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Environmental status and management in Chiba Prefecture

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1990,
Abstract: Chiba Prefecture is located in the east of Tokyo Metropolis. A large scale development of industrial and residential areas began in the late 1950s until then the main industries of the prefecture were agriculture and fisheries. During the past 30 years rapid industrialization and urbanization took place resulting in occurrence of various environmental problems.In an attempt to establish a better environment condition towards 21st century Chiba Prefecture has made Environmental Plan which all the municipal governments, enterprises and inhabitants should observe to realize better environment.
Ecosystem services of coastal sand dunes saw from the aspect of Sake breweries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan: A comparison of coastal and inland areas  [PDF]
Korehisa Kaneko, Keiko Oshida, Hajime Matsushima
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31006

In this report, we reviewed the differences in the ecosystem services of coastal and inland areas surrounding 39 Sake breweries in Chiba Prefecture by investigating environmental variables (e.g., location, altitude, soil, and hardness of preparation water). The Sake breweries were located in three distinct environments: the coastal vicinity, the river plains region, and the plateau/ mountainous region. The hardness of the preparation water and the soil types in the coastal vicinity were compared with those of the river plains and the plateau/mountainous region. Strong hard and hard water sources were observed in 70% or more of the breweries in the coastal vicinity, and sand dune regosol, coarse particle brown lowland soil, and coarse particle grey soil were more prevalent along the coast than inland. Most of the Sake brewery wells in the coastal vicinity were approximately 5 - 10 munderground, and there were no great differences in the number of Sake breweries in each well depth class in the river plains and the plateau/mountains region. We analysed environmental factors (distance from the sea, soil type, water hardness and preparation water collection depth) using a principal component analysis. This analysis revealed the existence of three main environments: the coastal vicinity, the river plains and the plateau/mountainous region. We conclude that the decrease in altitude between the inland Sake breweries and those along the coast is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the hardness of preparation water (from soft water to strong hard or hard water) and shifts in soil composition from gley soil, grey lowland soil, brown forest soil, and andosol to sand dune regosol, coarse particle brown lowland soil, and coarse particle grey soil.

Spatio-Temporal Distributions of Middle to Late Jomon Pithouses in Oyumino, Chiba (Japan)  [cached]
Enrico R Crema,Masato Nishino
Journal of Open Archaeology Data , 2012, DOI: 10.5334/4f8eb4078284b
Abstract: Oyumino district (Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan) is a small residential area which has been intensely investigated as part of an urban development project during the 1970s~90s. The emergency excavations have yielded a vast amount of archaeological materials from different historic and prehistoric periods, including numerous hunter-gatherer settlements attributed to the Jōmon culture (ca. 16,000 – 2500 cal BP). The dataset comprises the spatial location of 364 residential units attributed to the Middle and Late Jōmon periods (ca. 5500-3200 cal BP) along with the spatial extent of the excavation areas, the 5-meter resolution digital elevation model of the Oyumino district, and an attribute table which includes the probability of existence of each pithouse for chronological intervals of 100 years.
关于K.Chiba的一个问题  [PDF]
科学通报 , 1988,
Abstract: 在文献[1]中,Chiba证明了如下的结果设τ是一任意的不可数基数,若空间{X_α|α<τ}的每个可数积是Lindelf的且X=∑{X_α|α<τ}是正规的,则X是可数仿紧的充要条件是X具有弱(?)-性质。在文献[1]的结尾“注记”中,Chiba问到是否上述结果中的条件“X是正规的”可以去掉。
Pharmacological Characterization of [3H]CHIBA-3007 Binding to Glycine Transporter 1 in the Rat Brain  [PDF]
Jichun Zhang, Jin Wu, Jun Toyohara, Yuko Fujita, Hongxian Chen, Kenji Hashimoto
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021322
Abstract: Glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) in glial cells regulates extracellular levels of glycine, which acts as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain. In the present study, we developed a novel radioligand, [3H]3-chloro-N-((S)-((R)-1-methylpiperidin-2-yl)(thiophen- 3-yl)methyl)-4- (trifluoromethyl)picolinamide ([3H]CHIBA-3007), for studying GlyT-1 in the brain. The presence of a single saturable high-affinity binding component for [3H]CHIBA-3007 binding to the rat brain membranes was detected. Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.61±0.16 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 692.8±22.8 fmol/mg protein (mean ± SEM, n = 3). The specific binding of [3H]CHIBA-3007 was inhibited by a number of GlyT-1 inhibitors, such as CHIBA-3007, desmethyl-CHIBA-3007, CHIBA-3008, SSR504734, NFPS/ALX5407, LY2365109 and Org24598, consistent with the pharmacological profiles of GlyT-1 inhibitors. Interestingly, the potency of eight GlyT-1 inhibitors (CHIBA-3007, desmethyl-CHIBA-3007, NFPS/ALX5407, LY2365109, Org24598, SSR504734, sarcosine, and glycine) for blocking in vitro specific binding of [3H]CHIBA-3007 was significantly correlated with the potency of these inhibitors for inhibiting [14C]glycine uptake in the rat brain membranes. In contrast, the GlyT-2 inhibitor ALX1393 exhibited very weak for [3H]CHIBA-3007 binding. Furthermore, the regional distribution of [3H]CHIBA-3007 binding in the rat brain was similar to the previously reported distribution of GlyT-1. The present findings suggest that [3H]CHIBA-3007 would be a useful new radioligand for studying GlyT-1 in the brain.
Traditional Food Culture (Local Cuisines, Japanese Sake) That Has Been Nurtured by the Rich Nature of the Prefecture, Japan  [PDF]
Korehisa Kaneko, Keiko Oshida, Hajime Matsushima
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49125

