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Building Effective Virtual Teams: How to Overcome the Problems of Trust and Identity in Virtual Teams  [PDF]
Chris Kimble
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1002/joe.20364
Abstract: This article explores some of the challenges faced when managing virtual teams, in particular the role played by trust and identity in virtual teams. It outlines why teams and virtual teams have become a valuable part of the modern organization and presents ten short case studies that illustrate the range of activities in which virtual teams can be found. Following this, the article examines some of the common problems encountered in virtual team working. It discusses two broad classes of solutions. The first are solutions that are essentially technical in nature (i.e., where changes to or improvements in technology would help to solve or ameliorate the problem); the second are more organizationally based (i.e., where the root of the problem is in people and how they are managed). The article concludes that both the technical and the organizational solutions need to be considered in parallel if an attempt to build an effective virtual team is to be successful.
Dynamic Nature of Trust in Virtual Teams
Prasert Kanawattanachai,Youngjin Yoo
Sprouts : Working Papers on Information Systems , 2002,
Abstract: Building on the theory of swift trust, we empirically examine the dynamic nature of trust and its changing patterns in both cognitive and affective elements between high- and low-performing teams over time (early, middle, and late stages of project). Using data from 38, four-person student teams from six universities competing in a web-based business simulation game over eight-week periods, we found that both high- and low-performing teams started with similar levels of trust in both cognitive and affective dimensions. However, high-performing teams were better at developing and maintaining the trust level throughout the project life. Moreover, virtual teams relied more on a cognitive than an affective element of trust. These findings provide a preliminary step toward understanding the dynamic nature and relative importance of cognition- and affect-based trust over time.
Building Trust in High-Performing Teams
Mila Hakanen,Aki Soudunsaari
Technology Innovation Management Review , 2012,
Abstract: Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.
Developing Trust In Virtual Software Development Teams
Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-18762010000200004
Abstract: today globally distributed software development has become the norm for many organizations and the popularity of implementing such an approach continues to increase. in these circumstances a strategy often employed is the use of virtual software development teams. due to the collaborative nature of software development this has proved a difficult and complex endeavor. research has identified distance in its various forms as an important factor which negatively impacts on global software development and on virtual software team operation in particular. in this context, the aspects of distance have been defined as temporal, geographical, cultural and linguistic. a key element for the success of any team based project is the development of trust and cooperation. each aspect of distance can negatively impact on the development of trust and hamper cooperation particularly in the virtual team environment. an additional factor which this research identified is the importance and negative impact fear plays. the serious implications of these factors are due to the need for dependence on asynchronous and online communication which is inherent to global software development and the operation of virtual software teams in particular. the findings presented here are the results from four independent studies undertaken over a twelve year period which consider each of these issues. having identified the problems associated with trust and communication, how these issues were successfully addressed and managed on a multimillion dollar project which was heading for failure is outlined.
The Image Decision Mechanism of Trust Building in Teams

Wang Zhongming,Deng Jingsong,

心理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Studies on team management have increasingly focused on team behavioral processes and its dynamic mechanisms. Among them, trust-building has become a frontier research area in industrial and organizational psychology. Previous research showed that the trust among team members is a key condition for high performance work teams. Trust building and its processes are affected by various factors such as individual value-orientation, interpersonal ability, team leadership styles, and mental model of team sharing. More in-depth research, however, is needed on team trust-building and-development. Using the image theory, this study systematically examined trust-building process and its key characteristics among team members in order to explore its image decision mechanisms. This study employed an experimental simulation method using a between-subject factorial design with two conditions (high goal conflict under individual goals vs low goal conflict under team goals). Network experimental simulation methodology was used. Twenty teams were randomly assigned to perform team tasks of investment under one goal condition. The results of these experiments showed that trust decision among team members was an image decision and it showed a rejection threshold. In the process of trust building, dimensions of ability and integrity were more important than kindness under both ideal and current images. The team members made their compatibility testing between ideal images and current images in order to make their trust decision judgment. In this dynamic process, the compatibility perception played a partial intervening effect and the image decision mechanism was established.
