Abstract:
The singularity for the big bang state can be represented using the generalized anisotropic Friedmann equation, resulting in a system of differential equations in a central force field. We study the regularizability of this singularity as a function of a parameter, the equation of state, $w$. We prove that for $w >1$ it is regularizable only for $w$ satisfying relative prime number conditions, and for $w \leq 1$ it can always be regularized. This is done by using a McGehee transformation, usually applied in the three and four-body problems. This transformation blows up the singularity into an invariant manifold. The relationship of this result to other cosmological models is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
We propose a picture, within the pre-big-bang approach, in which the universe emerges from a bath of plane gravitational and dilatonic waves. The waves interact gravitationally breaking the exact plane symmetry and lead generically to gravitational collapse resulting in a singularity with the Kasner-like structure. The analytic relations between the Kasner exponents and the initial data are explicitly evaluated and it is shown that pre-big-bang inflation may occur within a dense set of initial data. Finally, we argue that plane waves carry zero gravitational entropy and thus are, from a thermodynamical point of view, good candidates for the universe to emerge from.

Abstract:
The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of about 10^(32)K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted. Subj-class: cosmology: theory-pre-big bang; mechanism of the big bang.

Abstract:
We provide a novel mechanism that resolves the Big Bang Singularity present in FRW space-times without the need for ghost fields. Building on the fact that a four-fermion interaction arises in General Relativity when fermions are covariantly coupled, we show that at early times the decrease in scale factor enhances the correlation between pairs of fermions. This enhancement leads to a BCS-like condensation of the fermions and opens a gap dynamically driving the Hubble parameter $H$ to zero and results in a non-singular bounce, at least in some special cases.

Abstract:
In the recently proposed cosmological constant (CC) filter mechanism based on modified gravity in the Palatini formalism, gravity in the radiation, matter and late-time de Sitter eras is insensitive to energy sources with the equation of state -1. This implies that finite vacuum energy shifts from phase transitions are filtered out, too. In this work we investigate the CC filter model at very early times. We find that the initial big bang singularity is replaced by a cosmic bounce, where the matter energy density and the curvature are finite. In a certain case this finiteness can be observed already on the algebraic level.

Abstract:
The possibility of avoiding the big bang singularity by means of a generalized uncertainty principle is investigated. In relation with this matter, the statistical mechanics of a free-particle system obeying the generalized uncertainty principle is studied and it is shown that the entropy of the system has a finite value in the infinite temperature limit. It is then argued that negative temperatures and negative pressures are possible in this system. Finally, it is shown that this model can remove the big bang singularity.

Abstract:
The existence of stars and galaxies reqires cosmological models with an inhomogeneous matter and radiation distribution. But in these models the initial singularity surface t_0(r) is in general homogeneous (independent of r). In this second paper of a series devoted to an inhomogeneous Big Bang singularity, we investigate the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) dipole. A special Tolman-Bondi Universe is used to study the effect of a Big-Bang singularity, depending linearly on r, on the CMBR anisotropy. It is shown that, for an observer located off the ``center'' of this Universe (r=0), the parameters of the model can be tuned so as to reproduce, with a good approximation, the dipole and the quadrupole moments of the CMBR anisotropy observed in recent experiments. If the dipole should prove cosmological, a slight delaying of the Big-Bang over spatial coordinates would thus be a good candidate for its interpretation.

Abstract:
The origin of Big Bang singularity in 3+1 dimensions can be understood in an exact string theory background obtained by an analytic continuation of a cigar like geometry with a nontrivial dilaton. In a T-dual conformal field theory picture there exists a closed string tachyon potential which excises the singular space-time of a strongly coupled regime to ensure that a higher dimensional universe has no curvature singularity. However in 3+1 dimensions the universe exhibits all the pathology of a standard Big Bang cosmology. The emergence of a singularity now owes to a higher dimensional orbifold singularity which does not have a curvature singularity in higher dimensions, suggesting that close to the compactification scale an effective description of 3+1 dimensions breaks down and bouncing universe emerges in 5 and higher dimensions.

Abstract:
In this note, we investigate the possibility of avoiding the Big Bang singularity with a single scalar field which couples non-minimally to gravity. We show that in the case that gravity couples linearly to the field, some severe conditions on the field's potential have to be imposed. However, in non-linear case, it is quite generic to avoid the singularity with single scalar field.

Abstract:
We show that there exist modified theories of gravity in which the metric satisfies second-order equations and in which the Big Bang singularity is replaced by a cosmic bounce without violating any energy condition. In fact, the bounce is possible even for presureless dust. We give a characterization of such theories, which are formulated in the Palatini formalism, and discuss their dynamics in the region near the bounce. We consider spatially flat and non-flat homogeneous and isotropic universes.