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Evaluation of the Maternal Health Indicators: An Ecological Study from 2000 to 2014  [PDF]
Dandara Rayssa Silva de Souza, Héllyda de Souza Bezerra, Julliane Tamara Araújo de Melo, Thaiza Teixeira Xavier Nobre, Fábia Barbosa de Andrade
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.102020
Abstract: The aiming of this worksheet is to evaluate and to compare the quantity of prenatal appointment indicators; childbirth by kind of delivery; maternal mortality coefficient and maternal deaths number. It is about an ecological, descriptive and analytical study, made through the appreciation of secondary data related to the maternal mortality in Rio Grande do Norte, from 2000 to 2014. To that, it was used information from SISPACTO to compare real data to the estimated goals. The results show that there was an increase on the number of women who performed seven or more prenatal queries, in turn, there was an increase of alive newborns through cesarean, moreover, it is observed an oscillation on the maternal deaths number by residence during the studied period, achieving superior values to the agreed goals during the last two analyzed years. It is concluded that the maternal health, in Rio Grande do Norte, negative indicators are being presented concerning the maternal mortality, in spite of presenting an improvement on the prenatal access.
Analysis of Maternal and Child Health Indicators in an Area at Paraná State, Brazil  [PDF]
Emiliana Cristina Melo,Ana Beatriz Guedes Ribeiro,Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira,Robsmeire Calvo Melo Zurita,Thais Aidar de Freitas Mathias
Nursing Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/495178
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze maternal and child health indicators and infant mortality rate (IMR) at the cities located at the 18th Health Division (HD) in Parana State, Brazil. In this ecological study we analyzed all live births and infant deaths which occurred from 2000 to 2009 at the 18th HD, collecting data from the Mortality Information Database and the Live Births Information Database. The variables assessed were grouped into maternal, pregnancy and delivery, and neonatal variables. The analysis was conducted using the mean percentage of each variable and the IMR calculated for both periods: from 2000 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2009. The IMR was reduced considerably, following Brazil's and Paraná State's trend. Maternal indicators went down regarding the mean percentage of teenage mothers and low education, whereas they went up regarding mother with 35?years old or older and mothers without a partner. Pregnancy indicators showed increased prematurity and cesarean birth. Neonatal indicators raised in black/brown skin color and low birth weights percentages. This study provides a better understanding of maternal and child health in the cities located at the 18th HD, supplying grounds to plan actions regarding the real needs of each specific city. 1. Introduction Maternal and child health is a priority in Brazil’s agenda of health programs and actions, as well as in several countries. The concept of maternal and child health has expanded over the years, which also includes a set of knowledge, practices, and attitudes that aim at the promotion of healthy pregnancies, deliveries, and births and also the prevention of maternal and child mortality [1]. Brazil, as many other areas in the world, has been showing a reduction in infant mortality rate (IMR), mainly due to sanitary investments and increased health services accessibility [2]. In 1990, Brazil’s infant mortality rate was 47.1 deaths by a thousand live births. In 2009, it went down to 22.5 by a thousand live births [3]. In Paraná State, infant mortality has also decreased in the last years. In 2001, this rate was 17.4 by a thousand live births, and in 2008, this rate declined to 12.1 by a thousand live births, showing a 30.4% reduction. However, important inequities are observed among the cities located at the 18th Health Division area, which must be highlighted and addressed by health managers while devising prevision and distribution of resources and services, as well as health professionals’ qualification [4]. Studies conducted in Paraná State expose inequities in maternal, pregnancy,
Maternal and child health indicators: implications of the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases
Laurenti,Ruy; Buchalla,Cássia Maria;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891997000700003
Abstract: since the end of the 1940s, when the world health organization assumed responsibility for the decennial revisions of the classification of causes of death, the classification came to include diseases and definitions of use in vital statistics, resulting in the sixth revision of the international classification of diseases (icd-6). the most recent revision of this work, the international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (icd-10), is more significantly different than any revision since icd-6, especially in the area of maternal and child health. among the changes introduced in icd-10 are the inclusion of obstetrical tetanus in the chapter on infectious diseases, which will facilitate the recording of this cause of maternal death; the incorporation of new definitions, such as late maternal death; and the redefinition of the perinatal period, which icd-10 defines as starting at 22 completed weeks of gestation and ending 7 completed days after birth. this article seeks to highlight these changes and to discuss their consequences for the presentation and interpretation of indicators used in the evaluation of maternal and child health.
