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Study on the regional pattern change of social consumption levels in China since the reform and opening up
改革开放以来中国社会消费水平的区域格局变化

GUAN Wei-hua,ZHOU Jing,LU Yu-qi,
管卫华
,周静,陆玉麒

地理研究 , 2012,
Abstract: Since the reform and opening up started in 1978,with the establishment and improvement of socialist market economy and the rapid development of commodity circulation in China,the scale of social consumption has been greatly improved.At the same time,some things are changing,such as the regional differences of consumption levels and the regional consumption patterns which results from the differences.In this paper,we firstly analyze the differences of social consumption levels between provinces in China since the reform and opening up based on the variation coefficient and Taylor's index and indicate that since 1978,the difference of social consumption levels between provinces in China in general presents widening trend,but there are some fluctuations.By the analysis of change-point based on Mann-Kendall method,since reform and opening up the differences' changes of social consumption levels in China can be divided into two phases,from 1978 to 1987 and from 1987 to 2008.Using the cluster and discriminate analysis methods,we compare the regional patterns of social consumption levels in China in 1978,1987 and 2008.The results are as follows: in 1978,the social consumption levels in China had prominent north-south regional difference;in 1987,the social consumption level in China not only had north-south difference but also had east-west difference;in 2008,the social consumption level in China in general presents east-middle-west differences in the pattern of ladder.We can find that the regional pattern of social consumption level has been shifted from north-south difference to east-west difference.Finally,we study such indexes which are in connection with the regional social consumption level as the population,economic development level,and investment in fixed assets,income level,savings,financial levels,traffic convenience and industrial structure.By stepwise regression analysis,we analyze the formation mechanism of regional consumption patterns in China in 1978,1987 and 2008.The results are as follows: in 1978,regional pattern of social consumption level was mainly affected by per capita savings of urban and rural residents,per capita expenditure and the proportion of primary industry output value;in 1987,it was mainly affected by per capita GDP,transport accessibility levels and the proportion of tertiary industry output value;in 2008,it was mainly affected by per capita GDP,per capita income and per capita savings of urban and rural residents.
Impact of Transport Infrastructure on Trade: Evidence from the Chinese Inland Provinces under “One Belt, One Road”  [PDF]
Jinhui Li, Gwang-Nam Rim, Chol-Ju An
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.74140
Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of transport infrastructure on trades in the Chinese provinces directly affecting by “One Belt, One Road” initiative. That is why infrastructure is of significance in “One Belt, One Road” initiative and one of important purpose for initiative is to promote the unimpeded trade in China. In this paper, authors analyzed the impact of railways and highways which are the key elements of transport infrastructure on total value of exports and imports in the Chinese inland provinces directly affecting by “One Belt, One Road” and correlations between individual elements of transport infrastructure based on data from National Bureau of Statistics of China and from some articles related to “One Belt, One Road” and correlation and regression analysis methods. The conclusion is that railways, highways, and port have strong correlation with Gross Regional Products, and effects of elements of transport infrastructure are different among inland provinces affected by “One Belt, One Road” and this needs rational management of transport infrastructure in promoting trade according to provinces.
Affecting Factors of the Competitive Sports’ Regional Differences in China  [PDF]
Lei Yao, Jingdong Chang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.31012
Abstract: National game is the highest level of comprehensive sports games in China which is competed by each province (city and autonomous region) as unitary units. As the imbalance of economy and population among different provinces (cities and autonomous regions), there are imbalance of competitive sports developments. Breaking through the traditional mode of regarding provinces (cities or autonomous regions) as the units for comparison and analysis, this research adopts the approach of comparing six regions in administrative districts and defining seven indicators as factors influencing Chinese regional competitive sports developments. Through the way of linear regression, this essay gradually chooses the factors which exert effects on Chinese competitive sports’ regional differences. It is found that competitive strength, economical strength, in-team player, reserve player and on-the-job coach are the principal factors affecting Chinese competitive sports’ regional differences. Meanwhile, the essay tends to provide references for balance development between regions on China by establishing regression equation MS = 1.601 + 1.159 × XS3 + 0.300 × XS1 + 0.2497 × XS4 + 0.189 × XS5 + 0.181 × XS6 of Chinese competitive sports’ regional differences.
Study on the Threshold Effect of Urbanization on Energy Consumption  [PDF]
Xiaoyu Liu, Duyun Peng
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811145
Abstract: Energy is an important material impetus for urbanization, while urbanization is also key factors that stimulate the energy consumption increase. The rapid development of China’s urbanization in recent years has led to changes in the total energy consumption and structure, which will inevitably affect the realization of China’s rapid and sustainable economic development goals. Therefore, this article was based on panel data from 2005 to 2016 of 30 provinces in China, used energy consumption as the explained variable, the urbanization rate as the core variable, GDP per capita as threshold variables, and selected GDP per capita, industrialization level, urban per capita disposable income, the density of urban population, the proportion of the tertiary industry as control variables. Meanwhile, the threshold model was used to study the threshold effect. We put focus on the nonlinear relationship between urbanization and energy consumption and the corresponding regional differences and hope to make reasonable suggestions for optimizing the industrial structure and finally realizing the coordinated development of urbanization and energy consumption in China. The results show that in the accelerated stage of economic development, the main impact of urbanization is to accelerate the increase of energy consumption. When the level of economic development enters the post-industrialization stage, the stimulation of urbanization on energy consumption becomes smaller, which means that the urbanization transformation will face great pressure on energy consumption. Therefore, this paper considered China in three areas, eastern, middle and western areas to transversely compare and analyze, and put forward three rationalization proposals: To speed up the marketization of construction, promote economic development of the western and middle region, and narrow the gap of urbanization development of areas; to coordinate urbanization development and energy consumption in the eastern and western regions, accelerate industrial restructure in the middle and western regions, and promote sound and rapid urbanization; to grasp the law of urbanization’s effect on energy consumption and control the trend of energy consumption.
The Tourism Interaction between Shanghai and Provinces in the Yangtze River Valley
上海与长江流域各省区间的旅游互动

