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Psychopathology and Suicide among Quebec Physicians: A Nested Case Control Study  [PDF]
Pierre Gagné,Javad Moamai,Dominique Bourget
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/936327
Abstract: Objective. To describe a psychiatric profile and characteristics of physicians who killed themselves in Quebec between 1992 and 2009. Method. The cases of 36 physicians (7 females and 29 males) and 36 nonphysicians who committed suicide were matched for age and gender and examined in a nested case control design. All subjects were judged as definite suicide by the Quebec Coroner Head Office. Consensus regarding DSM-IV diagnoses was established by two forensic psychiatrists. Results. Rates of all Axis I diagnoses were 83% for physicians and 91% for nonphysicians at the time of suicide. Major depressive disorders were the most frequently observed pathology in both groups (61% and 56%, resp.). Conclusions. Physicians and nonphysicians who committed suicide in Quebec suffered from the same type of psychiatric disorder at the time of killing themselves. The findings advocate strongly for more efficient suicide prevention measures including early detection and treatment of mood disorders for the physicians. 1. Introduction Suicide, a complex public health problem, is the ninth leading cause of death in Canada [1]. WHO office on preventive practices in suicide and attempted suicide in its 1986 report, quoted by Nordentoft [2], defined suicide as “Suicide is an act with a fatal outcome which the deceased knowing or expecting a fatal outcome had initiated and carried out with the propose of provoking the change that he desired.” Suicidal acts can be considered as severe and preventable complications to a range of diseases and social conditions [2]. It is reported that 85%–90% of people who kill themselves have been suffering from some type of psychiatric disorders [3]. Previous research on physician suicide has been marked by inconsistent findings and has generated debate in several countries [4–16]. Although several studies [5, 7, 9, 11, 13] found a moderately higher risk of suicide among male physicians and a significantly higher risk of suicide among female physicians than in the general population, others have reported different results. Arnetz et al. [16] determined that only Swedish female physicians were more prone to suicide than the general population. In a Finnish study, Lindeman et al. [14] reported standardized suicide mortality ratios of 0.9 for male physicians and 2.4 for female physicians. Hawton et al. [11] found a significantly lower standardized suicide mortality ratio of 0.67 for male physicians and a ratio of 2.02 for female physicians in the UK. More recent research [10] suggests that the disparity between physician and nonphysician suicide
Incremental View Maintenance for Nested-Relational Databases  [PDF]
Daniel Lupei,Christoph Koch,Val Tannen
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Incremental view maintenance is an essential tool for speeding up the processing of large, locally changing workloads. Its fundamental challenge is to ensure that changes are propagated from input to output more efficiently than via recomputation. We formalize this requirement for positive nested relational algebra (NRA+) on bags and we propose a transformation deriving deltas for any expression in the language. The main difficulty in maintaining nested queries lies in the inability to express within NRA+ the efficient updating of inner bags, i.e., without completely replacing the tuples that contain them. To address this problem, we first show how to efficiently incrementalize IncNRA+, a large fragment of NRA+ whose deltas never generate inner bag updates. We then provide a semantics-preserving transformation that takes any nested query into a collection of IncNRA+ queries. This constitutes the first static solution for the efficient incremental processing of languages with nested collections. Furthermore, we show that the state-of-the-art technique of recursive IVM, originally developed for positive relational algebra with aggregation, also extends to nested queries. Finally, we generalize our static approach for the efficient incrementalization of NRA+ to a family of simply-typed lambda calculi, given that its primitives are themselves efficiently incrementalizable.
A Bayesian Network View on Nested Effects Models  [cached]
Zeller Cordula,Fr?hlich Holger,Tresch Achim
EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology , 2009,
Abstract: Nested effects models (NEMs) are a class of probabilistic models that were designed to reconstruct a hidden signalling structure from a large set of observable effects caused by active interventions into the signalling pathway. We give a more flexible formulation of NEMs in the language of Bayesian networks. Our framework constitutes a natural generalization of the original NEM model, since it explicitly states the assumptions that are tacitly underlying the original version. Our approach gives rise to new learning methods for NEMs, which have been implemented in the /Bioconductor package nem. We validate these methods in a simulation study and apply them to a synthetic lethality dataset in yeast.
