Abstract:
We discuss exact solutions of the Schroedinger equation for the system of two ultracold atoms confined in an axially symmetric harmonic potential. We investigate different geometries of the trapping potential, in particular we study the properties of eigenenergies and eigenfunctions for quasi-one- and quasi-two-dimensional traps. We show that the quasi-one- and the quasi-two-dimensional regimes for two atoms can be already realized in the traps with moderately large (or small) ratios of the trapping frequencies in the axial and the transverse directions. Finally, we apply our theory to Feshbach resonances for trapped atoms. Introducing in our description an energy-dependent scattering length we calculate analytically the eigenenergies for two trapped atoms in the presence of a Feshbach resonance.

Abstract:
The thermodynamics framework of an interacting quantum gas trapped by an arbitrary external potential is reviewed. We show that for each confining potential, in the thermodynamic limit, there emerge "generalized" volume and pressure variables ${\cal V}$ and ${\cal P}$, that replace the usual volume and hydrostatic pressure of a uniform system. This scheme is validated with the derivation of the virial expansion of the grand potential. We show that this approach yields experimentally amenable procedures to find the equation of state of the fluid, ${\cal P} = {\cal P}({\cal V}/N,T)$ with $N$ the number of atoms, as well as its heat capacity at constant generalized volume $C_{\cal V} = C_{\cal V}({\cal V},N,T)$. With these two functions, all the thermodynamics properties of the system may be found. As specific examples we study weakly interacting Bose gases trapped by harmonic and by linear quadrupolar potentials within the Hartree-Fock approximation. Comparisons with experimental results of a $^{23}$Na ultracold gas are also presented. We claim that this route should provide an additional and useful tool to analyze both the thermodynamic variables of a trapped gas as well as its elementary excitations.

Abstract:
We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

Abstract:
We show how density dependent gauge potentials can be induced in dilute gases of ultracold atoms using light-matter interactions. We study the effect of the resulting interacting gauge theory and show how it gives rise to novel topological states in the ultracold gas. We find in particular that the onset of persistent currents in a ring geometry is governed by a critical number of particles. The density-dependent gauge potential is also found to support chiral solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional ultracold Bose gas.

Abstract:
The crossover from a BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) to a BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) superfluid in dilute gases of ultracold Fermi atoms creates an ideal environment to enrich our knowledge of strongly correlated many-body systems. These experiments are relevant to a wide range of fields from condensed matter to astrophysics. The nature of pairing in strongly interacting Fermi gases can be readily studied, thus aiding our understanding of related problems in high-T_{c} superconductors, whose mechanism is still under debate. These are not well-understood due to the large interaction parameter. Here, we calculate the dynamical properties of a normal, trapped, and strongly correlated Fermi gas, by developing a quantum cluster expansion. In ultra-cold atomic physics one can measure the elementary excitations, using rf or Bragg spectroscopy. Our calculations for the single-particle spectral function agree with the recent measurements, and clearly demonstrate pseudogap pairing in the strongly interacting regime.

Abstract:
The highly controllable ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) trap provide a new platform for the ultimate simulation of quantum magnetism. In this regard, the Neel-antiferromagnetism and the itinerant ferromagnetism are of central importance and great interest. Here we show that these magnetic orders can be achieved in the strongly interacting spin-1/2 trapped Fermi gases with additional p-wave interactions. In this strong coupling limit, the 1D trapped Fermi gas exhibit an effective Heisenberg spin XXZ chain in the anisotropic p-wave scattering channels. For a particular p-wave attraction or repulsion within the same species of fermionic atoms, the system displays ferromagnetic domains with full spin segregation or the anti-ferromagnetic spin configuration in the ground state. Such engineered magnetisms are likely to be probed in a quasi-1D trapped Fermi gas of $^{40}$ K atoms with very close s-wave and p-wave Feshbach resonances.

Abstract:
We present a coupled pair approach for studying few-body physics in harmonically trapped ultracold gases. The method is applied to a two-component Fermi system of $N$ particles. A stochastically variational gaussian expansion method is applied, focusing on optimization of the two-body correlations present in the strongly interacting, or unitary, limit. The groundstate energy of the four-, six- and eight-body problem with equal spin populations is calculated with high accuracy and minimal computational effort. We also calculate the structural properties of these systems and discuss their implication for the many-body ultracold gas and other few-body calculations.

Abstract:
Motivated by several experimental efforts to understand spin diffusion and transport in ultracold fermionic gases, we study the spin dynamics of initially spin-polarized ensembles of harmonically trapped non-interacting spin-1/2 fermionic atoms, subjected to a magnetic field gradient. We obtain simple analytic expressions for spin observables in the presence of both constant and linear magnetic field gradients, with and without a spin-echo pulse, and at zero and finite temperatures. The analysis shows the relevance of spin-motional coupling in the non-interacting regime where the demagnetization decay rate at short times can be faster than the experimentally measured rates in the strongly interacting regime under similar trapping conditions. Our calculations also show that particle motion limits the ability of a spin-echo pulse to remove the effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity, and that a spin-echo pulse can instead lead to an increased decay of magnetization at times comparable to the trapping period.

Abstract:
We present a scheme to embed molecular anions in a gas of ultracold rubidium atoms as a route towards the preparation of cold molecular ions by collisional cooling with ultracold atoms. Associative detachment as an important loss process in collisions between OH- molecules and rubidium atoms is studied. The density distribution of trapped negative ions in the multipole radiofrequency trap is measured by photodetachment tomography, which allows us to derive absolute rate coefficients for the process. We define a regime where translational and internal cooling of molecular ions embedded into the ultracold atomic cloud can be achieved.

Abstract:
Superconductivity and superfluidity of fermions require, within the BCS theory, matching of the Fermi energies of the two interacting Fermion species. Difference in the number densities of the two species leads either to a normal state, to phase separation, or - potentially - to exotic forms of superfluidity such as FFLO-state, Sarma state or breached pair state. We consider ultracold Fermi gases with polarization, i.e. spin-density imbalance. We show that, due to the gases being trapped and isolated from the environment in terms of particle exchange, exotic forms of superfluidity appear as a shell around the BCS-superfluid core of the gas and, for large density imbalance, in the core as well. We obtain these results by describing the effect of the trapping potential by using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. For comparison to experiments, we calculate also the condensate fraction, and show that, in the center of the trap, a polarized superfluid leads to a small dip in the central density difference. We compare the results to those given by local density approximation and find qualitatively different behavior.