Maternal and child health indicators: implications of the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases  [cached]
Laurenti Ruy,Buchalla Cássia Maria
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997,
Abstract: Since the end of the 1940s, when the World Health Organization assumed responsibility for the decennial revisions of the Classification of Causes of Death, the Classification came to include diseases and definitions of use in vital statistics, resulting in the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-6). The most recent revision of this work, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), is more significantly different than any revision since ICD-6, especially in the area of maternal and child health. Among the changes introduced in ICD-10 are the inclusion of obstetrical tetanus in the chapter on infectious diseases, which will facilitate the recording of this cause of maternal death; the incorporation of new definitions, such as late maternal death; and the redefinition of the perinatal period, which ICD-10 defines as starting at 22 completed weeks of gestation and ending 7 completed days after birth. This article seeks to highlight these changes and to discuss their consequences for the presentation and interpretation of indicators used in the evaluation of maternal and child health.
RICHE – Research Inventory, Indicators, Gaps and Roadmaps for Child Health in Europe - an EU FP7 project  [PDF]
Anthony Staines,Michael Rigby,Matilde Leonardi,Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer,Ale Bourek,Mitch E Blair,Giorgio Tamburlini,Margarida Gaspar de Matos,Anne McCarthy,Veronika Ottová-Jordan,Denise Alexander,Jean Kilroe,Mel McIntyre,Sophie Alexander,Angela Brand,Allan Colver,Candace Currie,José A. Díaz Huertas,Mika Gissler,Else-Karin Grholt,Geir Gunnlaugsson,Csilla Kaposvári,Reli Mechtler,Antony R Morgan,Kinga Polańska,Livia L Popescu,Hein Raat,Polonca Truden,Toomas Veidebaum,Anders Hjern,Milda Cerniauskaite,Lauren K Brennan,Laura Cogoy,Gina Tomé,Con Hennessy,Wojciech Hanke,Maria Roth,Rachel O'Sullivan,Paolo Meucci,Carsten Rasche,Teresa Santos,Treasa McVeigh,Tania Gaspar,Lucia Ramiro,Lennart Khler
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.295v1
Abstract: Background There is a substantial amount of research in child health published each year in the European Union. Much of this work is paid for from public funds, or from charitable donations. This work covers many areas, but it is fragmented, and a great deal of it, especially the material not published in the indexed scientific literature, is hard to find, and harder to access. Response The EU, as one of the major funders of child health research, has funded a project, the Research Inventory of Child Health in Europe (RICHE), to prepare a roadmap for the future of child health research in Europe. Using a life course perspective, the project sought to identify the research done, define the gaps in the research, and make recommendations for future research funding priorities. Content RICHE is an FP7 funded project (contract no. 242181) tasked with preparing roadmaps for the future of child health research across Europe. Using a life-course perspective, the project has designed, and carried out, an open, transparent, and justifiable process to make recommendations for future research funding. We acknowledge that such recommendations are value judgements, and our aim was to present carefully justified value judgements. The project, which had 25 partners, in 19 countries, was organised into six workpackages – WP1 an inventory of child health research, including funded projects, reports, funders, and people; WP2 on ways of measuring child health, and indicators for child health; WP3 on gaps in child health research; WP4 on the roadmaps for future research; WP5 maintains a platform at http://childhealthresearch.eu/ ; WP6 was responsible for project management. Results The project has finished, and launched a report on 'Roadmaps for the Future of Child Health Research in Europe'. A key recommendation is the establishment of a European Child Health Observatory, with a focus on participation by children and young people. The work of implementing these proposals to improve the health of European children can begin.
Spatial Distribution and Self-Correlation of Mother and Child Health Indicators in the State of Parana, Brazil
Melo, Emiliana Cristina;Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692010000600019
Abstract: aiming to analyze the spatial distribution and self-correlation of data of mother-child health in parana, brazil, variables were selected from the information system on live births, grouped into socioeconomic indicators: teenage mother, low education, high parity, race/color black of newborn; healthcare indicators: the prenatal coverage, prematurity and cesarean delivery and result indicators: low birth weight. the indicators were distributed in thematic maps and spatial self-correlation was measured using moran’s index that quantifies the degree of self-correlation. there was significant spatial self-correlation of teenage mother, low education and high parity of the "high-high" type in the macro-regions east, campos gerais and south; of low coverage of antenatal care in campos gerais, central-south and north and of cesarean delivery in the northwest. elevated proportions of indicators of risk to the health of mother and child were found in the regions east, campos gerais and south. these results support the evaluation and planning of health services.
