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追随力认知图式:概念解析与整合模型  [PDF]
彭坚,王霄
- , 2015,
Abstract: 摘要: 追随力认知图式是一种历经社会化,以抽象表征形式储存于个体记忆中的关于追随力的认知结构,亦称为追随原型。领导者的追随原型通常在领导—追随互动中被激活,并与部属实际追随力进行匹配。匹配失败的追随原型将被重新归类或定义,匹配成功的追随原型将通过领导者的态度和行为影响追随者的职业幸福感、角色内绩效和角色外行为。情绪、人格、市场行情、组织结构和文化能预测追随原型。未来可加强多水平效应、匹配效应和生物基础的探讨。
Abstract: In the past 3 decade, implicit social cognitive theory was applied to the leadership research field and generate a new theory called implicit leadership theory, which pointed out most of leadership assessment might have bias result because of the influence of leadership prototype primed in the self-report survey process. Recent years, as a flow of followership studied emerge, implicit social cognitive theory was also applied to explore the leader’s assumption about followers and followership. In this context, implicit followership theories (IFTs) were proposed and aroused lots of attention. Broadly, IFTs are defined as respective views of followers. However the broad definition can’t reflect the term “implicit” because cognition contains both explicit and implicit process. Thus we proposed the term of followership schemas instead of IFTs. Followership schemas, which could specify the traits and behaviors of the followers, are stored in memory. These schemas are shaped on the basis of socialization processes and prior experiences with followers, and will be activated when individuals interact with their actual followers. Followership schemas include explicit followership schemas and implicit followership schemas. Implicit followership schemas are the core content of IFTs and refer to an unconscious conceptualization of the attributes of followership which can automatically influence individual’s reaction to a follower. According to the valence of schema, followership schema could be classified into prototype and anti-prototype. Prototype is an abstract representation of positive followership traits and behaviors, while anti-prototype represents negative followership traits and behaviors. There are three other implicit theory paralleling to implicit followership theory in leadership field. That is implicit leadership theory, implicit performance theory and XY theory. However, there is a clear distinction definition between implicit followership theory and the three theories mentioned above. According to the category theory, connectionist network model and adaptive resonance theory, the followership schema has an implicit-actual followership matching process. If this process fails, the followership prototype will be classified as other categories or redefined. If the match succeeds, the followership prototype will have a significant
A Review on the Research in the dimension of Entity Theory versus Incremental Theory of Implicit Personality Theories
内隐人格理论的实体论-渐变论维度研究述评

Wang Moyun,Fu Xiaolan,
王墨耘
,傅小兰

心理科学进展 , 2003,
Abstract: The Research in the dimension of entity theory versus incremental theory of implicit personality theories is a new trend in social cognition. Its found that people's implicit personality theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human behavior. Different implicit personality theories cause different social cognitive patterns and different reactions. Research is reviewed showing that entity theorists believe that attributes are fixed, therefore they tend to understand behavior in terms of these abstract and static internal traits. In contrast, incremental theorists believe that attributes are more dynamic, therefore they tend to understand behavior in terms of more specific behavioral or psychological mediators. On the base of the review on relevant research, the authors give some new viewpoints.
A Review on Implicit Theories of Creativity: Origin and Prospect
创造力内隐理论研究:源起与现状

Huang Silin,Lin Chongde,Wang Yiwen,
黄四林
,林崇德,王益文

心理科学进展 , 2005,
Abstract: Implicit theories of creativity are perspectives on concepts, structures and development of creativity of people (whether experts or laypersons), which in some forms reside in the minds of these individuals under the everyday life and the work context. In recent 20 years, implicit theories of creativity are one of the new trends that have received an increased amount of attention. Related concepts and reviews were discussed in the article. Based on this, reviews and prospects for further research were discussed.
追随力研究述评与展望
The Research Review and Prospect of Followership
 [PDF]

赵宇, 刘飞, 陈英葵
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/AP.2016.65079
Abstract:
随着追随力概念的提出,学术界逐渐将研究重心从领导力转向了追随力。有关追随力的研究国外学者起步较早,国内仍处于初级阶段,就其概念和维度,学者们基于不同层面提出了不同的观点,但尚未达成一致。通过对国内外相关文献的梳理,结果发现:1) 追随力的概念仍缺少具有权威性的界定,理论基础相对薄弱,应对其概念作出清晰且权威的界定;2) 追随力研究应逐步从理论研究过渡到实证研究;3) 学者们应致力于追随力量表的开发和完善,以推动实证研究的发展;4) 对内隐追随力的测量考虑采用多视角、间接测量法进行研究;5) 应采用“动”“静”结合的整合视角考察追随力在组织中的作用。
With the mention of the followership, academic circles gradually turn the focus from leadership to followership. The study of the followership started earlier in abroad, it’s still in the primary stage in domestic. Scholars put forward different views based on different layers when involving the concept and dimensions, but a consensus has not yet reached. By combing the relevant literature published on domestic and foreign countries, the result shows: 1) The concept of followership is still lack of authoritative definition and relatively weak in the theoretical basis, so we need to define its concept more clearly and authoritatively; 2) The study of followership should be gradually changed from theoretical research to empirical research; 3) To promote the development of empirical research, scholars should be committed to the development and improvement of the scale of followership; 4) Implicit followership should be measured from multiple perspectives by indirect method; 5) The way of “dynamic” and “static” should be combined to explore the effect of followership in the organization.
Research on Followership:Review and Prospect
追随力研究述评与展望