Building a Virtual Hierarchy for Managing Trust Relationships in a Hybrid Architecture  [cached]
Cristina Satizábal,Rafael Páez,Jordi Forné
Journal of Computers , 2006, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.1.7.60-68
Abstract: Trust models provide a framework to create and manage trust relationships among the different entities of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). These trust relationships are verified through the certification path validation process, which involves: path discovery, signature verification and revocation status checking. When trust relationships are bidirectional, multiple paths can exist between two entities, which increase the runtime of the path discovery process. In addition, validation of long paths can be difficult, especially when storage and processing capacities of the verifier are limited. In this paper, we propose a protocol to establish a hierarchical trust model from a hybrid PKI. This protocol makes more efficient certification path discovery since in a hierarchical model, trust relationships are unidirectional and paths are easy to find. In addition, our protocol does not require issuing new certificates and allows setting a maximum path length, so it can be adapted to the features of users’ terminals.
Global Multidisciplinary Learning in Construction Education: Lessons from Virtual Collaboration of Building Design Teams  [cached]
Soetanto R.,Childs M.,Poh P.,Austin S.
Civil Engineering Dimension , 2012,
Abstract: Construction is a multidisciplinary activity in which effective communication between parties is essential for successful construction projects. However, the construction industry has been characterised by fragmentation, which prevents seamless communication. This problem has been further exacerbated by the need to communicate over distance within a time constraint in an increasingly interconnected and globalised construction sector. This has brought a particular challenge to the education sector in preparing the future graduates to work in this context. The paper reports on an on-going Hewlett Packard-sponsored project to implement an innovative learning approach which consists of distanced collaboration between students from different disciplines from two Universities in the UK and Canada. The empirical work involved interviews and questionnaire survey at different stages of the project. The preliminary findings reveal the impact of disciplinary training on the development of effective virtual collaboration, although this has been moderated, to some extent, by their earlier (not so positive) experience during the course of the project. The research provides a material for further reflection and may serve as a useful consideration for future development of a guiding framework for effective training of built environment professionals.
The communication process in virtual teams  [PDF]
Informatica Economica Journal , 2007,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the paradigms of virtual teams in the communication process in the context of the existing literature in this field. We argue the above issues and we explore the communication process within virtual teams like an interactive, complex and limiting process in connxion with the advantages and disadvantages offered by information technology.
Incorporating Virtually Immersive Environments as a Collaborative Medium for Virtual Teaming  [cached]
Charles J. Lesko, Jr.,Christine R. Russell
Journal of Education and Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Virtually immersive environments incorporate the use of various computer modelling and simulation techniques enabling geographically dispersed virtual project teams to interact within an artificially projected three-dimensional space online. This study focused on adoption of virtually immersive technologies as a collaborative media to support virtual teaming of both graduate and undergraduate-level project management students. The data and information from this study has implications for educators using virtually immersive environments in the classroom. In this study, we specifically evaluated two key components in this paper: 1) students’ level of trust and; 2) students’ willingness to use the technology, along with their belief about the virtual environment’s ability to extend and improve knowledge sharing in their team work environment. We learned that while students did find the environment a positive add on for working collaboratively, there were students who were neither more nor less likely to use the technology for future collaborative ventures. Most of the students who were not very positive about the environment were “fence sitters” likely indicating needs related to additional training to improve communication skills. Finally, based on the full study results we have provided basic recommendations designed to support team trust building in the system along with interpersonal trust building to facilitate knowledge transfer and better strategic us of the technology.
Social Aspects of Virtual Teams  [PDF]
Daphna Shwarts-Asher
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: There has been a transformation from individual work to team work in the last few decades (Ilgen, 1999), and many organizations use teams for many activities done by individuals in the past (Boyett & Conn, 1992 ; Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in computer-mediated groups because of the increases in globalization of business operations leading to geographically dispersed executives and decision makers. However, what seems to be lacking is some focus in terms of problem settings and corresponding tools to support collaborative decision making. The research question of this study deals with the dynamics of virtual teams' members. A model, suggesting that team dynamics can increase the teams' output, is presented, and a methodology to examine the model is illustrated. An experiment was performed, in which subjects, who were grouped into teams, had to share information in order to complete a task. The findings indicate that the social aspect of the virtual team's discussion is negative than the social aspect of the face-to-face team's discussion, and that the virtual team's output is inferior to the face-to-face team's output. The virtual team is a common way of working nowadays, and with the growing use of Internet applications and firms' globalization it will expand in the future. Thus, the importance of the theoretical and practical implementation of the research will be discussed.
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