In Chiba Prefecture, Japan, during the Edo period (1603-1867), the development of waterway traffic by ships and the management of ports, highways and post towns around the ports progressed with the prosperity of the Edo (present-day Tokyo), which became heavily populated and the center of politics. We estimated that the demand of Japanese sake, which is luxury grocery item, was high. The freshwater layer that is abundant in mineral water to a depth of approximately 10 m is formed in coastal sand dunes. The fresh water layer is hard water, in which the concentrations of minerals such as calcium and magnesium are high. When the fresh water layer is used as the preparation water, the working rice malt and yeast in the sake brewing process become active. Japanese sake trends to be dry with a full-bodied taste. In addition, the main ingredients of local cuisines are fish and shellfish; many local cuisines are seasoned using soy sauce, miso and salt, and these local cuisines pair well with the type of Japanese sake described above. The local cuisines have been nurtured in harmony with the region’s rich nature and heritage. In the future, we need to conserve the rich natural environment of the tidal flat, coast, seaweed beds, and marine, which have been producing the main local cuisine in Chiba Prefecture, and the water source area (a successive environment on the plateau from the coast, which was previously called the coastal dune area) of the preparation water for making Japanese sake. We also need to proactively develop local production for local consumption activities. Thus, we hypothesize that if the Japanese food life is secured and the traditional food culture is continued, the region will become revitalized by the development of the exchanges in the region.

