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Development of Effective Water Supply Model for Kaduna Metropolis using Unguwar Kanawa as Case Study.  [PDF]
I Abdullahi,I Abubakar,U Tsoho,L B Rabi’a
International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The sustainability of water is critical to local, regional, national and global security. It is impossible to think of a resource more essential in the health of human communities or their economy than water. Water runs like a river through our lives, touching everything from our vigor and the fitness of natural ecosystem around us to farmer’s fields and the production of goods we consume (Flint 2003). Goals can be established to begin the in-depth integrated assessment of water shed resources that lead to sustainability. These goals should be formulated to address a number of fundamentals principles that underlay the conservation, protection, remediation, and longevity of water resources such goals might include; (a) Provide safe, adequate water supplies at time and of the quality needed for domestic municipal, industrial, agricultural and hydropower uses. (b) Allocate effectively and fairly fresh water among diverse uses and users. During the process of these research work a questionnaire was provided to the consumers to gather information on water demand, nature of supply, use of metering system or non metering system ,illegal connection and other related information concerning the water supply in Kaduna. Similarly data for Kaduna metropolis population was collected from National population commission. The population of the study area was forecasted using the information collected from population commission. The water bill for different categories of consumers was collected from water board. All the information was gathered and a model equation was used to forecast the water consumption of Unguwan kanawa. In the result of analyses the water demand equation obtained by the regression analyses is: Qas(Y) = 0.00061 + 520 Pop(X) where Qas(Y) = Actual supply and Pop(X)=population.
An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria
Stanley A.M.,Joshua I.A.
Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41%) which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13) on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%). A significant percentage (48%) does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever) which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.
ADOLESCENT ATHLETES AND THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF DRUGS TO IMPROVE THEIR PERFORMANCE  [cached]
Patrick Laure,Caroline Binsinger
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the 'profiles' of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved
Predicting Leachate Effluent Contamination from Kaduna, Yola and Maiduguri Landfill Sites
I.O. Olaniyan,A.W. Alayande,O.A. Bamgboye
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Integrated Landfill Sites for Kaduna, Yola and Maiduguri were investigated for potential contamination of the underlying aquifers by modeling the leachate effluent discharges over years using the analytical solution of the mass balance equation. Results indicated a significant threat to underlying aquifer and a high degree of pollution of the community borehole water supply. The study recommends provision of protective membrane on the walls of the landfill sites and development of leachate management scheme.
Labor Disputes and Worker Productivity  [PDF]
Qi Ge,Michael J. Lopez
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: We implement a propensity score matching technique to present the first evidence on the impact of labor supply decisions during labor disputes on worker productivity in the context of professional sports. In particular, we utilize a unique natural experiment from the 2012-13 National Hockey League (NHL) lockout, during which approximately 200 players decided to play overseas while the rest stayed in North America. We separate the players based on their nationality and investigate the effect of playing abroad on post-lockout player performance. We find limited evidence of enhanced productivity among European players, and no evidence of a benefit or drawback for North American players. The lack of consistent productivity impact is in line with literature in industries with large labor rents, and we propose several additional explanations within the context of professional hockey. Our study contributes to the general understanding of the impact of employer-initiated work stoppage on labor productivity.
Effectiveness of public – private mix of tuberculosis programme in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
M Gidado, CL Ejembi
Annals of African Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Background: In an effort to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection, the Kaduna State TB program in Nigeria started Public-Private Mix (PPM DOTS) in 2002. This study assessed and compared the TB case management practices and treatment outcomes of the public and private health facilities involved in the TB program. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 5 private and 10 public health facilities providing TB services for at least two years in the four Local Governments Areas in Kaduna State where both public and private health facilities are involved in the TB program. The heads of the health facilities were interviewed and case notes of all the 492 TB patients registered in these facilities between January 2003 and December 2004 reviewed. Results: Except for the lower use of sputum microscopy for diagnosis, adherence to national TB treatment guidelines was high in both private and public health facilities. The private health facilities significantly saw more TB patients, an average of 51 patients per health facility compared to 23 patients in the public health facilities. There was better completion of records in the public health facilities while patient contact screening was very low in both public and private health facilities, 13.1% and 12.2% respectively. The treatment success rate was higher among patients managed in the private health facilities (83.7%) compared to 78.6% in the public health facilities. Conclusion: Private health facilities adhere to national guidelines had higher TB patient case load and better treatment outcome than public health facilities in Kaduna State. PPM-DOTS should be scaled-up and consolidated.
