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Chance, la scuola della seconda opportunità Chance: a school offering a second chance
Federica Filippini,Chiara Giustini
Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica , 2010,
Abstract: Il presente articolo illustra la realtà del progetto Chance, scuola della seconda opportunità nata nei quartieri periferici di Napoli. Ne evidenzia potenzialità, risorse, ricchezze e difficoltà, raccontate in una serie di interviste dai protagonisti che quotidianamente vivono questa “scuola”, e osservate dalle ricercatrici autrici dell’articolo in alcune visite effettuate fra il 2009 e il 2010. Non vuole essere un racconto esaustivo di una realtà complessa come Chance, ma un’occasione per riflettere su una “buona pratica”, sul fare scuola anche in contesti di difficoltà, violenza, illegalità, sulla professionalità di insegnanti, educatori, “mamme sociali”, sull’importanza di lavorare per incidere sul territorio in cui si opera. This article describes the Chance project, a school offering a second chance for learners who have dropped out of the official system, based in the suburbs of Naples. It highlights the potential, the resources, the rewards and difficulties told through a series of interviews with the people who live the day to day reality of this “school” combined with observations from the researcher-authors of the paper who made a series of visits between 2009 and 2010. It does not set out to be give an exhaustive record of the complex reality of Chance but rather presents a series of reflections regarding “best practices” and schooling in contexts of hardship, violence, illegality. It considers the professionalism of the teachers, social workers, “social mothers” and the importance of attempting to make a mark upon the local community in which the project operates.
The second chance story of HIV-1 DNA: Unintegrated? Not a problem!
Yuntao Wu
Retrovirology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-5-61
Abstract: With retroviruses such as HIV, life seems to be simple and straightforward. As a single infectious particle, the virus converts its RNA genome into DNA and then incorporates it into the host genome. Once this happens, the rest of the viral life cycle is largely a happy free ride from the host. However, for the viral population as a whole, the truth is that only a very small proportion of the viruses have such a productive life. The vast majority of the viral DNA remains isolated from the host chromatin [1-8]. These DNA molecules are euphemistically referred to as the "unintegrated"; in reality, they are the "left behind" and down regulated (gene expression is low and restricted to only early genes [9-11]). The stakes are high; they are at risk of being destroyed and cleared [12,13]. We still do not understand why most HIV DNA cannot or does not integrate, and other questions remain as well: is there something wrong with these "unintegrated," and do they deserve a second chance?Answering these questions is not as simple as it seems. First, within a viral population, we do not know which viral DNA is destined to integrate, and there is no marker to differentiate this phenotype. Second, against a background of viral activities from both the integrated and the unintegrated, it is difficult to monitor and track viral behavior from the unintegrated alone. In spite of these hurdles, in the recent article by Gelderblom and co-authors [14], these questions were elegantly addressed using a very creative approach. The authors employed coinfection of cells with the wild-type virus and an integrase mutant, both of which were labelled with different fluorescent reporters. This permitted tracking and delicate differentiation of the wild-type and the unintegrated viruses.To address the question of whether the unintegrated viral DNA remains functional, the authors used an integrase inhibitor and an integrase mutant virus, D116N [15]. They also tagged the viral early genes with green
A Second Chance: The University of Cape Town's Diploma in Education  [cached]
June Saldanha
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2009,
Abstract: This paper describes a curriculum that gives men and women from predominantly black working class communities a second chance to acquire a formal qualification at a higher education institution in South Africa. The curriculum provides the space for adult students to think critically about themselves and their practice and to develop a confident voice to express themselves. Through this process they develop both learner and educator identities and begin to see how the two intersect. The paper gives some of the historical background of the course, and shows how lecturers who have taught on the programme at different times have helped shape the curriculum. It goes on to discuss the changing nature of the student intake, the curriculum content and structure and ends with a discussion of the impact of the course, on students, staff and on the university as a whole. One very visible impact of the diploma is to be seen in the students who have gone on to acquire other postgraduate qualifications in adult education studies. On a university-wide level, through the involvement of adult education lecturers in other programmes and curricula, knowledge of and interest in adult learning is shared and encouraged.
Second-Chance Signal Transduction Explains Cooperative Flagellar Switching  [PDF]
Henry G. Zot, Javier E. Hasbun, Nguyen Van Minh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041098
Abstract: The reversal of flagellar motion (switching) results from the interaction between a switch complex of the flagellar rotor and a torque-generating stationary unit, or stator (motor unit). To explain the steeply cooperative ligand-induced switching, present models propose allosteric interactions between subunits of the rotor, but do not address the possibility of a reaction that stimulates a bidirectional motor unit to reverse direction of torque. During flagellar motion, the binding of a ligand-bound switch complex at the dwell site could excite a motor unit. The probability that another switch complex of the rotor, moving according to steady-state rotation, will reach the same dwell site before that motor unit returns to ground state will be determined by the independent decay rate of the excited-state motor unit. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the energy coupling between a switch complex and a motor unit of the stator complex of a flagellum, and demonstrate that this model accounts for the cooperative switching response without the need for allosteric interactions. The analytical result can be reproduced by simulation when (1) the motion of the rotor delivers a subsequent ligand-bound switch to the excited motor unit, thereby providing the excited motor unit with a second chance to remain excited, and (2) the outputs from multiple independent motor units are constrained to a single all-or-none event. In this proposed model, a motor unit and switch complex represent the components of a mathematically defined signal transduction mechanism in which energy coupling is driven by steady-state and is regulated by stochastic ligand binding. Mathematical derivation of the model shows the analytical function to be a general form of the Hill equation (Hill AV (1910) The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv–vii).