A Bayesian Network View on Nested Effects Models
Cordula Zeller, Holger Fr?hlich, Achim Tresch
EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2009/195272
Abstract: Nested effects models (NEMs) are a class of probabilistic models. They aim to reconstruct a hidden signalling structure (e.g., a gene regulatory system) by the analysis of high-dimensional phenotypes (e.g., gene expression profiles) which are consequences of well-defined perturbations of the system (e.g., RNA interference). NEMs have been introduced by Markowetz et al. [1], and they have been extended by Fr?hlich et al. [2] and Tresch and Markowetz [3], see also the review of Markowetz and Spang [4]. There is an open-source software package "nem" available on the platform /Bioconductor [5, 13], which implements a collection of methods for learning NEMs from experimental data. The utility of NEMs has been shown in several biological applications (Drosophila melanogaster [1], Saccharomyces cerevisiae [6], estrogen receptor pathway, [7]). The model in its original formulation suffers from some ad hoc restrictions which seemingly are only imposed for the sake of computability. The present paper gives an NEM formulation in the context of Bayesian networks (BNs). Doing so, we provide a motivation for these restrictions by explicitly stating prior assumptions that are inherent to the original formulation. This leads to a natural and meaningful generalization of the NEM model.The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly recalls the original formulation of NEMs. Section 3 defines NEMs as a special instance of Bayesian networks. In Section 4, we show that this definition is equivalent to the original one if we impose suitable structural constraints. Section 5 exploits the BN framework to shed light onto the learning problem for NEMs. We propose a new approach to parameter learning, and we introduce structure priors that lead to the classical NEM as a limit case. In Section 6, a simulation study compares the performance of our approach to other implementations. Section 7 provides an application of NEMs to synthetic lethality data. In Section 8, we conclude with an outl
Being in want of control: Experiences of being on the road to, and making, a suicide attempt  [cached]
Katarina Skogman Pavulans,Ingrid Bolmsj?,Anna-Karin Edberg,Agneta ?jehagen
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-Being , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v7i0.16228
Abstract: Attempted suicide is a risk factor for future suicidal behaviour, but understanding suicidality from the perspective of people who have experienced attempted suicide is limited. The aim of the study was to explore the lived experience of being suicidal and having made a suicide attempt, in order to identify possible implications for health care professionals. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with 10 persons shortly after they attempted suicide and were analysed through qualitative content analysis. The participants’ experience of being suicidal and of having attempted suicide could be described as “Being on the road towards suicidal action”, which culminated in an experience of either chaos or turned off emotions, “Making sense of the suicide attempt”, and “Opening the door to possible life lines”. An overall theme, “Being in want of control”, captured their all-embracing lack of sense of control and was seen in relation to different aspects of oneself, overall life-situation, the immediate suicide attempt situation and in the outlook on the future. Being in want of control may be a relevant and general feature of being suicidal. People who have attempted suicide need more adequate help to break vicious circles before they reach a point of no return and enter an acute suicidal state of mind. Patients’ experience-based knowledge is highly important to listen to and use clinically as well as theoretically when constructing suicide prevention programs.
The Thinking machine: a psychological view of Mawxwell's demon mind  [PDF]
Alexandre de Castro
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Recently, in a letter to Nature, del Rio et al.8 exploited the quantum viewpoint of the old but well-known thought experiment of Maxwell's demon, a tiny "man-machine" that processes only a single unit of information. In their work, they showed that the thermodynamic cost for Maxwell's demon to erase quantum information decreases as the amount it "knows" increases. Indeed, as the authors themselves concluded, that finding has the ability to strengthen the link between information theory and statistical physics. However, the factual link between information theory and psychology remains unknown. There may be no better way to investigate to this issue than to subject this dual natured creature to psychological treatment! In this work, we propose an Ausubel-inspired ansatz to map the thermodynamic mind of Maxwell's demon, addressing information processing from a cognitive perspective9-12. The main calculation presented in this short report shows that the Ausubelian assimilation theory13-15 leads to a Shannon-Hartley-like model1,2 that, in turn, converges exactly to the Landauer limit16-18 when one single information is discarded from the demon's memory. This result indicates that both a thermodynamic device and an intelligent being "think" in the same way when one bit of information is processed. Consequently, this finding links information theory to the "psychological features" of the thermodynamic engine through the Landauer limit, which opens a new path towards the conception of a multi-bit reasoning machine.
Suicide and suicide risk factors: A literature review
SM Masango, ST Rataemane, AA Motojesi
South African Family Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Suicide can be defined as intentional self-inflicted death. 1 It is a serious cause of mortality worldwide. Suicide is considered as a psychiatric emergency and the awareness of the seriousness of suicide in our society should not be overlooked. It is a significant cause of death worldwide.1 It accounts for about 30,000 deaths annually in the USA and more than 5,000 deaths annually in South Africa,2 and the prevalence of suicide in our society is on the increase. Etiological factors for suicide include social, psychological and physical factors. But suicide is multi-factorial in nature.1 This review focuses mainly on the associated risk factors for suicide: demographic factors, psychiatric disorders, terminal or chronic medical conditions, and recurrent unresolved psychological stressors.3 Search strategy: The search strategy included research carried out internationally and in South Africa. Computerised database searches were utilised. These covered a wide range of health, educational, occupational and other areas of research. Recent major reviews on suicide and associated risk factors were located electronically and the references in such reviews scrutinised for the relevant articles. The sources of information included relevant textbooks of psychiatry, journals of psychiatry (both local and international), internet search engines like Medscape and Google, and abstracts from relevant articles. Definition of terms Suicide: self-inflicted death with evidence that the person intended to die.1,2 Suicide attempt: a self-injurious behaviour with a non-fatal outcome.1,2 Suicide ideation: thoughts about killing himself or herself. Suicide ideation may vary in seriousness depending on the specificity of suicide plans and the degree of suicide intent.1,2 Lethality of suicide behaviour: objective danger to life associated with a suicide method.1,2 Deliberate self harm: injurious act without the intent to die.1,2 South African Family Practice Vol. 50 (6) 2008: pp. 25-28
