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The Influence of School Leadership on Student Outcomes  [PDF]
Vaughan Cruickshank
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.59009
Abstract: The past 30 years have seen numerous education reforms intended to raise the achievement standards of students. These reforms have resulted in school leadership becoming of great interest in international education. This interest stems from a belief that school leadership can significantly influence the quality of teaching and learning in their schools, and consequently student achievement, by improving the working conditions of their teachers, and the climate and environment of their school. Numerous leadership theories have been presented in education related literature, with transformational leadership and instructional leadership being the preferred styles. This paper will examine the effects of both transformational and instructional leadership styles on improving student outcomes. This analysis will occur through three key points of focus: teaching and learning, the collaborative establishment of school goals and vision, and an awareness of and engagement with external forces affecting their school.
The Relationship between the Leadership Styles of Lebanese Public School Principals and Their Attitudes towards ICT versus the Level of ICT Use by Their Teachers  [PDF]
Norma Ghamrawi
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2013.21002
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the leadership styles exhibited by almost 50% of the total population of public school principals (N= 651) in Lebanonand their attitudes and the level of use of technology for educational purposes in their schools. Datawerecollected by surveying school principals via two questionnaires. Moreover, one teacher from each participant public school (N=651) completed a questionnaire pertaining to the level of use of technology in the school. Findings suggest the existence of positive correlation between the autocratic leadership styles of school principals and their negative attitudes towards the use of ICT for educational purposes. In addition, the results of the study accentuate another positive correlation existing between principals’ attitudes towards the use of ICT for educational purposes and the level of its use by their teachers in schools. Recommendations for further research and implications for school leadership and training programs are provided.
Effectively Measuring Student Leadership  [PDF]
Barry Z. Posner
Administrative Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/admsci2040221
Abstract: With a worldwide sample of students (N = 77, 387), this paper reviews and analyses the psychometric properties of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory [1]. Modest to strong internal reliability coefficients are found across a number of different dimensions. Predictive validity of the instrument is supported, with the instrument being able to differentiate between effective and ineffective leaders using both self-reported and observer (constituent) data. Few significant differences are found on the basis of respondent gender, ethnicity, nationality, or institutional level (high school versus college). Implications for developing student leaders and future research are offered.
Perception of Character Education: The Case of Lebanese School Leaders  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Norma Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2015.44012
Abstract: This study explored the perception of Lebanese public school leaders pertaining to character education, and their expected role within its development and effective implementation. The sample included 153 randomly selected public school principals from all the Lebanese districts (Mouhafazat). The purpose is to provide a general overview of their understanding, expectations, their knowledge of character education prescribed in the Lebanese curriculum goals, and their opinion as to the principal’s role in addressing character development. The study was quantitative in nature and utilized a survey instrument that consisted of 39 items classified into 12 domains of character. The first domain targeted the knowledge of school principals pertaining to the character development goals within the Lebanese curriculum, besides their perception of school’s educational mission. The other eleven domains were developed based on “The Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education” constructed by the character education partnership organization (CEP, 2014). SPSS 18.0 for windows was employed to calculate the mean and the standard deviation of responses in order to determine the perceptions of the Lebanese public school leaders related to character education. Findings suggested that Lebanese public school principals were generally not fully aware of the character goals outlined in the Lebanese curriculum and the school’s educational mission concerning building students’ character. Their perception on effective character education unmatched a wide scope of the eleven principles of character education. The study recommends a reform of character education in the Lebanese public schools involving the school principals as leaders of change.
Perceptions towards Distributed Leadership in School Improvement  [cached]
Firas Jalal Shakir,Jinan Hatem Issa,Paiman Omer Mustafa
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n10p256
Abstract: In spite of the sizable growth in the number of empirical studies tackledthe distributed form of leadership over the past decade, the bulk of this research isa case study. Relatively few published studies have investigated the impact of distributed leadership on school improvement; therefore, the current paper attempts to investigate TESOL teachers’perceptions towards distributed leadership and school improvement. The theoretical framework for this study is grounded on the multifactor transformational/transactional leadership model (Bass, 1985, 1990; Bass & Avolio, 2000). Two TESOL teachers from two different schools, in Pulau Penang, were interviewed regarding this phenomenon, which is still in its infancy stage. The study encourages a distributed leadership perspectivethat assists in building the academic capacity of schools as a means of improvement. Besides, it argues that the distributed perspective proposes an important theoretical lens through which leadership practiceswithin a school can be reconfigured and reconceptualised.The findingsshow that there are two different applied forms of leadership in the two schools. On the one hand, the first interviewee reveals her approving perceptions towards the distributed form of leadership as she praises the principal’s characteristics, whilst the second interviewee, on the other hand, expresses her disapproving perceptions towards the control form of leadership through criticising the current principal’s characteristics. A further finding exposes that the prevailingdistributed form of leadership does contribute to the school improvement. On the contrary, the current control form of leadership in the other school produces school’s deterioration.