The Necessity to Negotiate the Syllabus in Second Chance Schools: An Innovative Approach  [cached]
Sophia Valavani
Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning , 2010,
Abstract: European unification and the scale of current economic and social change has led to the construction of a multidimensional, constantly evolving environment diversifying in languages and cultures, social communities and political constitutions. The demands for the maintenance and development of such a multifarious population are thus increased. Second Chance Schools (SCSs) were established in Greece in 1999 as a special programme which offers education and training to adults “at risk of social exclusion” aiming at their social and economic integration. Diversity in SCSs demands a new approach to education and training, and the existence of multiple identities, values and cultures within SCSs challenges both trainers and trainees to cultivate mutual understanding and to promote democratic standards in order to ensure equality in education and facilitate SCS trainees’ inclusion in social, economic and cultural dimensions. This paper argues that EFL literacy in SCSs can best be developed on the basis of a negotiated syllabus which has been promoted by recent trends in educational theory as the most democratic and flexible syllabus that can offer significant opportunities for developing basic skills and qualifications and trigger processes of self-discovery, shared decision-making and responsibility. The paper draws its materials from a systematic research conducted in different SCSs in northern Greece over a period of 8 months. Adopting a mixed-method approach, I analysed data from a variety of different sources, such as official documentation, detailed questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with trainers of EFL literacy, and real time classroom observation. This paper outlines in detail the main elements of the negotiated syllabus and, on the basis of research findings, discuss why such a syllabus is appropriate to the teaching of EFL literacies. It also presents practical devices for the implementation of a negotiated syllabus, which allow the development of negotiated work in class. It concludes with some possible implications and stresses the need for further investigation.
Competent teacher
Piatek Tadeusz
Technológia vzdelávania , 2010,
Abstract: The article focuses on the concept of competences which are necessary for defining a teacher with certain abilities as a competent teacher. While analysing the concept of competence one should remember about the differences in interpreting the notions of competence and qualifications, as well as about recognizing both competences and qualifications as key factors.
The Application of Second-Order Schedule in Drug-Addiction
二级强化程序在药物成瘾研究中的应用

ZHANG Jing,LI Xin-Wang,MA Lan-Hua,
张静
,李新旺,马兰花

心理科学进展 , 2008,
Abstract: Second-order schedules, which are called second-order schedules of drug self-administration when put into experiments, stress the significance of the conditioned stimuli in the acquiring and keeping of the behavior that takes place in this model. Under the influence of conditioned stimuli, animals press a lever to seek drugs. The results of many studies suggest that nucleus accumbens core, basolateral amygdale and medial prefrontal cortex play an important role in the drug-seeking behavior aroused by conditioned stimuli. The use of second-order schedules makes it possible to predict substance that may result in addiction, which also provides new ideas in preclinical testing of potential treatment strategies for drug addiction.
A Good Chance for the Cat’s Life: Erwin Schroedinger’s New Statistics and a Second Quantization Theory of Quantum  [PDF]
Salvo D’Agostino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41001
Abstract: In his paper on the Cat’s uncertain situation between life and death, S. intended to criticize the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and, conversely, to assert the consistency of his own wavelike view of the theory. His ideas contrasted with Heisenberg and Bohr’s positions, but also with Einstein’s attempt at a classically statistical interpretation of a quantum theory. His criticism therefore did not intend to discredit the whole Quantum Mechanics. In the fifties, he proposed a second quantization approach to a many particles state of the theory, which included his New Statistics. He asserted that the new approach modified some aspects of his famous 1926 equations. In my paper, I argue that S.’s new ideas in the fifties are related to his 1920 and 1926 contributions on rarified gas theory.
Pleasure and Addiction  [PDF]
Jeanette Kennett,Steve Matthews,Anke Snoek
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00117
Abstract: What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu (1) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as “strong appetites toward pleasure” and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers) reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value, and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.
Psychopharmacology of Addiction
Tugce Toker Ugurlu,Ceyhan Balci Sengul,Cem Sengul
Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar , 2012,
Abstract: Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development. Developments in the psychopharmacology of addiction is much slower than the other disciplines of psychiatry. For a long time, social and behavioral therapeutic approaches are the only choices for the treatment of addictive disorders. Disulfiram was the only pharmacological agent approved for addiction treatment until the end of 20th century. Pharmacological treatment options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Several new medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, methadone and buprenoprhine have been approved for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders ever since. Based on ever-increasing information about neurotransmitter and receptors, many studies have been performed concerning craving and relapse prevention in recent years. Besides many other pharmacological agents have been focus of new researches for treatment of different types of addiction. The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on psychopharmacology of addictive disorders and recent developments in this area.
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