The Underlying Reasons of Suicide Attempts among Arab Population in the Holy-Land—Nazareth: View and Overview  [PDF]
Elia Haj, Eisa Hag, Riad Hanna, Farhat Kamal, Bisharat Bishara, Bowirrat Abdalla
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.44021
Abstract: Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in many western countries, but in eastern countries this phenomenon was until recently extremely rare. Our study, performed during 2005-2012 comes to shed lights on the prevalence and the underlying reasons of the notable increase of suicide attempts in the conservative and religious Arab community of Nazareth, Israel. Extensive interviews, sociodemographic information, suicide risk factors in addition to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnoses were used in current retrospective study of 772 suicide attempters in the emergency room at the Nazareth Hospital. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 17, Pearson χ2 analysis and percentage distribution were used for the statistical analysis. We considered the differences to be significant at the level of p < 0.05. Three fold frequency of suicide attempts were observed among females (77%) compared to males (23%), (P = 0.0001). During the year 2009 the suicide attempts prevalence was the highest 118 (15.3%) and during 2005 it was the lowest 77 (10%). 76.5% of the attempters arrived to the emergency room within 1 - 6 hours. A single suicide attempt was observed among 60% of males compared to 70.5% among females [OR = 0.846 (CI: 0.742 - 0.966)] additionally, more than one suicide attempt was notified among 40% of males whereas 29.5% among females [OR = 1.367 (CI: 1.099 - 1.701), (P = 0.007)]. Psychiatric patients (59.3%) performed more than one suicide attempt compared to normal subjects (21.5%), [OR = 2.76; CI: 2.276 - 3.354, P-value = 0.0001]. Drugs was preferred for suicide attempts in both genders (87.7%), especially among females compared to males (90.6% vs. 78.8% respectively), [OR = 0.869; CI: 0.801 - 0.942, P = 0.001]. 38 of males (21.3%) committed suicide attempts by causing accidents and self harm compared to 56 females (9.4%); [OR = 2.261; CI: 1.552 - 3.294, (P = 0.0001)]. 40 psychiatric patients (18.7%) chose this method compared to 54 non-psychiatric patients (9.7%), [OR = 1.925; CI: 1.32 - 2.806, P-value = 0.001]. The underlying causes of suicide were as follows: 50% social causes, 26% adjustment reactions and 24% psychiatric diseases. Conclusion: Being the first unique study to shed lights on the increasing phenomenon of suicide in the Arab community, our findings unveiled a tragic transition in the rate of suicide attempts in a supposedly conservative and religious community. Even though the rate of suicide attempts is lower than other communities it should not divert focus away from efforts to develop effective
The Cholinergic-Regulated Thalamocortical Imagining as Mind Differentiated in Two Phases of Sleep: A View from the Guangdong People
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103748
Abstract:
Recently, many achievements on neural sciences have been made by the people in television, such as the adipose cause of male hypothalamic aging, and so on. In this article, it is reported that, on June 17 this year in evening in television, the people in Guangdong attending the Opening Ceremony of BRICS Games there suggested that the cholinergic-regulated thalamocortical activation would result in the cortical imagining in mind in sleep. In slow wave sleep, due to the inhibition of thalamic intralaminar nuclei, it would cause the thalamocortical spindle and random free imagining in mind away from the environment by the remaining weak cholinergic activity. In rapid eye movement sleep, due to the activation of the nonspecific thalamic intralaminar nuclei, it would cause the desynchronized dream with conscious attention and imagination in mind by the saliently active cholinergic system. It is thus simply demonstrated the secret of mind in sleep that many people are interested in, which is perspective in application to hypnosis and psychoanalysis.
MinMax-Profiles: A Unifying View of Common Intervals, Nested Common Intervals and Conserved Intervals of K Permutations  [PDF]
Irena Rusu
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Common intervals of K permutations over the same set of n elements were firstly investigated by T. Uno and M.Yagiura (Algorithmica, 26:290:309, 2000), who proposed an efficient algorithm to find common intervals when K=2. Several particular classes of intervals have been defined since then, e.g. conserved intervals and nested common intervals, with applications mainly in genome comparison. Each such class, including common intervals, led to the development of a specific algorithmic approach for K=2, and - except for nested common intervals - for its extension to an arbitrary K. In this paper, we propose a common and efficient algorithmic framework for finding different types of common intervals in a set P of K permutations, with arbitrary K. Our generic algorithm is based on a global representation of the information stored in P, called the MinMax-profile of P, and an efficient data structure, called an LR-stack, that we introduce here. We show that common intervals (and their subclasses of irreducible common intervals and same-sign common intervals), nested common intervals (and their subclass of maximal nested common intervals) as well as conserved intervals (and their subclass of irreducible conserved intervals) may be obtained by appropriately setting the parameters of our algorithm in each case. All the resulting algorithms run in O(Kn+N)-time and need O(n) additional space, where N is the number of solutions. The algorithms for nested common intervals and maximal nested common intervals are new for K>2, in the sense that no other algorithm has been given so far to solve the problem with the same complexity, or better. The other algorithms are as efficient as the best known algorithms.
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