WANG Yuming,GAO Yuanheng,
汪宇明
,高元衡

地理学报 , 2008,
Abstract: With the Shift-share Method, the international visitor arrivals statistical data and sampling survey data from 1999 to 2005 of Shanghai and the provinces of the Yangtze River Valley(YRV) have been analyzed, indicating that the contribution of structural shifted components plays a leading role, and the contribution of share components plays a fundamental role in the in-flow and out-flow tourist increment in the provinces of the YRV from or to Shanghai. The competitive shifted components also make contributions but their effect is obviously less than other components. Generally, the structural shifted components and the share components highly concentrate in Shanghai's two neighboring provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu, showing a highly regional agglomeration;however, as for the component contributions to the in-flow and out-flow tourist increments in Shanghai, there exists disproportionality in influence in the various provinces of the Yangtze River Delta. To be more specific, the intensity of tourist flow from Shanghai, from east to west, shows a U-shaped distribution. In addition, although the spatial distance is an important factor affecting the change of spatial difference of tourist flow, the regional differences of tourism resource endowment, traffic, characteristics and supply of tourist products and the regional tourism integration, are the fundamental causes affecting tourism interaction between the metropolis and its region, and the change of tourism spatial distribution. It is strategically important to develop regional tourism by promoting the tourism interaction between the metropolis and its region in different spatial scales, so as to realize harmonious development and improve tourism spatial efficiency in China.
Energy production and consumption prediction and their response to environment based on coupling model in China

