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Differences in Simulated Doctor and Patient Medical Decision Making: A Construal Level Perspective  [PDF]
Jiaxi Peng, Fei He, Yan Zhang, Quanhui Liu, Danmin Miao, Wei Xiao
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079181
Abstract: Background Patients are often confronted with diverse medical decisions. Often lacking relevant medical knowledge, patients fail to independently make medical decisions and instead generally rely on the advice of doctors. Objective This study investigated the characteristics of and differences in doctor–patient medical decision making on the basis of construal level theory. Methods A total of 420 undergraduates majoring in clinical medicine were randomly assigned to six groups. Their decisions to opt for radiotherapy and surgery were investigated, with the choices described in a positive/neutral/negative frame × decision making for self/others. Results Compared with participants giving medical advice to patients, participants deciding for themselves were more likely to select radiotherapy (F1, 404 = 13.92, p = 011). Participants from positive or neutral frames exhibited a higher tendency to choose surgery than did those from negative frames (F2, 404 = 22.53, p<.001). The effect of framing on independent decision making was nonsignificant (F2, 404 = 1.07, p = 35); however the effect of framing on the provision of advice to patients was significant (F2, 404 = 12.95, p<.001). The effect of construal level was significant in the positive frame (F1, 404 = 8.06, p = 005) and marginally significant in the neutral frame (F2, 404 = 3.31, p = 07) but nonsignificant in the negative frame (F2, 404 = .29, p = 59). Conclusion Both social distance and framing depiction significantly affected medical decision making and exhibited a significant interaction. Differences in medical decision making between doctors and patients need further investigation.
Know your patient: psychological drivers of decision making  [cached]
Emanuel Linda
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2045-4015-1-37
Abstract: This is a commentary on “Attitudes of legal guardians of ventilated ICU patients toward the process of decision making associated with invasive nonlife-saving procedures” by Michael Kuniavsky, Freda DeKeyser Ganz, David M Linton, and Sigal Sviri. Kuniavsky and colleagues report that decision-making for the seriously ill is difficult for the patients’ legal guardians, many of whom would be comfortable with doctors making the decisions. This commentary offers that accurate predictions about treatment choices may be derived by using assessments that characterize the key drivers of individual’s decision making, thus relieving some of decision makers' burdens. This approach could also usher in an era of assessing quality of care for the seriously ill by whether the care matches patient goals.
BODNáR Zoltán
Debreceni M?szaki K?zlemények , 2011,
Abstract: We all make decisions almost every day in our active life. This force can be observed by the operation of organizations and companies. It is impossible to modify the outcomes of our bad decisions, or no way revise at all. Several decision making processes and methods are exist with the help of coming to better decisions. The intuition is also essential, because many decisions be influenced by it. This paper deals with the reliability of the above mentioned dual influence: intuition and decision making processes through practical examples.
Decision making: rational or hedonic?
Michel Cabanac, Marie-Claude Bonniot-Cabanac
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-45
Abstract: These results support that decisions are made predominantly in the hedonic dimension of consciousness."Gut reaction" is efficacious" [1]For several decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory [2,3]. For example, Baron showed convincingly that many decisions appear to be irrational, as if decision-makers were indifferent to the consequences of their decisions [2]. Erev and Roth showed that decisions in gambling situations are made at low rationality, the gamblers' aim being to maximize reinforcement [4,5]. Berridge concluded that a rational decision is a decision that maximizes utility (with all the ambiguity contained in the word utility) [6].Epstein's [7] proposal of a "dual-process" in decision making casts some light on that experiential" rational, abstract, and analytical treatment of the available information, and a second one, "experiential" and "emotionally driven". According to Epstein, both systems fulfill different functions. Loewenstein and co-workers [8] proposed also an alternative theoretical perspective, the risk-as-feelings hypothesis, that highlights the role of affect experienced at the moment of decision making. Similar views were expressed by Reyna & Farley [9]: "Risky decisions making can be roughly divided into a) those [...] that adhere to a rational behavioral decision-making framework [...] and b) those that emphasize non-deliberative reaction to the perceived gists or prototypes in the immediate decision environment. " The experiential system is present in animals and leads to effortless decisions. The analytical system emerged more recently in humans with the development of language. The present experiments were developed in the same framework, exploring hedonicity pitted against several variables involved in decision making: time available for decision making, rationality, and recognition.Maximization of hedonic experience is a universal mechanism inherited by humans to mo
Psychological Help-Seeking: Current Research and The Phases-Decision-Making Model

Jiang Guangrong,Xia Mian,

心理科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: This paper reviewed the progress and achievements within the field of psychological help-seeking, and pointed out the limits of the studies. Then the authors proposed a model named Phases-Decision-making Model(PDM) to explain the help-seeking process, which based on literature and a set of pilot studies. The PDM include three continuous phases: the phases of perception of mental problem, self-help evaluation, and others-help evaluation. The primary studies by the authors based on PDM were introduced.
Risk, ambiguity and quantum decision theory  [PDF]
Riccardo Franco
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.ins.2011.09.002
Abstract: In the present article we use the quantum formalism to describe the effects of risk and ambiguity in decision theory. The main idea is that the probabilities in the classic theory of expected utility are estimated probabilities, and thus do not follow the classic laws of probability theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to use consistently the classic expected utility formula, where the probability associated to the events are computed with the equation of quantum interference. Thus we show that the correct utility of a lottery can be simply computed by adding to the classic expected utility a new corrective term, the uncertainty utility, directly connected with the quantum interference term.
Decision Making
Pier Luigi Baldi
Emergency Care Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.4081/ecj.2006.3.18
Abstract: This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.
Decision under ambiguity: Effects of sign and magnitude  [PDF]
Keigo Inukai,Taiki Takahashi
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Decision under ambiguity (uncertainty with unknown probabilities) has been attracting attention in behavioral and neuroeconomics. However, recent neuroimaging studies have mainly focused on gain domains while little attention has been paid to the magnitudes of outcomes. In this study, we examined the effects of the sign (i.e. gain and loss) and magnitude of outcomes on ambiguity aversion and the additivity of subjective probabilities in Ellsberg's urn problem. We observed that (i) ambiguity aversion was observed in both signs, and (ii) subadditivity of subjective probability was not observed in negative outcomes.
Tulai Constantin,Popovici Ioana
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: The classical theory of finance is based on the premises of rationality and maximizing profits that accompany economic decision-making. Complementarily, the modern theory of behavioral finance studies the effect of emotional and psychological factors of decision- maker on the choice of financing sources for economic activities. In opposition with the classical perspective, the contemporary theory of finance brings up to the stage various aspects of decision making, including elements of strategic behavior towards risk. All these contradictory elements are used as premises for modeling the decision making process of financing a project.
Optimal decision under ambiguity for diffusion processes  [PDF]
S?ren Christensen
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00186-012-0425-2
Abstract: In this paper we consider stochastic optimization problems for an ambiguity averse decision maker who is uncertain about the parameters of the underlying process. In a first part we consider problems of optimal stopping under drift ambiguity for one-dimensional diffusion processes. Analogously to the case of ordinary optimal stopping problems for one-dimensional Brownian motions we reduce the problem to the geometric problem of finding the smallest majorant of the reward function in a two-parameter function space. In a second part we solve optimal stopping problems when the underlying process may crash down. These problems are reduced to one optimal stopping problem and one Dynkin game. Examples are discussed.
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