Quality of Antimalarial Drugs and Antibiotics in Papua New Guinea: A Survey of the Health Facility Supply Chain  [PDF]
Manuel W. Hetzel, Madhu Page-Sharp, Nancy Bala, Justin Pulford, Inoni Betuela, Timothy M. E. Davis, Evelyn K. Lavu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096810
Abstract: Background Poor-quality life-saving medicines are a major public health threat, particularly in settings with a weak regulatory environment. Insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) endanger patient safety and may contribute to the development of drug resistance. In the case of malaria, concerns relate to implications for the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). In Papua New Guinea (PNG), Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are both endemic and health facilities are the main source of treatment. ACT has been introduced as first-line treatment but other drugs, such as primaquine for the treatment of P. vivax hypnozoites, are widely available. This study investigated the quality of antimalarial drugs and selected antibiotics at all levels of the health facility supply chain in PNG. Methods and Findings Medicines were obtained from randomly sampled health facilities and selected warehouses and hospitals across PNG and analysed for API content using validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 360 tablet/capsule samples from 60 providers, 9.7% (95% CI 6.9, 13.3) contained less, and 0.6% more, API than pharmacopoeial reference ranges, including 29/37 (78.4%) primaquine, 3/70 (4.3%) amodiaquine, and one sample each of quinine, artemether, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amoxicillin. According to the package label, 86.5% of poor-quality samples originated from India. Poor-quality medicines were found in 48.3% of providers at all levels of the supply chain. Drug quality was unrelated to storage conditions. Conclusions This study documents the presence of poor-quality medicines, particularly primaquine, throughout PNG. Primaquine is the only available transmission-blocking antimalarial, likely to become important to prevent the spread of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum and eliminating P. vivax hypnozoites. The availability of poor-quality medicines reflects the lack of adequate quality control and regulatory mechanisms. Measures to stop the availability of poor-quality medicines should include limiting procurement to WHO prequalified products and implementing routine quality testing.
Refractive errors in Kaduna, Nigeria
T Bagaiya, V Pam
Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research , 2003,
Abstract: Background: In the face of economic decline in Nigeria, budgetary subvention from government to health institutions has suffered adversely. Health institutions are forced to look inwards, minimize waste and generate resources to sustain clinical services. One such area of clinical service is the optical area. To sustain this important service area, the need to identify common refractive error and to commit meagre resources to the purchase of appropriate lens category became imperative. Methods: Between February 2000 and February 2001, a prospective study on the pattern of refractive errors was carried out at the outpatient eye clinic of the Guinness Ophthalmic Unit, Kaduna. Every consecutive new patient with asthenopic symptoms or blurred vision for distant objects or for small prints was refracted. Results: One thousand eight hundred and forty one patients with asthenopic symptoms were refracted. Forty nine percent were males and fifty one percent females. The age range was 6 – 60 years. Low-grade hypermetropia (0.25D – 1.25D) was the commonest spherical error (21.7%) observed, while astigmatism was observed in 14.3%. simple myopia constituted 8.0%. Presbyopic patients formed the largest group (56.0%). Conclusion: Refractive error is a common cause of visual impairment among ophthalmic patients in Kaduna. Judicious management of the meagre resources on appropriate lens category, which in this study is presbyopic lens type, cannot be overemphasized. Key Words: Hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Vol.5(1&2) 2003:106-109
Characteristics of Obstetric Fistula in Kaduna Metropolis  [PDF]
Sunday Jenner Lengmang, Hannah Degge
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.77074
Abstract: Introduction: Obstetric fistula is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, it is more prevalent in the North compared to the South; and mainly rural. Urbanization has had significant impact on global health. Rapid urbanization is predicted to intensify in developing countries where fistula is endemic, but the pattern of presentation of obstetric fistula in urban areas is yet to be described. Objective: The objective of the study was to find out if obstetric fistula exists in Kaduna metropolis, and if it does, to explore the pattern of presentation. Methodology: Women living with obstetric fistula were mobilized from Kaduna metropolis for free screening and repair. They were screened using direct dye and three swab tests. Consenting patients with confirmed obstetric fistula were included in the study. Their socio-demographic and clinical data were captured using Microsoft Access and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: All twenty three consenting women confirmed to have obstetric fistula lived within Kaduna city and had phone contacts. A depreciating proportion of primiparous women presented with obstetric fistula in Kaduna metropolis as multiparous women were in majority. The women also appeared to have higher height and weight measures and majority of them had access to fistula repair. They married early and were mostly uneducated and illiterate. Conclusion: Obstetric fistula afflicts women living in Kaduna metropolis. Women living with fistula in Kaduna metropolis appear to present different socio-demographic features, suggesting an emerging trend related to urbanization.
HIV/AIDS Drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa: How Do Brand and Generic Supply Compare?  [PDF]
Colleen V. Chien
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000278
Abstract: Background Significant quantities of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat HIV/AIDS have been procured for Sub-Saharan Africa for the first time in their 20-year history. This presents a novel opportunity to empirically study the roles of brand and generic suppliers in providing access to ARVs. Methodology/Principal Findings An observational study of brand and generic supply based on a dataset of 2,162 orders of AIDS drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa reported to the Global Price Reporting Mechanism at the World Health Organization from January 2004-March 2006 was performed. Generic companies supplied 63% of the drugs studied, at prices that were on average about a third of the prices charged by brand companies. 96% of the procurement was of first line drugs, which were provided mostly by generic firms, while the remaining 4%, of second line drugs, was sourced primarily from brand companies. 85% of the generic drugs in the sample were manufactured in India, where the majority of the drugs procured were ineligible for patent protection. The remaining 15% was manufactured in South Africa, mostly under voluntary licenses provided by brand companies to a single generic company. In Sub-Saharan African countries, four first line drugs in the dataset were widely patented, however no general deterrent to generic purchasing based on a patent was detected. Conclusions/Significance Generic and brand companies have played distinct roles in increasing the availability of ARVs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Generic companies provided most of the drugs studied, at prices below those charged by brand companies, and until now, almost exclusively supplied several fixed-dose combination drugs. Brand companies have supplied almost all second line drugs, signed voluntary licenses with generic companies, and are not strictly enforcing patents in certain countries. Further investigation into how price reductions in second line drugs can be achieved and the cheapest drugs can actually be procured is warranted.
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