LI Qiang,REN Zhiyuan,

地理学报 , 2012,
Abstract: The paper presents the prediction of total energy production and consumption in all provinces and autonomous regions as well as determination of the variation of gravity center of the energy production, consumption and total discharge of industrial waste water, gas and residue of China via the energy and environmental quality data from 1978 to 2009 in China by use of GM(1,1) model and gravity center model, based on which the paper also analyzes the dynamic variation in regional difference in energy production, consumption and environmental quality and their relationship. The results are shown as follows. 1) The gravity center of energy production is gradually moving southwestward and the entire movement track approximates to linear variation, indicating that the difference of energy production between the east and west, south and north is narrowing to a certain extent, with the difference between the east and the west narrowing faster than that between the south and the north. 2) The gravity center of energy consumption is moving southwestward with perceptible fluctuation, of which the gravity center position from 2000 to 2005 was relatively stable, with slight annual position variation, indicating that the growth rates of all provinces and autonomous regions are basically the same. 3) The gravity center of the total discharge of industrial waste water, gas and residue is characterized by fluctuation in longitude and latitude to a certain degree. But, it shows a southwestward trend on the whole. 4) There are common ground and discrepancy in the variation track of the gravity center of the energy production & consumption of China, and the comparative analysis of the gravity center of them and that of total discharge of industrial waste water, gas and residue shows that the environmental quality level is closely associated with the energy production and consumption (especially the energy consumption), indicating that the environment cost in economy of energy is higher in China.
Investigating the Relationship between Agricultural Energy Consumption and Agricultural Economic Growth in Different Regions of China
中国区域农业生产用能与农业经济增长关系研究

HU Lili,NIU Shuwen,LI Yihan,ZHANG Xin,
胡莉莉
,牛叔文,李怡涵,张馨

资源科学 , 2011,
Abstract: Agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output show obvious regional differences in China. Based on data of agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output value during the period 1990 to 2008, the authors used cluster analysis methods to conceptually partition the entire country into four regions, i.e., high growth to high consumption (I), low growth to high consumption (II), low growth to low consumption (III), and high growth to low consumption (IV). Then a panel data model was built to unravel the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output in different regions. Results show that the integrated characteristics between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth in different areas can generally be reflected by the four regions that high energy consumption areas are located mainly in the eastern region, but these areas are not necessarily high agricultural growth. Low energy consumption areas are located mainly in the western region, but these areas are not necessarily low agricultural growth. There exist co-integration relationships between agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output in each region. Differences in the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth for the four regions and different provinces in each region were revealed quantitatively by model analysis. From the model test results, it was found that the correlation coefficient is positive between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth in region I and region IV, whereas the correlation coefficient is negative in region II and region III. This demonstrates that energy consumption plays an important role in promoting agricultural economic growth in high growth to high consumption (I) and high growth to low consumption (IV); however, this rule cannot be applied to other regions. At the same time, the close degree of the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth was analyzed in detail, and the difference in agricultural output in different regions caused by increasing energy input was also taken into account. The energy efficiency is relatively low in developed areas of region II that has high energy consumption and low agricultural economic growth, and the agricultural energy input is insufficient in underdeveloped areas of region III and region IV. According to above results, some suggestions were put forward, i. e., improving efficiency of agricultural energy consumption in China; implementing reasonable development plans of agricultural energy use; and learning from each other among different regions. This study can provide a sound basis for promoting the efficiency of agricultural energy use and healthy development of agriculture in China.
The comparative analysis of urbanization affecting factors among the coastal provinces in eastern China in the transition period
我国东部沿海省区城镇化水平影响因素的空间差异

