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Impacts of research and development on manufacturing trade
?tefan Bojnec,Imre Fert?
Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ?asopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu , 2011,
Abstract: The basic aim of the research is to investigate the impacts of research and development (R&D) on manufacturing trade. Six hypotheses are tested. The focus is on possible non-linear effect of R&D on trade flows and whether R&D helps overcome the distance and the role of level of economic development on manufacturing trade. The panel unit root test and panel econometric methods are employed on the adapted gravity trade model using the panel data for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries during the period 1995-2003. The results of the research indicate that R&D is positively associated with manufacturing trade for exporting countries, while results are mixed for importing countries. The results reject the non-linear relationship between R&D and manufacturing exports. Estimations suggest that R&D may contribute to overcoming the effects of distance on manufacturing exports and may strengthen import specialization. R&D is found as the way to foster exports of manufacturing products from developing to developed OECD countries.
Honduras, CAFTA, and Agricultural Trade: Impacts and Outcomes.
Sigfrido Burgos-Cáceres
Latin American Journal of International Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: This work is the result of a brief literature review. It aims to make some connections between Honduras, CAFTA, and agricultural trade. Honduras is one of five Central American republics to sign the Central America Free Trade Agreement with the United States on May 2004. Free trade is said to promote commercial integration, economic growth, and social development, but it does so while producing winners and loser. In terms of agricultural trade in Honduras, the agreement has had particularly negative impacts to some farmers but generally positive outcomes to the agricultural sector.
Impacts of Timber Certification on Tropical Timber Trade in Malaysia  [PDF]
R. Islam,C. Siwar
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study analyzes the certified timber products production and trade, the effects of timber certification and the role of timber certification on tropical timber trade in Malaysia. Timber certification is an important role in the forestry sector and considered to be complementary to forest management policies and takes a major player in Malaysia’s economic growth on tropical timber trade. Log export restrictions in Malaysia have been economically inefficient and have exacerbated environmental degradation by encouraging wasteful resource use. The significant of this study is to obtain the further development of timber certification in Malaysia.
The impacts of trade blocks and tax reforms on the Brazilian economy
Cunha, Alexandre;Teixeira, Arilton;
Revista Brasileira de Economia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71402004000300002
Abstract: this paper uses a general equilibrium model to evaluate the impacts of trade agreements and tax reforms on the brazilian economy. the model predicts that welfare gains will happen whether argentina reduces the tariffs it places on brazilian products or the free trade area of the americas (ftaa) is implemented. however, the ftaa engenders larger welfare gains. these gains will be even larger if the ftaa is implemented simultaneously to a reduction on domestic consumption taxes. these findings suggest that most of the gains come from the reduction of brazilian tariff and tax rates.
Analysis of China’s Trade Relations and Its Impacts on the Guinean Economy
Ly Tibou, Fangmiao Hou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103482
Abstract:
In this paper, we examine China’s trade relations in Africa with particular emphasis on Guinea Republic, West Africa. The study also explores China’s involvement in the Guinean economic sector, its impacts on the Guinean economy and the challenges these trade relations currently face. To attain this goal, we carry out a scientific review of published literature. Using this approach, we observed that China’s trade relations in Guinea and Africa in general are on an upward trend where China mainly imports primary products and Guinea finished products. We also observed that these trade agreements have facilitated Guinea’s participation in global international markets and have boosted the local economic growth and social development. Therefore, upscaling of China from a mere primary products importer to finished products importer, will go a long way to improve on the socioeconomic development and eradication poverty in rural Africa and Guinea in particular.
Brazil-Argentina trade and its impacts in brazilian states  [PDF]
Eduardo A. Haddad,Edson P. Domingues,Fernando S. Perobelli
Investigaciones Regionales , 2005,
Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate a number of spatial aspects of Brazil’s currentcommercial policy, emphasizing those relating to bilateral trade with Argentina,its main trading partner in Mercosur. A national computable general equilibrium modelwas developed and implemented (EFES-ARG) —integrated with an interstatetrade model—, in order to evaluate the sectoral/regional impacts of different tradestrategies towards Argentina. The analysis of the short-run regional aspects of Brazil-Argentina trade relations reveals a trend towards concentration of the level of economicactivity in the states of the Brazilian south and southeast.
Impacts of Regional Trade Agreements(RTAs) on Food Security: A Case of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement  [PDF]
H. M. S. P. Herath,Cao Liang,Chen Yongbing
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: Discriminatory trade liberalization policies are becoming more popular among world economies. Countries are motivated to enter for regional trade agreements to capture faster economic growth for alleviating poverty. In developing economies like most of the member countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), a sizeable portion of people are suffering from poverty by exposing them to food insecurity. Low level of income and low productivity of agricultural sector have augmented the severity of food insecurity of those people. Discriminatory trade liberalization policies are expected to reduce poverty and strengthen the food security. The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) on food security of its member countries. The multiple regression analysis in panel data was employed to disentangle the impacts of trade liberalization on food securit y with use of regional trade agreement dummy variable. The finding of the study supports that AFTA has influenced positively on food security of its member nations. After the formation of AFTA, the level of per-capita daily dietary energy supply of the member countries has been increased moderately over time.
Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses
Z. Y. Zhang, H. Yang, M. J. Shi, A. J. B. Zehnder,K. C. Abbaspour
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results show that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.8 × 1010 m3 yr 1, accounting for 2.1% of its renewable water resources and 8.6% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 8.0% of the region's water resources and 11.3% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources.
Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses
Z. Y. Zhang,H. Yang,M. J. Shi,A. J. B. Zehnder
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-8-3543-2011
Abstract: This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 × 1010 m3 year 1, accounting for 2.1% of its total water resources and 8.9% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 7.9% of the region's water resources and 11.2% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain and/or pollution intensity is high. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources and through pollution to its environment.
ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  [cached]
Sugiharso Safuan
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v4n11p66
Abstract: This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines). The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results show that the outcomes of the CGE Model does not match those suggested by the AHP. However, they do support the findings of Falianty (2005), Achsani and Siregar (2010), Achsani and Partisiwi (2010), Nugroho and Yanfitri (2011). Our results suggest that taking non-economic but relevant factors from public opinion into account affects the robustness of CGE studies based purely on economic factors.
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