Differences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China  [cached]
Du Q,Nass O,Bjertness E,Yang GH
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012,
Abstract: Qing Du,1,2 yvind N ss,1,3 Espen Bjertness,1,4 Gonghuan Yang,5 Linhong Wang,6 Bernadette Nirmal Kumar71Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Binzhou Medical College, Yantai, China; 3The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Tibet University Medical College, Lhasa, China; 5Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 6National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 7Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayBackground: The quality of routine data, such as the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), infant mortality rate (IMR), and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is often questioned. The objective of this study was to compare routine and survey data on key maternal and child health indicators, including the MMR, IMR, and U5MR in the Guizhou Province of China.Methods: In 2008, an urban area and a rural area in the Guizhou Province were randomly selected. All households in the selected areas were included and, of the total 5466 households therein, 5459 were visited. The response rate was 99.9%. Survey data were collected from mothers (46.0%), fathers (32.5%), grandmothers (11.1%), grandfathers (9.0%), and other caregivers (1.4%). Data from routine records of the health bureaus in selected areas were reviewed for the same indicators. The Chi-square test was used to study the differences between routine data and survey data.Results: We found the differences between the routine and survey data live births in the survey data (68) was fewer than in the routine data (94) in the rural area, while live births in the survey data (106) was larger than in the routine data (96) in the urban area. The IMR was higher in the survey data (51.7 per thousand) as compared with routine data (31.6 per thousand). The U5MR was higher (69.0 per thousand) in the survey data than in the routine data (42.1 per thousand). Indicators related to the coverage of maternal and child health interventions were over-reported in routine data.Conclusion: Small differences were observed between routine data and survey data in Guizhou, one of the poorest areas of China. The quality of routine data in urban areas was better than in rural areas.Keywords: maternal and child health indicators, routine and survey reporting, China
Differences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China
Du Q, Nass O, Bjertness E, Yang GH, Wang LH, Kumar BN
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S32409
Abstract: ences in reporting of maternal and child health indicators: A comparison between routine and survey data in Guizhou Province, China Original Research (1348) Total Article Views Authors: Du Q, Nass O, Bjertness E, Yang GH, Wang LH, Kumar BN Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 295 - 303 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S32409 Received: 02 April 2012 Accepted: 11 May 2012 Published: 10 July 2012 Qing Du,1,2 yvind N ss,1,3 Espen Bjertness,1,4 Gonghuan Yang,5 Linhong Wang,6 Bernadette Nirmal Kumar7 1Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Binzhou Medical College, Yantai, China; 3The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Tibet University Medical College, Lhasa, China; 5Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 6National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 7Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, Norway Background: The quality of routine data, such as the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), infant mortality rate (IMR), and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is often questioned. The objective of this study was to compare routine and survey data on key maternal and child health indicators, including the MMR, IMR, and U5MR in the Guizhou Province of China. Methods: In 2008, an urban area and a rural area in the Guizhou Province were randomly selected. All households in the selected areas were included and, of the total 5466 households therein, 5459 were visited. The response rate was 99.9%. Survey data were collected from mothers (46.0%), fathers (32.5%), grandmothers (11.1%), grandfathers (9.0%), and other caregivers (1.4%). Data from routine records of the health bureaus in selected areas were reviewed for the same indicators. The Chi-square test was used to study the differences between routine data and survey data. Results: We found the differences between the routine and survey data live births in the survey data (68) was fewer than in the routine data (94) in the rural area, while live births in the survey data (106) was larger than in the routine data (96) in the urban area. The IMR was higher in the survey data (51.7 per thousand) as compared with routine data (31.6 per thousand). The U5MR was higher (69.0 per thousand) in the survey data than in the routine data (42.1 per thousand). Indicators related to the coverage of maternal and child health interventions were over-reported in routine data. Conclusion: Small differences were observed between routine data and survey data in Guizhou, one of the poorest areas of China. The quality of routine data in urban areas was better than in rural areas.
Surveillance of mother-to-child HIV transmission: socioeconomic and health care coverage indicators
Barcellos,Christovam; Acosta,Lisiane Morelia Weide; Lisboa,Eugenio; Bastos,Francisco Inácio;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000070
Abstract: objective: to identify clustering areas of infants exposed to hiv during pregnancy and their association with indicators of primary care coverage and socioeconomic condition. methods: ecological study where the unit of analysis was primary care coverage areas in the city of porto alegre, southern brazil, in 2003. geographical information system and spatial analysis tools were used to describe indicators of primary care coverage areas and socioeconomic condition, and estimate the prevalence of liveborn infants exposed to hiv during pregnancy and delivery. data was obtained from brazilian national databases. the association between different indicators was assessed using spearman's nonparametric test. results: there was found an association between hiv infection and high birth rates (r=0.22, p<0.01) and lack of prenatal care (r=0.15, p<0.05). the highest hiv infection rates were seen in areas with poor socioeconomic conditions and difficult access to health services (r=0.28, p<0.01). the association found between higher rate of prenatal care among hiv-infected women and adequate immunization coverage (r=0.35, p<0.01) indicates that early detection of hiv infection is effective in those areas with better primary care services. conclusions: urban poverty is a strong determinant of mother-to-child hiv transmission but this trend can be fought with health surveillance at the primary care level.
Indicators of Child Health, Service Utilization and Mortality in Zhejiang Province of China, 1998–2011  [PDF]
Wei Fang Zhang, Yan Hua Xu, Ru Lai Yang, Zheng Yan Zhao
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062854
Abstract: Objective To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. Methods The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days) mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. Results The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03%) and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%). The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001). The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001). The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. Conclusion Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.
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