOUDAR,ALPESH KUMAR NAGAR,SANDEEP A
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Antibiotics are one of most common drugs prescribed in hospital today. It has been estimated that up to onethird of all patients receive at least one antibiotics during hospitalization`. The cost involved is therefore correspondingly high and up to 40% of a hospital’s drug expenditure may be devoted to the purchase of antibiotics1. The objective of this study was to analyze the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). A prospective cross sectional and observational study was conducted on patients diagnosed with UTI. The study was carried out in the OBG and Urology departments of both in-patients and out-patients, for a period of 5 months (Aug 2011 to Dec 2011). Patients diagnosed with UTI and who were above age group of 15-years were included in the study. A suitable data collection form was prepared to collect the required data. Among 162 patents, 54 were in-patients and 108 were out-patients. Most of the in-patients were prescribed with Ciprofloxacin 13(22.8%), and Ceftriaxone 19(33.3%). In out-patients, Ciprofloxacin 25(23.8%), Norfloxacin 15(14.3%) and Ceftriaxone 14(13.3%) were prescribed frequently. The study found that gram negative organisms like E. coli and Klebsills was the most predominant organisms associated with infection. It was also found that Cephalosporin's were most commonly used and Quinolones were the second most commonly used drugs for the treatment of UTI.
Antibacterial susceptibility of some urinary tract pathogens to commonly used antibiotics
DH Tambekar, DV Dhanorkar, SR Gulhane, VK Khandelwal, MN Dudhane
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Urinary tract infection represents one of the most common diseases encountered in medical practice today and occurring from the neonate to the geriatric age group. Despite the widespread availability of antibiotics, it remains the most common bacterial infection in the human being. A total of 174 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification, 68 found to be significant bacteriuria with Escherichia coli (59%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%), Proteus mirabilis (9%), Staphylococcus aureus (6%) and Citrobacter freundii (1%). The urinary tract infections were found to most frequently in female (63%) than male (37%). The isolated uropathogens showed resistant to ampicillin (87%), co-trimoxazole (91%), nalidixic acid (88%) and sensitive to nitrofurantoin (52%), cephotaxime (54%) and norfloxacin (71%).
Prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of Urinary Tract Infection Causing Human Pathogenic Bacteria  [cached]
Durgesh Dharmpal Wasnik
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli are common enteric The present studywas conducted to detect common pathogens of urinary tract infection (UTI)and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents inlocal scenario. Urinary tract infection is one of the common clinical conditionsin the patients presenting to the clinics and hospitals. Despite the widespreadavailability of antibiotics, it remains the most common bacterial infection inthe human being. Detection of common pathogens and their antimicrobialsusceptibility pattern is mandatory for effective treatment. In the presentstudy, 40 urine samples were collected from adult patients were analyzed forMultidrug Resistant (MDR) strain isolation and identified. The MDR strainswere identified by the Kirby Bauer method following the definition of theNational Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. Out of total 40 samples,32 (80%) samples grew potential pathogens causing UTI. Escherichia coli werethe predominant 10 (31.25%) isolates causing UTI, followed byStaphylococcus aureus -8 (25%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa- 5 (15.62%),Proteus mirabilis -5 (15.62%), Klebsiella pneumoniae -2 (6.25%) and Serratiamarcescens – 2 (6.25%). The mean sensitivity of the antibiotics wasTetracyclin (76.66%), Penicillin (70.83%), Ciprofloxacin (60%). S. aureusshowed 75% resistance to Methicillin, Oxacillin and Vancomycin.Uropathogens are sensitive to Norfloxacin, Co-trimoxazole and Ofloxacin.High prevalence of drug-resistant urinary tract pathogens, particularly toTetracylin, Penicillin and Ampicillin among local patients suggests cautioususe of antibiotic therapy for the treatment. Finally, we suggest that empiricalantibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence ofbacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on universalguidelines.
Increasing incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics by isolates from the urinary tract
UC Ozumba
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2005,
Abstract: This is a prospective study to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among organisms causing urinary tract infections in a Teaching Hospital between August 2003 and July 2004 and to compare them with an earlier study in 1993. A total of 1,104 urine samples were collected in sterile universal containers from patients attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and studied. All samples showing significant bacteriuna were studied and isolates identified using standard bacteriogical methods. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed on sensitivity test agar (Biotec, UK) using the disc diffusion method in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (5). The results were compared with a previous study in 1993. A total of 336 urinary isolates were identified, with the coliforms being the most predominant (51.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus species (28.9% and 7.1%) respectively. Compared to the earlier study, a significant increase in the resistance of the urinary pathogens to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was observed, however there was a decrease in the resistance to nitrofurantoin (p<0.05) using chi-square test. The results of this study should now alert doctors about the increasing possibility of treatment failures, when ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid are used for the treatment of urinary tract infections without laboratory testing. A multi-faceted approach including continued and improved surveillance, a reduction in the unnecessary use of antibiotics and infection control are necessary.