CAO Guang-zhong,WANG Chun-jie,QI Yuan-jing,
曹广忠
,王纯洁,齐元静

地理研究 , 2008,
Abstract: Although eastern China has been keeping a high speed of economic development and urbanization as a whole since China's reform and opening-up,each province in coastal area possesses different characters in the process of urbanization and its affecting factors in the transition period.On the basis of defining the factors affecting the urbanization process on the new background in the coastal province in China's transition period,this paper examined the different main factors affecting every coastal province by factor analysis using the economic and social statistic data in 2000.The index and data include not only the traditional factors such as economy and industrial structure,but also the new factors such as floating population and foreign direct investment in the context of reform and opening-up.The result obtained show that,the main factors influencing the process of urbanization are different among coastal provinces.The coastal provinces have presented different types of urbanization characters in affecting factors: the urbanization process of Guangdong province was mainly affected by floating factors in transition period such as floating labors;the urbanization process of Zhejiang province and Shanghai-Jiangsu was mainly driven by the integrative increasing of economy;Shandong province showed a traditional type of urbanization mechanism as driven by industrialization.The difference of urbanization affecting factors among coastal provinces indicated that the provinces in China's coastal area had begun to show diversification in urbanization process in the transition period.
Mutually-Inverse Relationship between Resource Contribution and Resource Curse in Economic Development:A Case Study in 31 Provinces of China
资源经济贡献与发展诅咒的互逆关系研究——中国31个省区能源开发利用与经济增长关系的实证分析

HAN Ya-fen,SUN Gen-nian,LI Qi,
韩亚芬
,孙根年,李琦

资源科学 , 2007,
Abstract: As material base,resource cannot be separated from economic development.However,in the times of economy based knowledge and unfair trade,economy in some provinces,where natural resources are rich,is less developed,which is called "Resource Curse." Based on the statistical data from 31 provinces of China from 1985 to 2004,the mutually-inverse relationship between resource contribution and "resource curse" is analyzed.Firstly,it is found that relationship of energy consumption and gross domestic product(GDP) present a positive correlation.According to statistical data from 1985 to 2004,the relationship of energy consumption and economic growth rate shows a positive correlation.In such provinces as Zhejiang,Guangdong and Fujian,both economic output and growth rate present a positive correlation with energy consumption,which shows that economic development mainly relies on the support of energy.Secondly,the relationship between energy production and economic development is analyzed,and the result is following: the more energy production is,the lower the level of economic development is;using statistic data from 1985 to 2004,the case is the same as the relationship between resource abundant index and per capita GDP growth.In such provinces as Shanxi,Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia,the higher resource abundant index is,the lower economic level is.In such provinces as Zhejiang,Guangdong and Fujian,the lower resource abundant index is,the higher economic level is.That is,economic development is lower in some provinces with abundant energy resources;this phenomenon is called as "resource curse." Finally,according to the matrix of energy production/consumption and economic development and analysis of the mutually-inverse relationship between energy and economy,the 30 provinces can be divided into three types of group: the first group includes the eastern coastal zone provinces,such as Shanghai,Zhejiang,Beijing,energy production there are lower,but energy consumption and economic development are higher.The second group includes the middle and west provinces,such as Shanxi,Shaanxi,Inner Mongolia,energy production there is higher,but energy consumption and economic development are lower.The last group is with an approximate balance between energy production and consumption,and economic development changes with energy production and consumption.For example,Shandong is the province where the energy production and consumption are more;the economic development is higher yet,with per capita GDP 16,925 Yuan.To build a harmonious society and relieve contradiction of energy generation,consumption and economic development,in energyproducing areas,improvement of industrial structure should be promoted and the "resource curse" constraints should be removed.In provinces with higher energy consumption,energy-saving technology should be introduced.Meanwhile,energy allowance and financial transfers should be increased to promote harmonious development between energy production,c
Analysis on Convergence of Innovation Resource Attraction and Its Affecting Factors in Chinese Provinces: Based on the Perspective of New Input Allocation  [cached]
Feng Feng,Zhouqing Wei,Leiyong Zhang
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n12p88
Abstract: Based on the panel data of China’s provinces from 2002 to 2009, the paper allocates new input resources among provinces reasonably using the DEA method and conducts an empirical analysis of innovation resources attraction. As indicated by the research, the innovation resource attraction in China shows the typical characteristic of zonal distribution, the east region is higher than the middle and west; the condition convergence of all provinces is identified, but the absolute convergence is not remarkable; the educational level and industry structure have positive influences, the openness and the level of government support have opposite impacts on different regions.
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