Understanding School Leadership And Management In Contemporary Nigeria
Austin N. Nosike,Nkasiobi S. Oguzor
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The problems that plagues the school system are so numerous that those who are within the educational system are so overwhelmed not to talk of outsiders who are poised to ask such a pertinent question like “are the principals leading the schools well?”. This paperexamined the quality valuation among the male and female principals in their choice of leadership styles. The principals, the teachers and the student were all required to make their contributions to ascertain what style of leadership that is commonly adopted by themale on the one hand and the female principals on the other. The analysed data shows that the female principals qualitatively involve the democratic style of leadership than the men. The female principals also involve their staff in decision-making than does the male counterpart, the male principals, who adopted the democratic and the autocratic styles of leadership are quicker at the management of crises in schools than the female principals.
Student Leadership in Selected Public Universities in Kenya: Disfranchised Pressure Groups or an Integral Component in University Management?
J Bosire, C Chemnjor, M Ngware
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: This paper was based on an exploratory study carried out on student leadership in three public universities in Kenya in 2004/2005 academic year. The study was premised on the challenges facing student leadership and the transformative roles student leadership plays in the management of student affairs and overall university management. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 34 student leaders and analyzed through descriptive statistics. Findings showed that most student leaders were first born in their families. Most of the students' parents were in low to middle level occupational category in the public sector, with about 50% of them having attained at least some college training. Most of the students resided in urban centers, with a significant majority coming from the major urban centers in the country – namely, Nairobi, Kisumu, Eldoret, Nakuru and Nyeri. Student leaders were prompted to leadership interests by many factors, including past leadership experience in high school, service to students, a learning experience, and to develop a culture of dialogue with university management. Despite these values and intentions, student leaders still faced many challenges in their efforts to achieve the intended goals. This ranged from institutional rigidities, high student expectations and skepticism, betrayal from students' body, low participation rates by female students and tribalism/regionalism. This study observed the transformative nature of student leadership compared to what it was two decades ago and encouraged that student leadership is an integral component of modern university management African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 195-221
The Effects of Collective Leadership on Student Achievement and Teacher Instruction  [PDF]
Maryam Awadh
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.74015
Abstract: In the past, the leadership position primarily involved how leaders handled their role. The notion of collective leadership is significant for constructing the educational community and sustaining inclusive collective participation. This paper shows the framework of the leadership, and comprehensively addresses the ways in which leaders have a direct impact on classroom instruction and student learning outcomes. The study outlines how leadership abilities are linked to student achievement and illustrates how principals and instructional leaders are the central figures of this leadership. The study found the ways in which leaders indirectly influence student achievement through their impact on teacher motivation and work conditions, and whether teachers’ knowledge and skills have an effect on student achievement in the educational system. The influences of collective leadership on classroom instruction were examined, including ways in which changes in instruction could influence both teachers and students.
Teachers’ Perception of Cyberbullying in Lebanese Public School  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Norma Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.54009
Abstract: Cyberbullying has become prevalent in schools with the increased spread and usage of technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which teachers in Lebanon were aware of the concept of cyber bullying; as well as to investigate their beliefs of the best interventional preventional strategies to combat this phenomenon. The study surveyed 149 public school teachers from the different governorates in Lebanon. A survey consisting of 40 items was developed to address teachers’ perception of cyberbullying, around 4 areas: 1) the impact of cyberbullying on students, 2) the necessary interventional strategies for cyberbullying inside the school, 3) the suitable interventional strategies for cyberbullying outside the school, and 4) the possible preventional strategies for a cyberbullying program. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that school teachers recognized the gross negative impacts of cyberbullying on students. While teachers suggested anit-cyberbullying inter-ventional strategies inside the school, they were less hesitant to suggest strategies to confront cyberbullying when students were away from school. They were also indeterminate concerning preventional strategies of this phenomenon. Teachers’ perceptions highlight the importance of their active role and the importance of building students character as two major keys for counteracting cyberbullying and designing an efficient anti-cyberbullying program.
Medical student engagement and leadership within a new learning community
Mark Bicket, Satish Misra, Scott M Wright, Robert Shochet
BMC Medical Education , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-10-20
Abstract: Between April and June 2008, 36 students who assumed leadership roles within the Colleges Program were queried electronically with open-ended questions about their engagement. Qualitative analysis of the written responses was independently performed by two investigators; coding was compared for agreement. Content analysis identified major themes.35 students (97%) completed the questionnaire. Motives that emerged as reasons for getting involved included: endorsing the need for the program; excitement with the start-up; wanting to give back; commitment to institutional excellence; and collaboration with talented peers and faculty. Perceived benefits were grouped under the following domains: connecting with others; mentoring; learning new skills; and recognition. The most frequently identified drawbacks were the time commitment and the opportunity costs. Ideas for drawing medical students into new endeavors included: creating defined roles; offering a breadth of opportunities; empowering students with responsibility; and making them feel valued.Medical students were drawn to and took on leadership roles in a medical school curricular innovation. This example may prove helpful to others hoping to engage students as leaders in learning communities at their schools or those wishing to augment student involvement in other programs.In medical school, students encounter robust curricula that often leave little time for personal development and engagement within the academic community. The demanding nature of medical student training has forced educators to reconsider the impact of curriculum on student life [1]. Social isolation, fragmentation of teaching, and limited faculty-learner longitudinal relationships contribute to the burnout and depression that are common among medical students [1-3]. In response to the stresses associated with medical education, some academic medical centers have implemented learning communities - cohorts of students and faculty who collaborate t
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