Study of bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections and determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics
Mansour Amin,Manijeh Mehdinejad,Zohreh Pourdangchi
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: Approximately 1 in 3 women will require antimicrobial treatment for a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) before age 24, and 40% to 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetime. UTIs in male patients are considered complicated. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTIs. Materials and methods: In the present study 7056 patients with clinical symptoms and suspected to UTI were sampled. Clean-Catch midstream urine of the patients was collected. Urine specimens were cultured for isolation of the microbial agents of UTI. The isolated bacteria were identified using biochemical tests. Disk diffusion susceptibility test was used to determine susceptibility of bacterial agents to antibiotics.Results: In this study 553(8.7%) patients out of 7056 were shown to be urine culture positive (68% females and 32% males). The most isolated bacterium was E. coli with frequency rate of 59%. The other bacteria were Klebsiella spp. (11.6%), Enterobacter spp. (9.8%), Pseudomonas spp. (7.2 %), Proteus spp. (2.9%), Acinetobacter spp. (2.7%), Congolese positive Staphylococci (2.2%), Coagolase negative Staphylococci (2.3%), Citrobacter spp. (1.3%) and Streptococci α hemolytic (1.1%). All Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to amikacin (90.5-100%). The Gram-positive cocci isolated were more sensitive to tobramycin, kanamycin and ciprofloxacin (100%). Conclusion: It is concluded that Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for UTI infections in our patients. The most common isolated bacteria from urinary tract infections were E. coli and the most effective antimicrobial agents were amikacin, tobramicin and ciprofleoxacin against Gram-negative bacilli and also the most effective antibiotics against Gram-positive cocci were kanamicin, tobramicin and ciprofleoxacin.
Recurrence of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal diabetic women using different antibiotics  [PDF]
Caroline Schneeberger, Ronald P. Stolk, J. Hans DeVries, Ron M. C. Herings, Suzanne E. Geerlings
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.22042
Abstract: Objectives: Postmenopausal women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) compared to women without DM. The aim of this study is to compare recurrence rates of UTI in postmenopausal women with DM after treatment with nitrofurantoin, the agent of first choice following the Dutch guidelines, with two other common prescribed antibiotics trimethoprim and norfloxacin. Methods: We used a PHARMO database with pharmacy dispensing data. A total of 8534 postmenopausal (>55 years) women with DM who received a first course of nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim or norfloxacin were included. The UTI recurrence rates after treatment with these three different antimicrobial agents were compared. Recurrence was defined as a second prescription for nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim or norfloxacin or a first with fosfomycin, amoxicillin, fluoroquinolones, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole between 6 and 30 days after inclusion. Results: Postmenopausal women with DM had significantly more UTI recurrences when they were treated with nitrofurantoin (22.7%) compared to trimethoprim (17.7%) or norfloxacin (14.2%) irrespective of the treatment duration. There was a trend that longer treatment duration was associated with higher recurrence rates. Conclusions: Postmenopausal women with DM had more UTI recurrences when they are treated with nitrofurantoin, agent of first choice, compared to trimethoprim or norfloxacin.
Occurrence of urinary tract infection among children attending Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center, Pokhara, Nepal  [PDF]
G Gautam,S Regmi,NT Magar,B Subedi,T Sharma,SM Regmi
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8665
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered as the most common bacterial infectious disease seen among the pediatric patients. Most commonly, members of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly uropathogenic strains of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. are the primary causative pathogens of UTI in the different part of the world. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from urinary tract infections is an increasing problem in the specific region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prevalence and anti microbial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial uropathogens isolated from the children attending Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital and Reserch Center (GMC) Nepal. A total of 155 children aged upto 15 years were included in this study. Urine cultures were carried out and the isolates were identified by Gram staining and conventional biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RESULTS: In the present study 21.3 % of the sample size, showed significant bacterial growth. E. coli was the most frequently occurring pathogen (39.40%), followed by Proteus spp. 21.2%, Citrobacter spp. and Streptococcus faecalis (12.1%) Klebsiella spp. (9.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (3.0%). Susceptibility rate of E. coli were 69.2% to Gentamycin and Amikacin, 53.8% to Norfloxacin, 38.4% to Nalidixic acid and Norfloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric urine culture isolates were becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Finally, we suggest that empirical antibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on universal guidelines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8665 ? Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(3):82-86
Antibiotics for Causative Microorganisms of Urinary Tract Infections
M Esmaeili
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection is a common bacterial disease in children which may cause chronic renal failure and hypertention. Many reports suggest that the rate of antibiotic resistance to infectious organisms is increasing. Therefore periodic surveillance of resistance rates is needed to ensure that appropriate recommendations can be made for better management & preventing of late sequelae. Methods In this cross sectional descriptive study we investigate the results of urinalysis, urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated organisms in the urine of 1556 children aged under 10 years in Mashhad city between April 2001 and June 2002. Described parameters are age, sex, incidence of significant bacteriuria, leucocyturia, causative bacterial agents, and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Findings: The most common age group in both sexes was infantile period. Median age was 20.3 months in boys and 47.5 months in girls. E.coli, klebsiella and proteus were the causative organisms in 87.3%. They were sensitive to cefotaxime, cefixime, cephalotin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and gentamicin in more than 96% while resistant to trimetoprim-sultamethoxazol in about 75%. Conclusion: We recommend, with regard to continuous changing in causative microorganisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern, as a guideline for physicians, to determine bacterial sensitivity in populations yearly.
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