An Experimental Study on 131I-CHIBA-1001: A Radioligand for α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors  [PDF]
Lei Yin, Qian Zhao, Ling Li, Su Lei Zhang, Xue Qi Chen, Chao Ma, Lei Kang, Meng Liu, Chun Li Zhang, Ping Yan, Rong Fu Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070188
Abstract: Objective The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and depression. However, there is currently no suitable positron emission tomography (PET) or Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in brain. Here our aim is to radiosynthesize a novel SPECT radioligand 131I-CHIBA-1001 for whole body biodistribution study and in vivo imaging of α7 nAChRs in brain. Method 131I-CHIBA-1001 was radiosynthesized by chloramine-T method. Different conditions of reaction time and temperature were tested to get a better radiolabeling yield. Radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purities of 131I-CHIBA-1001 were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Whole body biodistribution study was performed at different time points post injection of 131I-CHIBA-1001 in KM mice. Monkey subject was used for in vivo SPECT imaging in brain. Result The radiolabeling yield of 131I-CHIBA-1001 reached 96% within 1.5~2.0 h at 90~95°C. The radiochemical purity reached more than 99% after HPLC purification. 131I-CHIBA-1001 was highly stable in saline and fresh human serum in room temperature and 37°C separately. The biodistribution data of brain at 15, 30, and 60 min were 11.05±1.04%ID/g, 8.8±0.04%ID/g and 6.28±1.13%ID/g, respectively. In experimental SPECT imaging, the distribution of radioactivity in the brain regions was paralleled with the distribution of α7 nAChRs in the monkey brain. Moreover, in the blocking SPECT imaging study, the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711 blocked the radioactive uptake in the brain successfully. Conclusion The CHIBA-1001 can be successfully radiolabeled with 131I using the chloramine-T method. 131I-CHIBA-1001 can successfully accumulate in the monkey brain and image the α7 acetylcholine receptors. 131I-CHIBA-1001 can be a candidate for imagingα7 acetylcholine receptors, which will be of great value for the diagnosis and treatment of mental diseases.
[11C]CHIBA-1001 as a Novel PET Ligand for α7 Nicotinic Receptors in the Brain: A PET Study in Conscious Monkeys  [PDF]
Kenji Hashimoto, Shingo Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Ohba, Masaaki Matsuo, Tatsuhiko Kobashi, Makoto Takahagi, Masaomi Iyo, Takeru Kitashoji, Hideo Tsukada
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003231
Abstract: Background The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. However, there are currently no suitable positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in the intact human brain. Here we report the novel PET radioligand [11C]CHIBA-1001 for in vivo imaging of α7 nAChRs in the non-human primate brain. Methodology/Principal Findings A receptor binding assay showed that CHIBA-1001 was a highly selective ligand at α7 nAChRs. Using conscious monkeys, we found that the distribution of radioactivity in the monkey brain after intravenous administration of [11C]CHIBA-1001 was consistent with the regional distribution of α7 nAChRs in the monkey brain. The distribution of radioactivity in the brain regions after intravenous administration of [11C]CHIBA-1001 was blocked by pretreatment with the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711 (5.0 mg/kg). However, the distribution of [11C]CHIBA-1001 was not altered by pretreatment with the selective α4β2 nAChR agonist A85380 (1.0 mg/kg). Interestingly, the binding of [11C]CHIBA-1001 in the frontal cortex of the monkey brain was significantly decreased by subchronic administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (0.3 mg/kg, twice a day for 13 days); which is a non-human primate model of schizophrenia. Conclusions/Significance The present findings suggest that [11C]CHIBA-1001 could be a novel useful PET ligand for in vivo study of the receptor occupancy and pathophysiology of α7 nAChRs in the intact brain of patients with neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.
Merging of hospitals. The case of Argolida prefecture  [PDF]
Ilias M. Giannakoulis
To Vima tou Asklipiou , 2012,
Abstract: Based on the institutional framework (Government's Newspaper Issue: 1681/B'/28-7-2011), we have developed a proposition of merging/consolidation between the General Hospitals of Argos and Nafplion as our interest is the best provision of health services to the citizens at the lowest possible cost. Purpose: Our case study is the rational management of the resources and facilities of the two hospitals in the form of a Corporate Body under Public Law with a single statute and budget and a merging of departments. Material- Methodology: The material used was the data from the two hospitals regarding human and financial resources and facilities. The methodology involved the use of ratings in order to find the best possible combination of the above resources for a more effective use of all the productive factors. Results: According to the hospital's capacity in 2010, the necessary beds for the General Hospital in Argos were 109 and for the General Hospital in Nafplion were 38. The new hospital, with a 10% superaddition, will need 166 beds. The personnel ratings are 0,84 doctors/ bed and 1,34 nurses/ bed. The development of unified outsourcing cleaning, security and cooking services would bring in a financial profit of 250.000€. Unified services of laundry-ironing-sawing, a catering service, provisions etc are within the framework of restructuring the two hospitals. As far as the operational expenses are concerned, a merging of the hospitals can bring in a reduction of expenses by 50%. Moreover, the expansion of the facilities in the General Hospital in Argos and providing for all the patients in the prefecture with kidney disease are a feasible target. Conclusions: With the creation of a Corporate Body under Public Law based in Argos we expect to have: an enhancement in the quality of health services, an improvement in their distribution in terms of space and a reduction of expenses, an immediate performance of the new merged services and a positive impact on tourism. The opportunity cost is such that we are not allowed to ignore the fact that financial and human resources can be used more effectively creating scale economies.
Significance test for seismicity rate changes before the 1987 Chiba-toho-oki earthquake (M 6.7) Japan  [cached]
K. Maeda,S. Wiemer
Annals of Geophysics , 1999, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3764
Abstract: A precursory seismic quiescence lasting 1.5 ± 0.5 years was observed prior to the 1987 M 6.7 Chiba-toho-oki earthquake, Central Japan. This event was the largest mainshock to occur in the region in 60 years. A quantitative analysis of the seismicity rates, using two independent catalogs provided by the NIED and JMA networks, shows that the precursory seismic quiescence is centered in the shallower part of the rupture zone of the subsequent mainshock, at a depth of 20-40 km. At the hypocenter of the 1987 Chiba-toho-oki mainshock, a 50% increase in the seismicity rate was detected in the NIED data, coinciding in time with the onset of quiescence (1986.4 ± 0.5). The simultaneous appearance of both quiescence in the shallow part of the rupture zone observed in two catalogs, and a rate increase in the immediate hypocenter region, suggest that these phenomena are causally linked to the subsequent mainshock. However, a quantitative analysis of both catalogs reveals that the precursory quiescence and rate increase are not unique, since rate changes of this duration and significance often occur in the data. A rate change of this significance rating could probably not be detected as a precursor in a real time approach. For the aid of real time monitoring of seismicity rate changes, we introduce the method to calculate the 95-percentile of confidence level for the significant rate changes.
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