YUAN Tao,LING Wen-Quan,
原涛
,凌文辁

心理科学进展 , 2010,
Abstract: Followership refers to the characteristics of followers,including their working capability,work-related attitude,and personal relationship skills.There are three issues of followership research according to different contents,namely leader-focus leadership theory,follower-focus leadership theory and followership theory.Previous oversea literatures provide classifications of follower,follower's psychological construct,and integration of followership and leadership.Meanwhile,most of Chinese studies address an...
The Umwelt of Followership
Jeff Suderman
Strategic Leadership Review , 2011,
Abstract: By definition followers must be involved in order for the act of leadership to occur. In fact, “leaders can only lead when enabled by followers to do so”. Despite the importance of the role of followers, much more attention has been given to the study of leadership than followership. This article examines several different views of followers. Through the use of the lens of Umwelt, how environments are seen and understood idiosyncratically by different people, I will examine four different perspectives of followership; positional, power-based, situational and as partners. The context provided in each of these four areas will provide readers with a means to assess and identify unique views of followership and understand their practice and implications.
Implicit theories of intelligence in preschool children  [PDF]
Jo?ko Sindik,Ranka ?un?enac
Holon , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the implicit theories of intelligence in preschool children. In addition to the description of implicit theories of intelligence in preschoolers, the aim was to examine differences in the incidence of cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of intelligence in answers given by preschool children. The participants in the study were 93 preschool children who were regular attendees of a kindergarten, in the age range of 4-7 years, of both sexes. The main finding is that the results show expected response of unequally distributed representation of responses in individual cognitive and non-cognitive categories, with a distinct dominance of non-cognitive responses, both in the abstract, and particularly, in the concrete questions posed to children. This is reflected in a higher number of statistically significant differences related to the particular category of S (social skills and personality traits). It is shown that social (but not verbal) skills are significantly prevalent in children's descriptions of intelligence.
Explicit and Implicit Memory in Depressive Patients. Review of the Literature  [PDF]
Chrystel Besche-Richard
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411A002
Abstract:

The cognitive approach to depressive disorders has generally focused on memory problems. In recent years, research conducted in this field has been based on new cognitive theories of memory that distinguish between implicit memory, i.e. an unconscious memory that promotes the use of automatic processes, and explicit memory, i.e. a conscious memory based on the use of controlled processes. Here, we propose a review of the literature concerning the studies of depressive pathology. The initial results suggested a specific impairment of the explicit memory and thus brought depressive pathology into the realm of the pathologies of consciousness. More recent results and/or a consideration of divergent findings have led researchers to revise this interpretation. After looking at the various studies, we shall point out certain divergent results that will allow us to propose some new explanations and, finally, some new avenues of research based on the consideration of clinical and methodological elements. This approach is based on a cognitive and clinical examination of depressive disease. We examine the role of the processes—data—or conceptually driven processes, the role of the paradigm used, and clinical profile with a special interest for the presence of anxious or psychotic symptoms, and for the emotional profile.

A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicit Theories of an Intelligent Person  [PDF]
Abdullah Aljughaiman,Xiaoju Duan,Marion H?ndel,Manuel Hopp
Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education , 2012,
Abstract: This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw an intelligent person and then to rate the typicality of the drawing with respect to a number of attributes. The data indicated considerable differences among the students’ implicit theories of intelligence. Implicit theories of an intelligent person correlated with the nationality and the gender of the students who made the drawings. German girls, in particular, frequently ascribed a gender to their prototypically intelligent person which differed from their own. Our data offer evidence that implicit theories of an intelligent person reflect a multifaceted picture. The most meaningful single attribute identified by participants for the figures they had drawn was that of being hardworking. We conclude that future studies should further examine the influence of implicit theories on the learning behavior of gifted students.
Followership in the School Context  [PDF]
Vaughan Cruickshank
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2017.63006
Abstract: This paper focused on investigating the leader-follower relationship to determine the influence that effective followers have in regards to the success or failure of their leader within the school context. Just as a teacher needs to be informed as to the needs and abilities of their students, a leader needs to possess similar knowledge in regards to their followers. Followers have traditionally been neglected in leadership research and seen as simply passive recipients of leadership. Leadership and followership represent two sides of one dynamic relationship; without followers, there can be no leaders. This means that followers’ behaviors are a vital component of the leadership process, and that leadership cannot be fully understood without an understanding of followership. This paper will examine these follower behaviors and the influence that they can have on school leadership.
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